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Full text of "Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London"

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THIS BOOK IJAY NOT BE HiOTOCOPIED 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 



{sK^si 




'f^- 



r>) 






PART XII. 

1844. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 
BY R. AND J. E. TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



LIST 
ov 

CONTRIBUTORS, 

With References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



Alexander, Thomas, Esq. page 

Presentation of nineteen specimens of Stuffed Birds from 
Van Dieraen's Land 64 

Ball, r., Esq. 

On the Bradypus didactylus 93 

Ball, R., Esq. 

On Felis Melanura 128 

Cadell, — , Esq. 

Donation of Skin of Bradypus tridactylus 167 

Derby, Right Hon. the Eari of. 

Extract of a Letter from 123 

Letter from, on the Parturition of Bettongia 163 

DiCKsoN, E. D., Esq., and Ross, H. J., Esq. 

Letter from, accompanied by a donation of Birds' Skins . 64? 

DiCKsoN, E, D., Esq. 

Letter from 153 

DoDD, George, Esq., M. P. 

Exhibition of a fine specimen of the Wiry-haired Wolf or 
Deer-hound 122 

Elliott, Walter, Esq. 

Letter from, accompanied by a number of Skins of Ani- 
mals from the Neilgherry Hills and the Carnatic .... 81 

Falconer, Dr., and Capt. Cautley. 

Communication on the Colossochelys Atlas 54 

Conclusion of paper on the Colossochelys Atlos .... 84 



IT 

Fayrer, Capt., R.N. paffe 

Letter from, accompaiiied by two speciraens of Strix 
Nį/ctea 19 

Forrester, Joseph Ja^mes, Esq. 

Letter from, with donation of specimens of Insects, Echini, 

&c 164. 

Letter from 167 

Fraser, Mr. L. 

Description of three New Species of Birds 37 

Exhibition of Birds' Skins presented by E. D. Dickson, 
Esq., H. J. Ross, Esq., and by Capt. Thomas Graves, R.N. . 64 

Description of Lophyrus Victoria 1 36 

On Birds from Chile, and description of Leptopus Mit- 
chellii 1>57 

Gilbert, Mr. 

Letter from, describing the habits of some Mammalia and 
Avės of Western Australia 33 

GouLD, John, Esq. 

Description of Atrichia clamosa 1 

On Ne\v Species of VVestern Australian Birds .... 5 
Descriptions of three New Species of Halmaturus and 

Lagorchestes - . . 31 

Exhibition of a series of Birds from Australia, collected 

by Mr. Gilbert and himself 55 

Exhibition and character of a number of Animals, &c. 

transmitted from Australia by Mr. Gilbert 103 

Description of Podiceps Australis 1 35 

Gulliver, George, Esq., F.R.S. 

Additional Measurements of Blood-Corpuscles of Mam- 
malia and Avės, &c 7 

On the Blood-Corpuscles of the Bradypus didactylus, &c. 9.5 
Additional Measurements of the Blood-corpuscles of Mam- 
malia and Avės 145 

Hanley, Sylvanus, Esq. 

Descriptions of New Species of Mytilacea, Amphidesma, 

and Odostomia 14 

Descriptions of New Species of Tellina, collected by H. 

Cuming, Esq 59 

Continued 68, 140, 146, 164 

Descriptions of New Species of Cytherea 109 

Descriptions of New Species of Cyrena, Venus, and Am- 
phidesma 159 

Harris, Major. 

Communication on the Natūrai History and Zoology of 
Abyssinia 3 



v 



Heron, Sir RoBERT. . , ./"^' 

Letters on the Jerhoas which have produced young in his ^^^ 

coUection 

HiLL, RiCHARD, Esq. „ „. , , o, • c 

Letter, accompanied by a donation of Birds Skins frora ^ 

Jamaica 

HiNDs, RicHARD Brinsley, Esq., R.N. 

Descriptions of New Specieš of Tnton, SoUtnum, and ^^ 

Corbula ','.'!,'' e 

Descriptions of Marginellce collected during the voyage ot 

H.M.S. Sulphur, and by H. Cuming, Esq. . • • • • • '^ 
Descriptions of New Species of Ringicula ^nd Ne^ra, 

from the cabinets of Sir E. Belcher and Hugh Cuming, Esq. 96 
Description of a new Solarium 

LowE, Rev. R. T. „ ^. , ,. t • qk 

Letter from, with specrmens of Fish from Jainaica ... 95 

Percy, Professor. « . p -n/r i 

On the Management of various Species of Monkeys m ^^ 

confinement 

Prichard, — , Esq. , t-, i j lon 

On the (7r«ma of the Laplanders and Fmlanders . . • l^y 



Reeve, Lovell, Esq. ^ . p ^7 1 o 

Descriptions of seven New Species of Glaucotiome ... 19 
Descriptions of thirty-three New Species of Arca 



Descriptions of seven New Species of Glauconome . 
Descriptions of thirty-three New Species of ^rca . . . M 

Monograph of the genus Myadora ^^ 



Descriptions of New Species o f Triton, collected chiefly 
bv Hugh Cuming, Esq. •■•:':':' u- \ 'e 
'Descriptions of New Species of ^rca, from the cabmet of ^^^ 

Hugh Cuming, Esq. . . • • • • „_ 

Descriptions of New Species of iiawf /to .. . • • • -^o 
Descriptions of New Species oi Mitra and Cardium . .167 

Sowerby, g. b., Jun., Esq. . „ , • u * ^ k„ 

Descriptions of New Species of Scalana collected by ^^ 

Hugh Cuming, Esq. •.:•••/. 26 

Continuation of descriptions of iicalaria ^o 

SowERBy, G. B., Esq. „.,,,„ i- ^u 1 

Descriptions of New Species of Columbella, from the col- 

lection of Hugh Cuming, Esq. . • • • * 

Descriptions of six New Species of Ko/Mte i*» 

Strickland, h. e., Esq., M.A. 

On the evidence of the former existence of Struthious 
Birds distinct frora the Dodo, in the Islands near the Mauri- ^^ 

''"DeJcriptions'of'New Species of Birds brought from West- 
prn Afi-ica by Mr. L. Fraser ^^ 



VI 

Templeton, Dr., Roy. Art. page 

Communication, accompanied with dra\ving9 of Semnopi- 

thecus Leucoprymnus Nestor, Benn 1 

On some Varieties of the Monkeys of Ceylon, Cercopithe- 

cus pileatus and Loris gracilis 3 

Description of Megascolex cceruleus 89 

Waterhouse, Mr. 

On various Skins of Mammalia from Chile, with notes re- 
lating to them by Mr. Thomas Bridges 153 

Weaver, Mr. 

Exhibition and donation of Rare Insects 163 

White, Anthony, Esq. 

Letter from, on the Dissection of Felis Leo 54 

WlLLSHIRE, WrLLIAM, Esq. 

Letter, accompanying a donation of an Aoudad, Ovis Tra- 
gelapJms 95 

Yakrell, William, Esq. 

Exhibition of three specimens of JRana esculenta, from 
Foulraire, Cambridgeshire, presented to the Society by F. 
Bond, Esq 109 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 9, 1844. 

Rev. John Barlow. M.A., F.R.S.. Sec. R.I., in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Richard Hill, Esq., Spanish Town, Jamaica 
(Corr. Memb.), accompanied by two Birds' Skins, which he presented 
to the Society, one of wbich Mr. Gould pronounced to be the Euro- 
pean Shoveller, Rhynchaspis, in a peculiar statė of plumage, which 
it only assumes for about two months in the year ; the other was the 
Fringilla Canariensis. 

A communication was read from Dr. Templeton, Royal Artillery, 
Colombo, Ceylon, Corr. Mem., accompanied by drawings of a species 
of Monkey which he conceived to be new. Mr. Waterhouse recog- 
nized it as the Semnopithecus Leucoprymnus Cephalopterus, described 
already by Mr. Bennet in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' 
as Semnopithecus Nestor. 

At the reąuest of the Chairman, Mr. Gould called the attention 
of the Meeting to a new species of Bird from Western Australia, the 
habits of which he described thus : — The bird is an inhabitant of the 
olose undervvood of the country, never making its appearance in the 
open plains or woods, thus rendering it a matter of difficulty to pro- 
cure a specimen ; the only means of securing it being to lie concealed 
in the thicket until it hops in sight, within two or three yards of the 
observer. 

The great peculiarity which distinguishes it from all others of the 
Sylviada, and marks it at once as a new genus and species, is the 
totai absence of the vibrissse or bristles at the base of the mandibles. 
From this fact, and its note being the loudest of all the inhabitants 
of the grove, Mr. Gould proposed the name of Atriekia clamosa. 

Genus Atrichia. 

Gen. Char. — Rietus omninb vibrissis carens. Rostrum seąuė longum 
atque caput, ad latera compressum, mandibul?e superioris apice 
distinctė denticulato, gonyde a rietu acclivi exinde rostri lineam 

Nos. CXXXI. & CXXXII. — PROcEF.niNGs of the Zool. Soc. 



seąuente ; culmine alte in frontem ascendente ; iiaribus permag- 
nis operculo tectis, et sulco, ad basim mandibulae superioris, 
positis. Al(e breves, rotundatse, concavse, primariis primis tribus 
gradatis, quarta, quinta, sexta et septima inter se ferė scąualibus. 
Cauda longiuscula, rotundata, rachibus rigidis, pogoniis laxis, 
decompositis. Tarsi sic etpedes robusti, halluce cum ungue valido ; 
digitis externis ferė coseąualibus. 

Atrichia clamosa. Atr. corpore superiore, alis, cauddque fuscis ; 

singulis plumis , lunulis obscurenigrescentibus, transversim notatis: 

remigum primorum pogoniis internis saturate ftiscis ; caudd guttaid, 

non fasciatd ; gttld pectoreąiie rufescenti-albis, notd magnd ad 

gulcE partem inferiorem ; ahdomine crissoque rufis. 

Ali the upper surface, wings and tail brown, each feather crossed 

by Severai obscure crescent-shaped bars of dark brown ; the inner 

■webs of the primaries very dark brown, without markings, and the 

tail freckled instead of barred ; throat and chest reddish \vhite, with 

a large irregular patch of black on the lower part of the throat ; 

flanks brown ; abdomen and under tail-coverts rufous ; bill horn- 

colour ; irides dark brown ; feet dark brown. 

Totai length, 7| inches ; bill, | ; wing, 3 ; tail, 4 ; tarsi, 1. 
Hab. Westem Australia. 



January 23. 1844. 

William Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

A communication \vas read frora Major Harris, lately on an em- 
bassy to Shoa, in Southern Abyssinia, containing his observations 
on the natūrai history and zoology of that country, accompanied 
with an extended list of its Mammalia, Avės, Reptilia, &c., -vvith their 
native names. 

Dr. Templeton's memoir on some varieties of the Monkeys of 
Ceylon was then read : — 

" The Cercopithecus pileaius (' Menageries,' M. sinicus, F. Cuv.) 
is the common small monkey of every part of the western and south- 
ern maritime provinces of Ceylon. It is readily distinguished from 
the Toque by the light tan hue of the face and the black margin of 
the lower lip. The malė is more robust and not so playful as the 
female ; both are easily tamed, and retain their gentleness and farai- 
liarity in old age, The figure in the ' Histoire des Mammiferes ' 
represents the animal much too stout, the tail rather short, the di- 
stinction of colour of the back and abdomen marked by a too well- 
defined line, and the hairs on the crown of the head not sufficiently 
copious, long or divergent. lu other respects the figure is good. In 
that excellentlittle work the ' Menageries,' page 308, are these words : 
' with the long hair of the head standing erect, likę an upright crest.' 
This, applied to our animal, I have difficulty in comprehending ; the 
hair on the head of the adult malęs and females being flattened down, 
strikingly divergent from a small centrai part, and in some instances 
slightly separated down the middle ; but anything likę an upright 
crest I have never yet seen. There are some slight distinctions of 
sex and age which it may be proper to note, remarking at the šame 
time that the pecuharities, though obvious enough in the majority. 
are by no means constant, but shade into each other, especially in 
the domesticated animals. The adult malė, as I have above remarked. 
has the hair of the cro\vn flattened down, eąually divergent in all 
directions, of the šame colour and appearance as that of the back ; 
that is, rather long, mouse-coloured close to the skin, yellowish 
brown, or in strong sunlight golden ^ith a shade of chestnut, at the 
tips. The face is light tan-coloured, ivith ecattered black hairs: 
along the eyebrows a few stiflF black hairs projecting straightfor- 
wards, and above these, and beneath the crowning tuft, a dark band 
of hair ; the space about the ears -vvhitish, ears fuliginous ; lower lip 
with a broad black margin; conjunctiva black. Iris reddish brovvn, 
pupil black. Anterior surface of the trunk and inner side of the 
limbs pale. The hands are strong, fuliginous ; the dorsum thinly 



covered with hairs, likę those of the back. Tail thickish at the root, 
TOOuse-coloured, not diminishing to a point ; apex light brown or 
grey ; cailosities tan-coloured, ^vith the liair for about an inch sur- 
rounding them fuliginous ; penis trilobed. The female has the legs 
and arms of a redder tint, the iuside of the u]iper arms and broad 
patches of the chest and belly indigo-blue, and the band across the 
forehead not usually dark, but of an orange-yellow. In the imma- 
ture the hair of the crovvn is not much liattened do\vn or so diver- 
ging, the face more old-fashioned and exquisitely comical, the tail 
nearly naked, and the cheeks, paims, soles and cailosities, pale pink- 
ish. I have nothing to add to the admirable desciiption of the habits 
of the genus given in ' Menageries.' This and the Toque should 
unquestionably be separated from all other ' Macaąues.' 

" The Loris gracilis is very common in the lower country of the 
south and east of Ceylon. Mr. Baird's account leaves little to be 
said about it, as its timorousness and nocturnal habits alFord little 
opportunity for \vatching it. I have had them several times, but 
have never been able to keep them for more than a few months ; they 
soon begin to pine away and die. Their food consisted of very 
ripe plantains, rice, and such insects as abounded in the apartment. 
The lašt I had slėpt nearly all day Avith the nose resting against the 
lower part of the belly, as represented in the sketeh ; about dusk, if 
the room was perfectly quiet, it ventured about, cra\vling along the 
rails of the chairs \vith a very gentie movement, occupying nearly 
one-third of a minute in closing its hands on the parts of the furni- 
ture it grasped in succession, and moving its head from side to side 
■with much grave deliberation ; but w'hen a spider or other insect 
came within its reach, its clutch at it was quick as lightning, and 
•with equal rapidity it was conveyed to the mouth, so that I could 
only guess at \vhat it had seized from know'ing that insects abounded 
in the room. It was perfectly conscious of being \vatched, as I have 
occasionally detected it moving with considerable rapidity, but in- 
stantly assuming its ordinary slow movement when my eyes were 
directed towards it. It would not tolerate the familiarities vvhich 
are mentioned by Mr. Baird ; and Capt. Geale, 90tb Light Infantry, 
remarked to me that it seemed particularly anxious to avoid having 
its hinder extremities touched, \vhich is certainly the case. I never 
sa\v it search for ' Pediculi' among its hair, nor could ever detect any 
on its body after death. When approached it retired along the stiek 
placed slantingly in the corner for its use, or along the back of the 
chairs \vith the usual deliberate movement, its great goggle eyes 
fixed immoveably on your face, or hands if held to\vards it, and with 
every expression of extreme fear. Its mouth appears so small and 
so little distensible, at least \vhen alive, that I cannot imagine it ca- 
pable of biting anything except it be of very small size ; yet the na- 
tives universally assert that it destroys peacocks in the jungle, seizing 
them by the neck, which it clutches with such tenacity that the bird 
soon falls exhausted to the ground off its perch, or in its sudden 
flight attempting to escape its persecutor ; and further, that having 
devoured the brains it leaves the ręst of the bodv untonched. The 



sketch* is a good one, taken from life ; but it mušt be remarked that 
the white streak bet\veen the eyes often extends a little backwards, 
gradually disappearing about the level of the ears. The hair is very 
singular when the animal is alive ; it resembles very soft close-packed 
■wool, somewhat curled and arranged in little tufts, as the hair oa 
the scalp of the negro, but extremely delicate ; it soon loses this 
appearance after death if much handled, as is always the case in re- 
moving the skin. 

" There are no other species of Stenopida: in Ceylon." 

Mr. Mitchell, on the part of Mt. Gould, communicated to the So- 
ciety a ne\v species of Psophodes, \vhich he described as Psophodes 
nigrogularis. 

Also an additional example of the genus Amadina, perhaps the 
loveliest of the tribe yet discovered, remarkable for the great beauty 
and singularity of the hues with which it is adorned, the breast being 
crossed by a broad band of lilac, a colour so rarely found in birds, 
that he does not recollect any example of the šame tint. Mr. Gould 
has hitherto seldom adopted the practice of many naturalists, of 
naming new species from individuals connected with science ; in this 
instance he has been induced to depart from his usual course, in 
order to pay a tribute of respect to the memory of the late Mrs. Gould, 
■who assisted him so zealously and with such talent in his ornitho- 
logical pursuits. For this bird, of most graceful form and delicate 
colour, he proposes the name of Amadina Gouldice. 

Psophodes nigrogularis. Psoph. corpore superiore olivaceo ; in- 

feriore cinereo apud laterafuscescente, abdomine medio albo ; caudd 

pallide olivaceo-fuscd, rectricibus ąuatiior externis apicem versus 

nigro vittatis, apicibus albis ; guld nigerrimd, strigd albd ab an- 

gulo mandibulcE inferioris tendente modb nigro inclusd. 

Plumage of the upper surface olive ; under surface ashj', passing 

into brown on the flanks and white on the centre of the abdomen ; 

primaries brown ; tail light olive-brown, the four lateral feathers 

crossed near the extremity with a band of black, and tipped with 

white ; throat deep black, \vith a stripe of ^vhite from the angle of the 

lower mandible, just ■nithin the black ; bill dark horn-colour ; irides. 

dark brown ; feet dark horn-colour. 

Totai length, 6į inches ; bill, § ; \ving, 3^ ; tail, 4\ ; tarsi, 1^. 
Hab. "Western Australia. 

This bird has all the characters of the Psophodes crepitans in the 
short and concave form of its wings and the rounded form of the tail, 
but diflFers in the absence or very slight development of the crest. 

Amadina Gouldi^. Am. fronte, Joris plumis auricularibus, et 
guld splendide nigris į notd ab ocuUs circum occiput et per latera 
colli tendente, ex <erugine viridi, gradatim cum fiavido-viridi cor- 
poris superioris se commiscente ; fascid per pectus latd, lucide 
lilacinO'purpured ; corpore inferiore cerino. 

* The published figures give no idea of the animal ; they all represent 
the snout much too long, the eyes too small, and the face not sufficiently 
broad and flat. 



Malė. — Forehead, lores, ear-coverts and throat deep velvety-black; 
from behind the eye, round the occiput, and down the sides of the 
neck, a mark of verdigris-green, gradually bknding into the yellow- 
ish green of the upper surface and M'ings ; across the breast a broad 
band of shining lilac-purple, below which all the under surface is 
shining wax-yellow ; bill liesh-white at the base, tipped with blood- 
red at the point ; feet fleshy. 

Young Female. — Head grey ; upper surface light olive ; under sur- 
face pale buflf; chin white ; primaries and tail broMTi ; irides dark 
brown. 

Totai length. Sf inches ; bill, f ; \ving, ^ ; tail, 1^ ; tarsi, |. 

Hah. North-eastem portion of Australia. 

Remarks. — The young of this apecies killed by Mr. Gilbert had 
the gape on each side ornamented Tvith three excrescences about 
the size of the head of a moderate-sized pin, the upper and lower of 
which were of a bright indigo-blue, and the middle one of a very pale 
yello\v, and on the roof of the mouth five small spots of purple, form- 
ing a crescent across to each angle of the gape. 



February 13, 1844. 
George GuUiver, Esq., in the Chair. 

" Additional Measurements of Blood-corpuscles or Red Particles 
of Mammalia and Birds," by George Gulliver, Esq., F.R.S., No. 2*. 

The measurements are expressed in vulgar fractions of an English 
inch, aecording to the practice which I have always adopted. As 
the numerator is invariably 1, it is omitted throughout, the denomi- 
nators only being printed. 

In each instance the measurements of the common-sized discs are 
first set down ; a space is then left ; the small- and large-sized discs 
are next noted ; and lastly, the average deduced from the preceding 
numbers is placed beneath the line. Of the oval blood-discs, the 
long diameter is denoted by the letters L. D., and the short diameter 
by S.D. The blood was taken from adult living animals, unless 
stated to the contrary. 



MAMMALIA. 



Fer^. 

Tricoloured Fox (Canis cinereo- 

argenteus, Schreb.). 

3555 

4000 

5333 
2900 

3761 
Blood from a prick of the tail. 

Indian Fox (Canis Bengalensis, 
Shaw). 
Šame as the preceding. 

Indian Tiger-cat (Felis Benga- 
lensis, Desm.). 
4600 
4570 

6400 
3200 

4419 
Blood from a prick of the upper 



RUMINANTIA. 



Stanley Mušk Deer (Moschus 
Stanley anus, Gray). 

Measurements detailed in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological So- 
ciety, May 9, 1843. page 66. I 
have since made another obser- 
vation, which agrees with the 
former one in showing that the 
blood-discs of this animal resem- 
ble in minuteness those of the 
Napu Mušk Deer. 

Virginian Deer (Cervus Virgini- 
anus, Ray). 

5450 
5333 
5000 

7110 
3555 

5036 
Blood from a prick of the hp. 



lip. 

* No. 1 will be found in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 
No. CXIX., Dec. 13, 1842, page 190. 

No. CXXXII. — Pkoceedings of the Zool. Soc. 



8 



Malė Ibex (Capra Caucasica, 

Guld). 

6858 

7110 

10666 
5333 

7045 

The average is almost exactly 
the šame as in my first measure- 
ments of the blood-discs of this 
animal. 

Blood from a prick of the ear. 

Female Cashmere Goat (Capra 

Hircus, var.). 

6400 

6665 

8000 
5333 

6466 

The average is very nearly the 
šame as in my first measurement 
of the blood-discs of this animal. 
See Appendix to Gerber's Ana- 
tomy, p. 46. 

Blood from a prick of the ear. 

Female Kid, twelve days old, bred 
between the Ibex and Goat just 
mentioned. 

8000 

7275 

6000 

5333 

4500 

10666 
4000 

5918 

Blood from a prick of the ear. 

The preceding measurements 
confirm my former observations, 
published in the Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society, Aug. 9, 
1842, p. 107,— that the blood- 
discs of the Ibex are sUghtly 
smaller than those of the Goat. 

The Kid between these animals 



appears to have generall'y larger 
and more variously-sized blood- 
discs than either of the parents. 

The observations were favour- 
ably made for comparison, because 
the blood of the three animals 
was taken and examined from the 
šame part, on the šame day and 
hour, and under the šame circum- 
stances. 

RODENTIA. 

Hackee Sąuirrel (Sciurus Listeri, 
Ray). 
4000 
3800 
5333 
3200 

3948 
Blood from a vein of the ear. 

Quebec Marmot (Jrctomys Em- 

petra, Schreb.). 

3600 

3330 

4570 
2900 

3503 
Blood from a prick of the lip. 

Harvest Mouse (Mus messorius, 

Shaw). 

4000 

4570 

6400 
3200 

4268 
Thus this little animal, the 
smallest of the British Mammsdia, 
has blood-corpuscles larger than 
those of the horse, as may be seen 
by comparing the measurements 
now given with those of the blood- 
corpuscles of the horse, published 
in my Appendix to Gerber's Ana- 
tomy, p. 43 ; and a reference to 
the dimensions of the blood-cor- 



puseles of numerous Rodentia de- 
tailed in the šame work, p. 47-50, 
vvill show that the corpuscles of 
the Harvest Mouse are rather 
smaller than those of any animal 
yet exainined of this order. 

The blood of the Harvest Mouse 
■vvas ohtained from the heart, in 
one case about twelve, and in 
another t\venty-six hours after 
death, in cool -vveather. 1 

For opportunities of examining 
these animals, I am indebted to 
the kindness of Mr. Griffith and 
Mr. Prince. 

Canada Porcupine (Erethizon 

dorsatum, F. Cuv.). 

3555 

3428 

3200 

4572 
2666 

3380 
Blood from a prick of the skin 
of the nose. 

Beaver (Castor Fiber, Linn.). 
3555 
3303 



3200 
3000 

5000 
2666 

3325 
Blood from a prick of the nose 
of a female ahout haIf-grown. 

Marsupiata. 

Kangaroo Rat {Hypsiprymms 

setosus, Ogilby). 

4000 

5333 
3200 

4000 
Blood from a prick of the tail. 
I The corpuscles are slightly 
smaller than those of many other 
animals of the šame order, and 
resemble in size the corpuscles of 
the Viverrine and Mauge's Dasy- 
ure. See my measurements of 
the blood of discs of Marsupiata, 
Dublin Medical Press, Nov. 27, 
1840; London and Edin. Phil. 
Magazine, Dec. Ist, 1840; and 
Proc. Zool. Soc, June 8, 1841, 
p. 49. 



AVĖS 

Omnivok^. 
Blue Jay {Garruhis cr įstatus, 
VieiU.). 
L.D. S.D. 

2000 3200 

2900 4800 

1600 3000 



2041 3512 

Blood from a vein of the pinion. 

InSECTIVORjE. 

Rufous Mocking-bird {Orpheus 

rufus). 

L.D. S.D. 

2286 3555 



2900 
1777 



4800 
3000 



2231 3646 

Blood from a vein of the wing. 

Gbanivor^. 
Great Titmouse {Parvs major, 
Linn.). 
L.D. S.D. 

2133 4000 

2000 

2900 4800 

1777 3200 

2132 3892 

Blood from a vein of the wing. 



m 



Blue Grosbeak (Lo.ria carulea, 

Linn.). 

L.D. S.D. 

2286 3555 



2900 
1895 



2290 



5333 
3000 

3740 



2900 
1714 



4800 
3000 



Blood from a veia of the thigh 
of a female. 



Whidah Bird 


(Vidua para 




CuV.). 




L.D. 




S.D. 


2000 




3555 


1777 






2900 




5333 


1684 




3000 



2100 3512 

Blood from a vein of the pinion. 

Gallin^. 

Bonham's Partridge {Perdix Bon- 

hami, Fraser). 

L.D. S.D. 

2000 3200 

1895 3555 



2400 
1600 



4000 
2666 



1998 3740 

Nuclei. 
3555 10666 

Blood from a vein in the wing. 

COLTJMB^. 

Crowned Pigeon (Columba leuco- 

cephala, Ray). 

L.D. S.D. 

2000 3555 



1933 3282 

Nuclei. 
4570 10666 

Blood from a vein of the thigh 
of a female. 

Grallatores. 

Scarlet Ibis {Ibis ruber, Lacep.). 
L.D. S.D. 

2000 3200 

1777 



2666 
1600 



4500 
2400 



2900 
1777 



4800 
3000 



2132 3646 

Blood from a vein of the pinion. 

Moustache Pigeon {Columba 

mystacea, Temm.). 

L.D. S.D. 

2000 3200 



1948 3153 

Blood from a vein of the wing. 

Lesser Bittern {Ardea minuta, 

Linn.). 

L.D. S.D. 

2000 4000 

1895 



2400 

1777 



5000 
3000 



1993 3827 

Blood from a vein of the wing. 



" Descriptions of new species of Scalaria, collected by Mr. H. Cu- 
ming, to be figured in the fourth part of Thesaurus Conchyliorum," 
by G. B. Sowerby, Jun., Esq. 

Scalaria alata, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 10, 11. Seal. testd 
subventricosd, Icevi, umbilicatd ; anfractibus separatis ; varicibus 8 
{anfractu ultimo 7), latis, distantibus, laminatis, extantibus,postice 



u 

prope medium, ohtuse angulatis ; aperturd ovali, margine subgua- 
drato ; colore inter varices, in medio ttnfractuum,fulvo vel castaneo. 
Long. 095 ; lat. 0'50 ; ex. var. poli. 
/fai. Catanauan, pr.Tayabas, ins.Luzon. H.Cuming legit. Found 
in sandy mud at eight to ten fathoms. 

ScALARiA FAsciATA, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 12, 13. Seal. 
testd subventricosd, Itsvi, umbilicatd ; anfractibus separatis ; vari- 
cibus 7, sublatis, distantibus, lamina tis, extantibus, postice propi 
suturam acute angulatis ; aperturd parvd ; colore albo.fascidfuscd 
latd inter varices in medio anfractuum. Long. O' 80; lat. 0*40 
poli. ■ 
Hab. Catanauan, pr. Tayabas, ins. Luzon. H. Cuming legit. 
DifFering from Sc. alata in being a somewhat more elongated shell, 
in having the varices narrower, and their angle more elevated and 
more acute. The colour is lighter and the band more distinct. 
Found in sandy mud at eight to ten fathoms. 

ScALARiA MABMORATA, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 9. Seal, 
testd pyramidali, subventricosd, leevi, umbilicatd; anfractibus 
separatis, varicibus distantibus, laminatis, extantibus, continuis, 
propi medium obtusissimi angulatis ; colore albo,fusco marmorato. 
Long. 0-85 ; lat. 040 poli. 
Hab. India, 

We have no Information as to the locality of this species, which 
difFers from Sc. alata in having the angle of the varices very obtuse 
and nearer the centre of the whorl. The specimens are beautifully 
marbled with duU brown. Mr. Cuming's collection. 

ScALARiA KEPLiCATA, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 23, 24. Seal. 

testd brevi, subventricosd, Icevi, umbilicatd, anfractibus separatis ; 

varicibus 7 distantibus, laminatis, extantibus, continuis, valide re- 

plieatis, prop^ suturam angulatis; colore albo. Long. O' 60; lat. 

0-32 poli. 
Hab. Ins. " Lord Hood's." H. Cuming kgit, 
Found on coral reefs ; shorter than the preceding and having the 
varices folded backwards. 

ScALARiA HYALiNA, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 21, 22, Seal. Bfl ,°T' 
testd tenui, glabrd ; anfractibus late separatis, angustis ; varicibus 
distantibus, laąueatis, extantibus ; colore albo. Long. 040; lat. 
0-21 poli. 
Hab. Ins. Catanauan et Batangas, ins. Luzon, Philippinarum, 
H. Cuming legit. 

This small species has the whorls widely separated from each other 
and the varices iew, distant, and beautifully fluted. Found in sandy 
mud at eight to ten fathoms. 

ScALARiA LAXATA, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 8. Seal. testd 
tenui, lavi ; anfractibus late separatis, varicibus numerosis, sub- 
regularibus, laminatis, simplicibus ; aperturd ovali; colore albo. 
Long. 0-76; lat. 0-37 poli. 



12 

Hab. Ins. Catanauan, pr. Tayabas, ins. Luzon, Philippinarum. H. 
Cuming legit. 

The whorls are separated, as in Sc. hyaUna, but the varices are 
numerous and simple. Found in sandy mud at eight to ten fathoms. 

ScALARiA PYRAMiUALis, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 4. Seal. 
testd pyramidali, acuminatd, IcBvi ; anfractibus separatis ; varicibus 
extantibus 9 subcrenulatis, prope suturam in angulum acvtum 
productis, ad suturamjunctis ; aperturd ovali ; labio interno crasso ; 
colore albo. Long. r20 ; lat. 0*50 poli. 
Hab. Ins. Caminguing, Philippinarum. H. Cuming legit. 
Taken in sandy mud at thirty fathoms. 

Resembling Sc. communis, but more pyramidal in form, more ta- 
pering tovvards the apex, and the some\vhat more laminated and 
projecting varices have a sharp angle near the centre. The most 
perfect specimen is in the collection of the Rev. J. F. Stainforth. 

ScALARiA Philippinarum, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 1, 2, 3. 
Seal. testd elongatd, acuminatd, leevi ; anfractibus numerosis, pau- 
Ivlhm separatis ; varicibus distantibus, tenuibus, obliquis, superni 
vix angulatis, ad suturamjunctis ; colore inter varices pallide fulvo, 
vel eastaneo-nigricante. Variat colore albo. Long. 095; Int. 027 
poli. 
Hab. Catanauan, pr. Tayabas, ins. Luzon, Phihppinarum ; H. Cu- 
ming legit : et Amboyna, legit R. B. Hinds. 

An elongated shell, the principai variety of which is of a chestnut 
colour between the varices. Found in sandy mud at eight to ten 
fathoms. 

ScALARiA ACULEATA, Thcs. Couch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 35, 36, 37. 

Seal. testd pi/ramidali, l<evi, acuminatd ; anfractibus vix separatis ; 

varicibus laminatis, reflexis, antice subrotundatis, prope suturam 

in dentem acutum productis, ad suturam plicatim junctis. Variat 

varicibus crassis, colore albo, vel pallide fulvo. Long. 0"56; 

lat. 0-22 poli. 

Hab. Hong Kong, China, et Macassar, Malacca, Amboyna ; R. B. 

Hinds legit : ad Bais, ms. Negros,' et ad Catanauan, ins. Luzon; H. 

Cuming legit. 

Some specimens were taken at Bais, isle of Negros, in coarse sand 
at six fathoms. 

ScALARiA GRACiLis, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 33, 34. Seal. 
testd aculeatd simili, sed multiim graeiliori. 

Hab. Dumaguete, ins. Negros, Philippinarum. H. Cuming legit. 

So much narrower in proportion to its length than the preceding 
species as to justify the distinction, w'hich has not been made with- 
out hesitation. Found in coarse black sand at seven fathoms. 

ScALARiA MiTRfiFORMis, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 32. f. 30. Seal. 
testd pyramidali, l<evi, tenui, acuminatd ; anfractibus vix separatis ; 
varicibus distantibus, laminatis, extantibus, angulatis, ad angulum 
in dentem acutum elevatis ; colore albo. 



13 

Hab. Guacomayo, Amer. Merid. H. Cuming legit. 

The only specimen we have seen is in Mr. Cuming's collection ; 
it bears a very near resemblance to the common West Indian spe- 
cies named Sc. muricata by Kiener, from \vhich it differs in having 
the angle of the varices elevated into a tooth or point. It is also a 
thinner shell, \vith the laminated varices narro\ver. Found in sandy 
mud at a depth of eleven fathoms. 

ScALARiA VENosA, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 72, 73. Seal. 
testd pyramidali, IcBvi, acuminatd, imperforatd ; anfractibus prO' 
viinentibus vis contiguis ; varicibus \2, proximis, crassis, in medio 
valide reflexis, tumidis, postice angulatis, prope suturam sub- 
angustatis ; aperturd rolundatd, colore inter varices pallidefulvo. 
Hab. Ne\'is, India occidentali. 

Remarkable for the shape of the varices, which are tumed back- 
ward and rounded, giving the appearance of tumid veins ; the inter- 
stices, \vhich are narrovv, are of a delicate fawn-colour. 

ScALARiA Ltra, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 38, 39 ; pi. 34. 
f. 81, 82. Seal. testd ventrieosd, aeuminatd; anfractibus promi- 
nentibus, rapide ereseentibus, prope suturam elevatis, suturd pro- 
fundd distinctis ; varicibus tenuibus, numerosissimis, obliguis ; aper- 
turd magnd, ovali ; labio interno tenui, obliguo ; timbilico parvo ; 
colore pallidefulvo, f ascils duabus fuseis plūs mimisve distinctis. 
Hab. Ins. Masbate, Philippinarum. H. Cuming legit. 
A beautiful species, with ventricose -vvhorls, -n'hich are distin- 
guished by a very deep suture. The varices are thin, close, regular 
and obliąue. The colour is pale brown or dull \vhite, M'ith two bands 
of deeper or paler brown. Found in sandy mud at five fathoms. 

ScALAKiA DUBIA, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 41. Seal. testd 
ventrieosd, acuminatd, minute striatd; anfractibus subprominen- 
tibus, sutvrd profundd distinctis, rapide ereseentibus ; varicibus 
numerosis, paululum expansis ; aperturd magnd, subovali ; labio 
externo tenui, labio interno sitbexpanso ; umbilieo parvo ; colore 
albo. 

Hab. Ticao, Philippinarum. H. Cuming legit. 

The imperfect specimen in Mr. Cuming's collection is the only one 
which we have seen. Taken on reefs. 

ScALARiA iRREGDLARis, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 40, 60. Seal. 
testd ventrieosd, acuminatd, Iccvi ; anfractibus contiguis, rotundatis, 
gradatim ereseentibus ; suturd distinctd ; varicibus tenuibus, numC' 
rosis, incegualibus, nonnullis magnis ; aperturd obligue ovali; urn- 
bilico medioeri ; colore albo. 
Hab. Catanauan, pr. Tayabas, ins. Luzon, Philippinarum. H. Cu- 
ming legit. 

The varices of this species are rather thin and numerous, -n'ith 
sharp edges ; some are much thicker than others. Found in sandy 
mud at eight to ten fathoms. 

ScALARiA iMPERiALis, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 56, 57. 



14 

Sral. testd pyramiduli, ventricosd, acumincitd, lavi ; anfrartibus 
magnis, rotundatis, contiguis, prope suturam elevalis, gradatim 
crescentibus, suturd profundd ; varicibus niimerosis, simplicibus, 
versus apicem tenuibus, gradatim crescentibus, in ultimo anfractn 
crassis, nonnullis dvpUcatis et triplicatis ; aperturd magnd, ovali ; 
umbilico magno ; colore ititer varices pallidl- fulvo, fasciis binis 
fuscis in medio anfractūs ultimi purpureo confusis. 
Hab. Swan River. 

A beautiful pyramidal shell, witli numerous regular varices, which 
in the upper whorls are thin, but in the lašt whorl are thicker, some 
of the lašt being doubled. The colour between the varices is dull 
fawn, -vvith two bands, ^hich in the lašt whorl are blended with purple. 

" Description of new species of Mytilacea, &c.," by Sylvanus 
Hanley, Esq. 

MoDioLA Metcalfei. Mod. testd subtriangvlari, oblongd, ventricosd, 
postice albo-ccerulescente, antice purpured, obsolete barbatd, epider- 
mide flavo-fuscescente indutd; epidermide, prope marginėm dorsa 
lem, subelongatum, valdi elevatvm, et ad extremitatem posticam 
brevem, angustam, sursumąue prominentem, nitoris experte ; costd 
umbonali, prope ad nates purpureas, acutas, obtitse subcarinatd ; 
angulo dorsali distincto, elevato ; viargine antico subrecto, nunquain 
incurvato ; extremitate anticd sublinguiformi, rotundatd ; margine 
ventrali in medio incurvato, postice valde obliquo ; superficie in- 
ternd anties purpureo tinctd. Long. 1-70; lat. 30 poli. 

įjab. ? Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

The more prominent characters are the compressed and very di- 
stinct dorsal angle, the purple beaks, the elevated umbonal ridge, 
and the absence of all glossiness frora the narrow strip of epidermis 
\vhich adjoins the ligaraental edge, and from that lunule-shaped por- 
tion which forms the posterior extreraity and curves upwards to the 
beaks. I have named it in honour of one of our raost scientific 
coUectors, W. Metcalfe. Esq., of Lincoln's Inn. 

MoDioLA sTRiATULA. Mod. tcsld clongūto-oblongd, angustd, sub- 

orcuatd, svbcylindraced , epidermide olivaced indvtd ; latere postico 

brevi radiatim costulato, costis paucis, distantibus ; latere antico 

producto, tenuissime radiatim striato, striis ad extremitatem anti- 

cam elevatis, divaricatis ; ared intermedid lavigatu ; margine 

dorsali subrecto, vix elevato, marginis antici convexi longitudinem 

aauante ; margine ventrali incurvato ; angulo dorsali inconspicuo ; 

umbonibus planulatis ; superficie internd purpured ; cardine, ad 

extremitatem ligamenti, crenato. Long. 0-60; lat. 1.40 poli. 

Hab. Batangas, insularum Philippinanim. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

Closely similar to plicata in shape, sculpture, and the colour of its 

epidermis ; the rich purple of its interior, its smaller size, and the 

greater delicacy of its markings, at once proclaim its distinctness. 

It is usually rayed anteriorly with narrow interrupted black streaks. 

MoDioLA suBRAMOSA. Mod. tcstd oblongo-ongustatd, subventri- 



15 

cosd,postice Icevi, antice costatd, epidermide flavo-rufescente indutd; 
costis planulatis, radiantibus, furcatis, subramosis, distantibus ; 
margine cardhiali brevissimo , subrecto ; margine antico primum 
incurvato et vix declivi, deinde convexo et abrupte declivi ; ventrali 
incurvato ; extremitate anticd subbiangulatd, valde compressd ; ca- 
rind umbonali conspicud, in junioribus acutd ; superficie internd, 
antice purpureo tinctd; cardinis extremitatihus crenatis ; angulo 
dorsali pariim elevato. Long. 0"55 ; lat. 1"30. 

Hab. Cagayan, pr. Misamis, insulae Mindanao. 

Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

Closely allied to M. sulcata of Lamarck, but in that species the 
rib-like strise are crowded and numerous. The beaks are all but ter- 
minai, acute, and incurved. 

MoDioLA Philippinarum. Mod. testd ovato-oblongd, iumidd, Icevi, 
antice barbatd ; epidermide nitidd, fuho-castaned, in medio palies - 
cente, indutd; angulo dorsali distincto, rotundato ; margine dor- 
sali elevato, subelongato, convexiusculo ; antico breviore, subrecto, 
subincurvato ; extremitate anticd latd, rotundatd ; posticd brevi, 
prominuld, nitore epidermidis orbatd ; natibus angustis, conspicuis ; 
carind umbotiali prominente ; superficie internd, antice atropur- 
pured. Long. 2' 20 ; lat. 4 poli. 
Hab. Zebu, Philippinarum. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 
Possessing a sort of general resemblance to M. Modiolus, its more 
elongated hinge-margin, and the greater projection of its hinder ex- 
tremity, suffice to distinguish it from that species, The rich intemal 
colouring of its anterior slope, and the pecaliarity of the lunule-like 
posterior space, which is destitiite of lustre, form the principai fea- 
tures of its characteristics. 

MoDiOLA BiRADiATA. Mod. testd oblongo-trigond, Icevigatd, ven- 
tricosd ; sub epidermide sordide f ulvd, antice purpureo tinctd, deindi 
radio albido ornatd, aredgue posticd pallide brunned et radio pal- 
lidiore ad extremitatem ėjus prominulam notatd ,• margine cardinali 
elevato, subrecto, elongato ; angulo dorsali distincto ; margine ven- 
trali medio incurvato ; antico subrecto, elongato, paiiluliim retuso ; 
extremitate anticd productd, rotundatd ; carind umbonali promi- 
nente ; superficie internd antice purpured. Long. 125 ; lat. 2'50. 

Hab. ? Mus. Metcalfe. 

The glossy epidermis, \vhich is appai'ently destitute of any distinct 
beard, although sufficiently rough on the anterior slope to render its 
occasional presence not improbable, ceases entirely just before reach- 
ing the hinge-margin, leaving a long narro\v strip of dull dusky 
purple. Its general shape closely resembles albicosta of Lamarck, 
with •which briefly-described species it has doubtless been confused 
by the majority of collectors. That species, however (whose original 
type I carefully examined at Paris) , difFers both in other respects and 
by the clear fawn-colour of its epidermis. 

MoDioLA STRiGATA. Mod. testd pūrvd, tenuissimd, subdepressd, 
oblongd, viresrente, sti-igis undulatisfusco-piirpureis, irregulariter 



16 

pictd ; latere antico racUatim striato, dilatato, anguli dorsatis ex- 
perte ; latere postico brevissimo, longitudinaliter costulato ; mar- 
gine cardinali elongato, convexo ; antico arcuato ; ventrali medio 
conve.vinsculo. Long. 0-'25 ; lat. 0-50 poli. 
Hab. Sibango, isle of Zebu ; in ten fathoms, sandy mud. Mus. Cu- 
ming, Hanley. 

For this and the succeeding species we are indebted to the re- 
searches of H. Cuming, Esq., in the Philippine Islands. The shell, 
though small, is far from inelegant, and unites the contour of the 
British discrepans with the zigzag maikings of the African Otvenii. 

MoDioLA AUCUATULA. Mod. testd clongatd, angustd, subarcuatd, 
compressd, Iccvigatd, tenuissimd, anguli doj-salis experte ; sub epi- 
dermide fulvo-viridescente, strigis undulatis, pm-pureo-bninneis, 
antice transversim ornatd; costd umhonali pallidd, prominente ; 
margine cardinali elongato, antico brevi, valde arcuato ; ventrali 
incurvato ; extremitate anticd dilatatd, rotundatd ; posticd rotun- 
datu, protninente, valde attenuatd, costellis paucis radiatd ; super- 
ficie internd, antice purpureo tinctd. Long. 0"50 ; lat. 1'50. 

Hab. Singapore, at Iow \vater. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

Belonging to that division of ModiolcB vvhich is destitute of any 
dorsal angle, it is remarkable for its naiTow sickle-shaped contour, 
and the few narrow ribs of its posterior extremity. 

MoDiOLA soRDiDA. Mod. tcstd oblongd, ventricosd, epidermide 
olivaced indutd ; ared anticd lamellis concentricis, membranaceis, 
cinereo-fulvis, vestitd ; lamellaruni margine barbato ; costd umbo- 
nali prominente ; angulo dorsali obtusissimo ; margine cardinali 
breviusculo, parum elevato ; antico elongato, in adultis retuso ; ven- 
trali incurvato ; extremitate posticd brevissimd,obtusissimd ; super- 
ficie internd, antice purpureo tinctd. Long. 125 ; lat. 265. 

Hab. ■ } Mus. Metcalfe. 

The shape of this ūgly species closely resembles that of M. Mo- 
diolus, but the colour of its epidermis and its peculiar beard will easily 
distinguish it. This latter appendage is composed of a duU-looking, 
membranaceous, ashy-coloured substance, formed cf lamellae, which 
near the ventral edge curl upwards towards the beaks ; the edges 
are here and there fringed with elongated lanceolate filaments. The 
umbonal ridge is edged posteriorly by a paler streak, \vhich is not 
sufficiently distinct however to be termed a ray. 

LiTHODOMUs CANALIFERUS. Lit. testd clongato-oblongd, subcy- 
lindraced, rectd, lavigatd, epidermide castaned sub tegmine calcareo 
indutd ; tegmine in lineis elevatis, crassis, radiantibus, supernegue 
opertis, antice ordinato ; sulco oblicuo ex umbonibus ad marginėm 
ventralem subrectum et leviter convexiusculum, antice decurrente ; 
margine cardinali subincurvato, elongato, leviter elevato ; antico 
dorsali, subrecto ; extremitate anticd obtusissimd, posticd vix an- 
gustatd. Long. 0'65 ; lat. 2. 

Hab. Found in rocks, isle of Zebu. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

At once recognisable by the extraordinary arrangement of its 



17 

calcareous coating over the umbonal slope, on which are placed three 
obliąue covered canals, formed by four radiating ridges, with another 
coating of calcareous matter spread above them, leaving the aper- 
tures distinctly visible at the anterior extremity. 

LiTHODOMus PLUMULA. TJt . testd L. canalifero simillimd, sed ex- 
tremitate anticd minus obtusd; tegmine calcareo antico, crassiore, 
atque in parietibus confertis, subparallelis ordinato ; parietibus 
corrugatis et (plumulee haud dissimilibus) versus marginėm ven- 
tralem et marginėm anticum utrogue latere radiantibus. Long. 
0-75; lat. 2-35. 
Hab. Panama, in Spondyli. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 
Were it not for the calcareous coating of the umbonal ridge, this 
curious shell could scarcely be discriminated from the preceding 
species. This coating is of a cellular structure, and is composed of 
numerous rather elevated narrow ridges, ■which slope forward, and 
80 radiate on either side from the middle as to remind us of a ruflied 
feather. 

Mytilus granulatus. Myt. testd parvd, ovali-triangulari, tumidd, 
crassd, radiatim costulatd; costis distinctis, angustioribus, rotun- 
datis, granulatis, plerumque bifurcatis ; epidermide ockraceo- 
flavescente ; margine cardinali brevi, conve.i:o ; antico valde ar- 
cuato, dilatato ; ventrali subincurvato ; natibus maxime incumben- 
tibus divaricatis ; angulo dorsali rotundato ; latere jjostico plajiulato i 
valdi tumido ; superficie internd albd, submargaritaced ; margine 
interno crenulis dentato. Long. 0"50 ; lat. O" 75. 
Hab. Valparaiso, under stones at low water. Mus. Cuming, Met- 
calfe, Hanley. 

A species easily to be distinguished by its narrow granulated ribs 
(which become still narrovver on the flattened posterior slope) and 
by the peculiarity of its beaks, ■which slope so greatly back as to 
cause the shell to appear blunt and almost truncated at that part. 
The hinge, as in most of this genus, is provided with two teeth in 
one valve, and pne in the other. 

" A description of new species of recent Shells," chiefly from the 
coUection of W. Metcalfe, Esq. 

Amphidesma scabrum. Amph. testd obovatd, convexd, solidd, sub- 
eEįuilaterali, albd, lineis rubro-castaneis radiatd, concentrice lamel- 
liferd ; lamellis brevibus, tenuibus confertis, interstitiis minutis- 
sime longitudinaliter striatis ; latere antico subangulato, postico 
rotundato ; margine ventrali arcuato, antici sinuato ; intUs pallide 
aurantid, lunuld ,fQvedque ligamentali rubro-purpured. Long. 0*2 ; 
lat. 21 poli. 

Hab. Boljoon, insula Zebu. Mus. Cuming, Metcalfe. 

Amphidesma Zebuense. Amph. testd obliąue ovatd, solidd, valde 
ineeguilaterali, convexiuscuhl, albidd, )-adiis pallide rubris ornatd, 
concentrice lamelliferd; lamellis brevibus confertis, interstitiis 
strid elevatd concentricd, plerumęue notatd ; latere antico brevi, 

c 



18 

rotundato ; margine postico incurvato, venlrali valde arcuato ; intus 
ulbu, ud mnbones rithro biradiatd. Long. 1 ^ ; lat. 2. 
Hab. Zebu, Philippinarum. Mus. Metcalfe, Cuming. 
This elegant shell bears some resemblance to the preceding, but 
its shape alone would be sufficient to distinguish it. The colouring 
matter seems to bs deposited only on the lamellae. The lunule is 
rather large for this genus. 

Glatjconome virens; Solen virens, Linn. Syst., p. 1115. GI. 
testd oblongo-elongatd, subtenui, valde ineeguilaterali, ad umbones 
tumidd, albidd ; epidermide tenui, viridt, vix nitidd, obsolete longi- 
tudinaliter rvgosd, vestitd ; latere poslico rotundato ; antico pro- 
ducto, acuminato, svbrostrato, transversim rugoso ; margine ven- 
trali v'.x arcuato, leviter in medio incurvo ; intus albidd. Long. 1 ; 
lat. 2i poli. 
Hab. Java and China } 

This extremely rare shell, concerning which Mr. Dilhvyn remarks 
that no subseąuent author has recognized it, still exists in Linnaeus' 
cabiuet, and \vith the exception of a few young shells in the coUec- 
tion at the Chinese Exhibition, I have never met with any specimens 
elsewhere. 

Odostomia eulimoides. Od. testu oblongo-turritd, nived, IcEvi, 
politd, subpellucidd ; an/ractibus quinque, convexiusculis, ultimo 
spiram aguante ; suturd distinctu ; apertttrd oblongd, Icevi, plicd 
dentiformi labii interioris in medio ; labio eiteriore ad basim sub- 
effnso, margine vix convexo. Long. 18; lat. 008 poli. 

Hab. Guemsey. 

Odostomi.^ Rissoides. Od. testd oblongo-conicd, albd, Icevi, nitidd ; 
anfractibus guingue, convexiusculis, ultimo spiram (eguante ; suturd 
distinctd ; aperturd duplicem guintam partem totius longitudinis 
eeguante, plicd columellari pane obsoletd; labio exteriore intus 
Itevi. Long. 0-18; lat. 009 poli. 
Hab. Guemsey. 

Allied to the lašt, but the mouth is far smaller in proportion to 
the length of the spire. The plait lies so far back on the columella 
as not to be discemed by the carekss observer. 

Odostomia turrita. Od. testd turritd, nived, Itevi, nitidd; an- 
fractibus guingue, convexiusculis ; suturd obligud ; aperturd svb- 
reni/ormi, guarlam partem totius longitudinis aguante ; plicd den- 
tiformi e parte superiore columella: prominente, Long. 0'12; 
lat. O 04. 
Hab. Guemsey. 

The delineations of these lašt three species will appear in the 
' British Marine Conchology.' The shells are from the cabinet of 
W. Metcalfe, Esq., and \vere procured by him on one of the islets 
near the coast of Guernsev. 



19 



February 27, 1844. 

Professor Owen in the Chair. 

The Secretary read Communications from G. W. A. Drummond 
Hay, Her Majesty's Consul- General at Tangier, and Capt. Fayrer, 
H.M.S. 'Tenedos,' Bermuda (both Corresponding Members) ; the 
latter vvas accompanied by two specimens of the Strix Nyctea, which 
Capt. Fayrer presented to the Society. 

Mr. Loveli Reeve described seven new species of Glauconome, a 
gernis of fiuvio-raarine Mollusks of the family Solenacea. 

The genus Glauconome was introduced some years since by Mr. J. 
E. Gray in bis ' Spicielegia Zoologica,' with the description of a single 
species coUected by John Reeves, Esq. in China. Another species 
appears to have been described by the great author of the ' Systema 
Naturse' under the title of Solen vii-ens, the original examples of 
■vvhich are still preserved in the coUection of the Linnsean Society ; 
and I have now the pleasure of exhibiting seven new species, \vhich 
by their characters and habits add materially to the generic import- 
ance of the group. 

The Glauconomes are of a light semi-perlaceous structure, covered 
•vvith a thin light greea horny epidermis, ^bich in some species is 
very peculiarly wrinkled or shrivelled, and inflected over the margin, 
and their hinge is composed of three irregular forked teeth in each 
valve, some of \vhich are generally bifid. They live in brackish 
water (in the mud) in the mouths of rivers at their confluence with 
the Sea, and have only been found as yet in the Eastern hemisphere. 
Out of nine species vvith which we are no\v acguainted, the localities 
of eight are kno\vn to be as follows : one inhabits the rivers of China ; 
one the Ganges and probably other rivers of India ; three inhabit 
certain rivers running into the bay of Manila ; and three, certain 
small rivers in the islands of Zebu, Negros and Luzon, of the Phi- 
lippines ; the lašt sis having been coUected in those particular locali- 
ties by H. Cuming, Esq. 

The place selected by Mr. Gray for the genus Glauconome in the 
natūrai system w'as in bis family of the Veneridee ; it appears to me, 
however, to exhibit a much stronger affinity with the Solenacea ; in 
my arrangement in the ' Conchologia Systematica,' I referred it to 
that family, and I am happy to say that the propriety of this re- 
moval has been subsequently confirmed. 

The following are descriptions of the seven new species : — 

1. Glauconome rugosa. Glauc. testo, elongato-ohlongd, nigosd, 
circiter umbones plūs minusve erosd, laterihus rotundatis ; epider- 
mide peculiariler corrugatd, latere postko subobsolcle angulato, 

Conch. Icon. pi. 1. f. 4. « and b. 

c 2 



20 

Hab. The mouths of rivers running into the bay of Manila. 

This species, which is hy far the largest of the genus, presents a 
very peculiar arrangement of the epidermis. Over about one-third 
of the length of the shell from the posterior extremitj-, the epidermis 
lies in narrow ridges parallel with the lines of growth ; these ridges are 
then suddenly directed towards the umbones, and become dispersed 
over the remaining portion of the shell in the form of shrivelled 
wrinkles scattered in the contrary direction. 

2. Glauconome steaminea. Glauc. testd suhelongato-ovatd, cir- 
citer umbones erosd, latere antico rotundato, postico subattenuato, 
leviter angulato, rotundato ; epidermide nitidd, viridescente-stra- 
mineu, angulum svper corrugatd. 

Conch. Icon. pi. 1. f. 2. 

Hab. Mouths of rivers running into the baj' of Manila. 
A light delicate straw-coloured shell, slightly angulated on the 
posterior side, with the epidermis lying on the angle in wrinkles. 

3. Glauconome eadiata. Glauc. testd obhngo-ovatd, compres- 
siusculd, corned ; purpureo-radiatd ; epidermide viridescente prope 
marginėm indutd, lateribus rotundatis, postico subacuminato. 

Conch. Icon. pi. 1. f. 3. 

Hab. Mouth of a small river at San Nicolas, island of Zebu, Phi- 
lippines. 

This is a very pretty species, vividly rayed inside and outside with 
violet-purple. 

4. Glauconome corrugata. Glauc. testd elongato-ovatd, subti- 
lissime striatd, circiter umbones erosd, lateribus rotundatis, postico 
acuminato-angulato ; epidermide angulum super corrugatd, intus 
vivide purpureo-radiatd. 

Conch. Icon. pi. 1. f. 6. 

Hab. Mouths of rivers running into the bay of Manila. 

The posterior side of this species is more elongately angled than 
that of any other ; the epidermis is \vrinkled over the posterior half 
of the shell, and the interior is vividly rayed \vith purple. 

5. Glauconome angulata.- Glauc. testd elongato-oblongd, striatd, 
circiter umbones plūs minusve erosd, latere antico rotundato, pos- 
tico angulato, carind obtusd ab umbonibus ad marginėm decurrente. 

Conch. Icon. pi. 1. f. 5. 

Hab. Mouth of a small river at Jinigaran, island of Negros, Philip- 
pines. Rather a dingy, short, angulated species. 

6. Glauconome curta. Glauc. testd ovatd, curtd, tenui, subti- 
lissime striatd, ad umbones paululum erosd, lateribus rotundatis, 
intiis ceEruleo-carneo tinctd. 

Conch. Icon. pi. 1. f. 7. 

Hab. Mouth of a river in Agoo, province of Pangasinan, island of 
Luzon, Philippines. 

A very delicate specie.'^, with a fine smooth silken epidermis, short, 



21 



and but very faintly angulate.l on the posterior side. Interior rich 
purple. 

7 Glauconome cerea. Glauc. testd oblongo-ovatd, pallide stra- 
mined, subtilisslmc striatd, lateribus rotundaUs, postico subangu- 
lato-attenuato. 
Conch. Icon. pi. 1. f. 8. 
Hab. Mouth of the Ganges. 
A very delicate pale straw-coloured shell, with a smooth silken 

epidermis. 

" Description of new species of Shells, by Mr. Hinds/' 

Six species of Triton. from the coUection of Sir Edvvard Bei- 

cher, C. B. 

Triton, Montfort. 

1 Triton vESTiTus. Tr. testd ovatd, solidd, fuscd ; anfractibus 
'rotundatis, transversim striatis, lineis longitudinalibus decussanti- 

buspr^cipue spirge nodulosis, ultimo albo fasciato ; aperturd don. 
nati ovali; labro incrassato, intUs dentibus geminis albis undiąu} 
purpurascentibus; columelld purpurascente vel mgrd phcis albis 
varicosd;fauce albd; epidermide valde lamellosd. pilis mgris nu- 
merosis indutd. Axis 27 lin. ^ ^t j i- „«„cf «f 

Hab. Realejo, gulf of Nicoya. and bay of Honda, west coast of 

America. 

2 Triton bracteatus. Tr. testd ovatd, elongatd, hngitrorsum 
■ costatd. transversim striatd, maculis parvis nigris senatim dispo- 

sitis ornatd; spird aperturam superante; aperturd parva. albd, 
denticulatd; canalibreviusculo. Axis 8 lin. 
ifaTMarąuesas ; New Ireland ; Straits of Malacca : on the shore* 
and in seventeen fathoms, mud. 

3 Triton truncatūs. Tr. testd solidd, fulvd fusco nebulosd. 
truncatd, hngitrorsum costatd, striis decussantibus ; costzs rotun- 
ZTs conferL, anfractu ultimo pallide fasciato ; aperturd albd. 
denticulatd ; canali breviusculo. Axis 6 lin. 

Hab. New Ireland ; among the coarse sand of the shore. 

4 Tkiton ANTiauATUs. Tr. testd elongatd, turritd.subc^Undraced 
lineis decussantibus textUi. costis prope suturam evamdis ; spird 
ZZuZdupllveltripU superante; apiceerosoj «^;;;^-P«-į 
subquadratd,pallidd; labio interno anticl valde producto. Axis 

10 lin. 
Hab. New Ireland ; with the preceding. 

5 Tkiton fictilis. Tr. testd ovatd, soliduld. cinered ; anfractibus 
sen^Zundatis, hngitrorsum obligui plico-costatis. transversim 
Z^il^^riatis; spira aperturam vi. superanie ; aperturd callosd. 

H^rSS^/S/cSe^^a ^ !:rbet.een.fty and 
sixty fathoms. 



22 

6. Triton anomalus. TV. festd ovatd, fuscd, longitrorsum costatd, 
lineis Irnnsmersis elevatis cancellatu ; spira aperturam ceguante ; 
suturd validd ; evaricosd ; aperturd ovali, pallidd ; canali brevius- 
culo. Axis 7 lin. 

Hab. Island of Quibo, Veragua ; on the sandy shore at low water. 

SoLARiUM, Lamarck. 

At the sale of the collection of shells of Mr. Imwood, several lots of 
Solarium came iiito ray possession ; and as it was a favourite group 
•vvith this gentleman, he, as might naturally be supposed, had assem- 
bled together many very interesting specimens. The fuU suites of 
some of the species have enabled me better to dra'vv a line of distinc- 
tion between them, and has afforded grounds for regarding several of 
the following as perfectly distinct and hitherto undescribed species. 
In addition to the above, I have had before me the cbllections of Sir 
Edward Belcher and Mr. Cuming, both rich in novelty, but more 
particularly in the careful and accurate detail of localities and cir- 
cumstances of habitation. The whole permits me to record fourteen 
new species in a genus which previously seemed to contain about 
fifteen recent and forty-nine fossil species. 

1. SoLARiLM FORMOsni. Sol . testd orbiculūto-conicd, poUtd, fūs- 
ci'.itd ; anfractibus subtumidis, svperne sulco unico divisis, in/e- 
rioribus lavigatis, spiree plico-striati.t, superne fusco , albo, et atro- 
fusco deinceps fasciatis, medio subcorneis ; ad basin planulatd, 
aperturd quadratd ; umbilico patulo, crenis rectis, subacutis,/us- 
caiis ; ared umbilicali lutd, sublcevigatd. Diam. 18, umbilic. 3^ lin. 

Chemnitz, vol. v. t. 172. f. 1693. 

Hab. Amboina. Cab. Hinds. 

This fine shell has hitherto, most probably, been considered only 
as a variety of the well-known species S. perspcctivum ; it is how- 
ever sufficiently distinct. In shape it is considerably more elevated 
and conical, and it is ornamented vvith rich fasciations of brown and 
■vvhite. Near the upper part of each vvhorl a narrovv sulcus separates 
a narrow portion. The base is Hattened and polished ; umbilicus 
moderately dilated, being less so than in S.perspectivum, and armed 
on the margin with a row of straight sharp crenules, on their right 
faces of a darker browu colour. The umbilical area, or the space 
between the spirally twisted row of crenules, is smooth, except for 
the arched strise of growth. 

2. Solarium placentale. Sol. testd discoided, palUdefulvd, la- 
vigatd ; spird valde depressd ; anfractibus planulatis, ordinate 
spiraliter striatis ; ad peripheriam obtuse unicarinatd , svbtus stri- 
atd ; carind crenulatd ; ad basin subtumidd ; aperturd triangulari; 
umbilico valde patulo, crenis tuberculatis subdistantibus armato. 

Hab. Bay of Magdalena, Califomia ; in seven fathoms, sand. 
Cab. Belcher. 

3. Solarium PERDix. Sol. testd conoided, tenui, Ičevigatd, pallidd ; 
anfractibus subtumidis, supern"^ cingulo unico divisis, spirte minute 



23 

plico-striatis ; ad penpheriam angulatd tricarinatu, carind medid 
prominente, majore, creniferd ; cingv/o et carinis maculis rvfis 
subquadratis ornatis ; umbilico patiilo, creniilis parvis albis cincto. 
Alt. 6, diam. 14 lin. 
Hab. Ceylon ; north-vvest coast of Australia. 
Cab. Curaing and Hiuds. 

Possesses the general contour of S. perspectivum, but is thinner ; 
the \vhorls are slightly tumid, and fumished ahove with a flat smootli 
girdle, ornamented with somewhat distant rufous spots. The most 
prominent keel is characteristically covered vvith small tubercnlar 
crenulations. When placed on its base the apex is rauch inclined, 
and the general direction obliąue. The umbilicus is £omewhat less 
patulous than in S. perspectivum, and neatly encircled with numerous 
white and smaller crenations. The umbilical space is destitute of 
ribs, folds, or keels, bearing aloue the marks of the striae of growth 
and a thin horny epidermis. 

4. SoLARiuM QUADRicEPs. Sol. tcstd orbiculūto-discoided ; an- 
fractibus guadriseriatim cingulatis ; cinguUs tuberculis gnadratis, 
planulatis, approximatis instructis, inferiore majore, et cum supe- 
riore rufo picto ; ad basiii tumidd, ared mediand radiativi plicatd ; 
umbilico patulo, crenis magnis f uscis cincto; ared umbilicali l<evi. 
Alt. 5, diam. 11 lin. 

Hab. Bav of Panama ; in five fathoms, among mud. 

Cab. Belcher. 

Very closely allied to S. granulatum, from which it will be found 
to difFer in the character and relative proportion of the granular gir- 
dles. A single and perhaps rather small specimen was alone obtained, 
■vv'hich is soraewhat more discoid than the above species ; four girdles 
traverse each whorl, of \vhich the inferior is the largest, and the 
tubercles closely set, liattened, and obliąuely sąuare ; the umbilicus 
is rather more expanded, and the marginai tubercles are of a similar 
size, but coloured of a reddish brown. S. ąuadriceps is an American 
shell, and S. granulatum an Asiatic. 

5. SoLARiUM ASPERUM. Sol. tcstd discoided ; spira retusd; anfrac- 
tibus superne planulatis, inferne rotundatis, vbigiie cingulis parvis 
numerosis instructis ; cingulis tuberculis parvis asperatis ; umbilico 
valde patulo ; ared angustd, Icevi. Alt. 1^, diam. 4į lin. 

Hab. Straits of Macassar ; in eleven fathoms, coarse sand. 

Cab. Belcher. 

A single dead specimen only was obtained, destitute of colour and 
choked \vith sand. It is remarkable from its rounded base and its 
very expanded umbilicus, which is proportionately larger than in any 
other species. In S. perspectivum the umbilicus is equal to a third 
of the diameter, but in the present species it is two-fifths. 

6. SoLARiuM DORSUosuM. Sol. tcstd conoided, Itevigatd, solidd, 
fuscd, albo confuse nebulosd; anf r actibus planulatis, spiraliter seri- 
atim sulcatis, spirce leviter striatis ; ad peripheriam suleis geminis 
instructd; basi sulcatd, verstis centrum subtuberculatd ; umbilico 



24 

patulo, crenis magnis cincto ; ared umbilicali unicostutd ; aperturd 
subrotundatu, internt hisvlcatd. Alt. 4, diam. 6į lin. 
Hab. Puerto Galero, island of Mindoro, Philippines ; in seven fa- 
thom.s, sandy mud. 
C'ab. Cuming. 

7. SoLARiuM DEALBATDM. Sol. testd conico-trocMformi, albd ; 
anfractibits planulatis , ąuadriseriatim granulato-costatis ; cingulo 
ultimo paulo majore, prominulo ; umbilico coarctaio, crenis parvis 
instructo ; ared umbilicali mullicostatd ; aperturd rotundatd. 
Alt. 7, diam. 6 lin. 

Hab. Manila. Cab. Hinds. 

This species may be readily distinguished from S. variegatum by 
its uniform colour and by tlie several ribs \vhich cross the umbilical 
space, all of whicb are of equal size ; from 5. cylindraceum by its 
decided conical shape, and the characters detailed above observable 
in the infericr girdle. 

It is unquestionable that a sound division of the genus may be 
effected, by taking S. variegatum as the type of a new group ; and 
this opinion rests on the conformation of the foot of the animal, de- 
cidedly sessile eyes, and veiy peculiar operculum of this species. 
But in trying to efFect this I have met with the following genera, all 
of which have been advanced for sections of the genus as left by 
Lamarck : — Omalasis, Deshayes; Bifrontia, Deshayes ; Helicites, 
Schlotheim ; Cirrus, Sowerby ; Euomphalus, Sowerby ; Schizostoma, 
Bronn ; Solariella, Searles Wood ; Torinia, Gray ; and not having 
before rae the materials for deciding their respective merits, and being 
averse to treating the difficulty as a gordian knot by the erection of 
another genus, I am compelled to leave the subject as I found it. 

8. SoLARiUM FRAGiLE. Sol. testu orbiculuto-discoided ; aiifractibus 
guadriseriatim tuberculato-cingulatis ; cingulo supremo et ultimo 

fusco jnctis, medianis margaritaceis ; ad peripheriam angulatd, 
crenultttd ; basi tumido ; umbilico patulo, crenis parvis albis acutis 
cincto ; ared umbilicali Icevi ; aperturd triangulari. Alt. 1, diam. 
3hn. 

Hab. North coast of New Guinea ; in seven fathoms, sand. 

Cab. Belcher. 

9. SoLARiuM FULVTJM. Sol. tcstd orbiculūto-discoidcd, soliduld, 
fulvd ; spird retusd, anfractibus multiseriatim granuloso-cingulaiis, 
medianis minoribus ; ad peripheriam obtusd, carinis duabus, tertid 
minore intermedid ; basi rotundatd, seriatim granulatd ; umbilico 
mediocri, crenis concoloribus cincto ; ared umbilicali leviter uni- 
costatd ; aperturd subguadratd. Alt. 1^, diam. 3^ lin. 

Hab. New Guinea, Cab. Belcher and Hinds. 

10. SoLAEiuM viRGATUM. Sol. tcstd orbiculūto-discoided, spird 
retusd ; anfractibus ąuadriseriatim granulatis, cingulo supremo et 
ultimo rujis, medianis albis ; ad peripheriam obtusis, duabus carinis 
crenulatis ; basi rotundatd, seriatim granulatd ; umbilico mediocri, 



crenis albis cincto, extus cingulo rufo tuberculato ; aperturd an- 
gulatd. Alt. l.diam. '2 lin. 
Hab. New Guinea. Cab. Belcher. 

11. SoLARiUM FENKSTRATUM. Sol. testd orbiculūto-discoided, 
spira retusd ; anfraciibits multiseriaiim granulatis, longitrorsum 
striatis ; suturd canaliculatd ; ad peripheriam rotundatd, carinis 
tribus subcEquaUbus ; basi rotundatd, seriatim granulatd ; umbilico 
subpatulo, crenis parvis numerosis cincto ; ared umbilicali carinis 
duabus parvis ; aperturd rotundatd. Alt. If, diam. 3| lin. 
Hab. New Guinea. Cab. Belcher. 

As the only specimen obtained \vas without the animal, deprived 
of colour, and had evidently been some time lying in the mud, the 
cancellation is perhaps considerably raore distinct than in the recent 
State. It is one of those which appioach very closely to the unanned 
species of Delphinula. 

12. SoLARiuM CiELATUM. Sol. testd purvd, vūMc discoidcd, nitidd, 
fuscd; spird nulld ; anfractibus prope suturam uniseriatim tuber- 

culatis, medib eleganter radiatim plico- striatis ; ad peripheriam 
carinis duabus obtusis tuberculatis ; ad basin rotundatd ; aperturd 
subrotundd ; umbilico valde patulo, crenis parvis numerosis armato. 
Diam. 2, umbilic. 1 lin. 

Hab. Straits of Macassar ; in ten fathoms, among coarse sand. 

Cab. Belcher. 

13. SoLARiuM TROCHLEARE. Sol. testd orUculūto-conoided, depres- 
siusculd ; anfractibus subtumidis, spirte longitudinaliter plicatis, 
ultimo Icevigato, superne sulco unico divisis, ared supremd atro- 
fuscofasciatd, infru maculis guadratis atro-fuscis cinctd ; ad peri- 
pheriam carinatd, maculis albis et atro-fuscis articulate ornatd ; 
ad basin paulisper tumidd ; umbilico magno, patulo ; crenis subacutis 
fuscis. Diam. 29, umbUic. 8 lin. 

Hab. Indian Seas. Cab. Cuming and Hinds. 

In general appearance it very closely resembles S. perspectivum, 
-vvith which it has no doubt been long associated. In comparing the 
adult shells of both species, this will be found somewhat smaller, 
thinner, and more depressed ; the whorls are some\vhat more tumid, 
those of the spire obHquely longitudinally folded, but the lašt and 
penultimate are smooth, or very nearly so ; above they are divided by 
a single groove, between \vhich and the suture is a continuous dark 
band, beneath a series of sąuare approximating spots, which towards 
the spire usually become continuous ; the base is also somewhat 
tumid ; the umbilicus is large, expanded. and perspective, and sur- 
rounded by chestnut-brown angular crenations ; and the aperture is 
rhomboidal. It is no doubt an Indian species, but the locality is 
not known. 

14. SoLARiuM PURPURATUM. Sol. tcstd conico-orUculatd ; onfrūc- 
tibus subtumidis, spira longitudinaliter obligue plicatis, superne 
sukis duabus cinctis, maculis rufo-fuscis subgeminis ornatis, ared 



26 

mediand pallide cinered ; ad peripheriam carinatd articuhfe macu- 
latd ; ad hasin strigis rufo-fuscis radiatim dispositis ; umhilico 
subpatulo, crenis parvis albidis. Diam. 15, umbilic. 4 lin. 

Hab. ? Cab. Hinds. 

ITie base is distinctivel)' omamented with reddish-brown rays, 
and the sąuare spots on the w'horls are some\vhat twin in their dis- 
tribution, since they occupy corresponding situations in the two 
upper narrow areas. 

CoRBULA, Bruguiere^. 

1. CoRBULA CRisPA. Corb. testd ovatd, solidd, albidd, antice roiun- 
datd, postice truncatd, ab umbonibus obtuse carinatd; valvis ro- 
tundatis, dextrd eburned sulcatd, sinistrdfere Iceviyatd ; umbonibus 
politis, eburneis. Long. 4į ; lat. 2į ; alt. 3 lin. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines. Cab. Cuming. 

2. CoRBULA ADUSTA. Coi'b. testd suhobUque trigond, lccvigald,fuscd, 
subtumidd, antice rotundatd, postice subacuminald, ab umbonibus 
angulatd; valvarum marginibus ventralibus acutis, productis ; um- 
bonibus erosis. Long. 6 ; lat. 2^ ; alt. 5 lin. 

Hab. New Zealand. Cab. Cuming. 

3. CoRBULA PROCERA. Corb. testd ovatd, Icevigatd, fuscd, antice 
rotundatd, postice elongatd, subnasutd ; valvarum marginibus ven- 
tralibus acutis, productis; umbonibus erosis. Long. 7 ; lat. 3 ; 
alt. 5 lin. 

Hab. ? Cab. Cuming. 

These t\vo species closely resemble each other, and both are pro- 
bably estuary shells. 

4. CoRBULA CARNOSA. Corb. tcstd ovatd, solidd, subtecuilaterali. 
pallidd, carnoso-roseo radiatd ; valvis ambabus sulcatis, marginibus 
ventralibus inclausis ; antice rotundatd, postici' subnasute breviter 
attenuatd ; umbonibus Icevigatis, ad angulos albidis. Long. 4^ ; 
lat. 2 ; alt. 3 lin. 

Hab. ? Cab. Cuming. 

Y'^ ' / " Continuation of Mr. G. B. Sowerby's description of Scalaria." 

A Scalaria aurita, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 62. Seal. testd 

Į elongatd, lavi, umbilicatd ; anfractibus rotundatis, contiguis ; va- 

ricibus Isvibus, decumbentibus, subnumerosis, prope suturam sub- 

arcuatis, nonnullis crassis, pluribus tenuibus ; aperturd magnd, au- 

riformi ; colore inter varices fulvo, fasciis tribus fitscis . 

In general form resembling Sc. lineata of Say, but wanting the 

keel on the lower \vhorl, and having a large open umbilicus. In 

Mr. Cuming's collection ; from the coast of Coromandel, 

Scalaria immaculata, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 58. Seal. 
testd py ramidali, acuminatd,transversi minutissime striatd ; anfrac- 
tibus numerosis, rotundatis, suturd distinctd ; varicibus simplicibus, 
plenimgue temdssimis, nonnullis crassiuscvlis ; aperturd ovali, pos- 



27 

tlci aatminatd, labio interno anties subincrassato ; umbilico medi- 

ocri; colore albo. ., , . ■, .rr 

Very much likę Sc. vestalis of Hinds, lately descnbed m the Zoo- 

logical Proceedings,' but more elongated. with a larger umbihcus and 

-vvith the varices near the suture simple, whereas m Sc. vestalis they 

are acuminated. ^ r 4.v 

Collected by Mr. Cuming in sandy mud at eight or ten tathoms. 
at Catanauan, province of Tayabas, isle of Luzon. 

ScALARiA Catanauensis. Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 34. f. 93 & 94. 
Seal testd pyramidali, acuminaidr-mimtissime striatd ; anfracti- 
bus rotundatis, rapide crescentibus, varicibus plerumque obsoletis, 
nonnullis rarius crassis ; aperturd ovali, subauriforrm ; umbilieo 
parvo; colore valide griseo, in medio anfractuum fascid fuscd, 

latd, obscurd. , , , . i j ^ 

It is much shorter than -Sc. Martinii, with the thickened costse 
still more rare ; the aperture is less oval and less aunform. There 
is a broad band of pale bro\vn in the centre of the whorls 

Broucrht from Catanauan. isle of Luzon. Philippines, by Mr. Lu- 
ming, and found in sandy mud at a depth of eight or ten fathoms. 

ScALARiA siMiLis, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 34. f. 90. Seal. testą 
subovali, spiraliter mimtissime striatd; anfractibus paucis, varu 
cibus tenuissimis, plerumque numerosis, nonnullis crassiusculis ; 
aperturd ovali, postice subangulatd, labio interno vix incrassato et 
expanso; umbilico parvo ; colore pallidissime fulvo. 

The whorls are much less prominent, the minute vances more 
numerous, and the umbilicus considerably smaUer than m Sc. Cata- 

nauensis. ^ , . , r n.- j 

Collected by Mr. Cuming in Puerto Galero, isle of Mmdoro, in 
sandy mud at four or five fathoms. 

SCALARIA BULLATA, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 34. f. 87. Seal. 

testd ventricosissimd, brevi. Icevi, anfractibus paucis, rapide eres- 

centibus, varicibus subnumerosis, irregularibus, decumbentibus,ple- 

rumaue tenuissimis, nonnullis crassioribus, ad suturam paululum 

elevatis et refiexis ; aperturd magnd; umbilico parvo ; colore albo. 

We have only one specimen of this extremely ventncose sheU, in 

a very imperfect statė, from the island of Capul. Philippines, taken 

on the coral reefs by Mr. Cuming. 

SCALARIA FRiABiLis. Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 74. Seal. testd 

pyramidali, acuminatd, tenui, imperforatd; varicibus tenuissimis. 

valde numerosis, laminatis, estantibus, prope suturam acute angu- 

latis ■ aperturd magnd, labio interno subincrassato; colore albo. 

A thin pyramidal species, with extremely numerous thin laminar 

varices, which project in an acute angle close to the suture. 

In Mr. Cuming's coUection ; brought from Swan River by Lieut. 
Collie, R.N. 

SCALARIA iNDisTiNCTA. Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 35. f. 141 Seal. 
testd elongatd, imperforatd, minute spiraliter striatd; anfractibus 



28 

numerosis, gradatim crescentibus, suturd dist'tnctd ; varicibus nu- 
merosis, in<equaUbiis, rottindnlis, decumbentibus, simplicibus ; aper- 
turd parvd, labio interno anticc subincrassato ; colore albo. 
In Mr. Cuming's collection ; brought from St. Blas, Gulf of Cali- 
fomia, by the Hon. Mr. Harris. 

ScALARiA sTJBTiLis, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 35. f. 137. Seal. testd 
elongatd, angustatd, spiraliter minute striatd ; anfractibus nume- 
rosis, gradatim crescentibus, prope suturam elevatis ; varicibus 
numerosissimis, laminatis, creiiulatis, superne angulatis ; aperturd 
parvd; colore inter varices obscure fusco . 
A small elongated turreted shell, to the beauty of \vhich neither 
the description nor the figure can do justice : the varices are nume- 
rous, laminated, and regularly crenulated. 

CoUected by Mr. Cuming at the isle of Camiguing, in coarse 
sand at thirty fathoms ; and at the isle of Corregidor, in sandy mud 
at thirty fathoms. 

ScALARiA coNciNNA, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. p. 63. Seal. testu 

subovali, Icsvi, imperforatd, obtusd ; anfractibus subprominentibns ; 

varicibus numerosis, regularibus, oblique in spiram continuis, sub- 

rotundatis ; aperturd ovali, labio interno tenui ; colore pallidissime 

fulvo. 

The whorls in this species are more prominent, the ribs mere nu- 

merous, and the inner edge of the aperture thinner than in Sc. mul- 

ticostata. 

Found by Mr. Cuming in sandy mud at sixty fathoms, at Loay, 
isle of Bohol, Philippines. 

ScALARiA MULTicosTATA, Tlies. Conch. part 4. pi. 34. f. 96. Seal. 
testd subovali, Iccvi, imperforatd, obtusd ; varicibus subnumerosis, 
regularibus, obligue in spiram continuis, subrotundatis ; aperturd 
ovali ; labio interno antice €xpanso et incrassato ; colore pallidis- 
sime fulvo. 
Rather oval and obtuse, with numerous regular, prominent, rounded 
varices ; the anterior part of the inner lip is thickened and spread 
over the columella. 

Brought by Mr. Cuming from Corregidor, Philippines. 

ScALARiA coNNEXA, Thes. Couch. part 4. pi. 34. f. 98. Seal. testd 

ovali, subelongatd, IčBvi, imperforatd; suturd profundd ; varicibus 

numerosis, laminatis, prominentibus , in spiram obligue continuis ; 

aperturd ovali ; colore inter varices obscure fulvo . 

The numerous varices of this small species are laminar, prominent, 

and continued from \vhorl to whorl on the spire, as in the Sc. Clathrtis 

of Linnseus, from -vvhich it differs essentially in not having the spirai 

rib at the lower part of the lašt whorl. 

Brought from Sual, province of Pangasinan, isle of Luzon, by Mr. 
Cuming ; found in sandy mud at seven fathoms. 

ScALARiA PULCHEBRiMA, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 34. f. 92. Seal. 
testd pyramidali, subventrieosd, spiraliter minute striatd, imper- 



29 

foratd ; anfractibus rotundatis, suturd profundd ; varicibus sub- 

numerosis, laminatis, extantibus, prominentibus , superne in angu- 

lum acutum productis ; aperturd ovali, postice acutangulatd, antice 

subęuadratd, labio interno subexpanso ; colore inter varices fusco- 

purpurascente. 

Pyramidal. acute, rather ventricose, spirally striated. with a deep 

suture and with rather broad laminar varices, which are expanded 

into an acute angle near the suture. 

Found by Mr. Cuming in black sand at a depth of four tathoms, 
at Dumaguete, isle of Negros. 

ScALARiA ovALis, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi.' 34. f. 104. Seal. testd 
subovali, IcBvi ; anfractibus paucis, ultimd magnd; varicibus noyem. 
crassis, rotundatis ; aperturd ovali, margine incrassato, labio in- 
terno incrassato, espanso ; colore inter varices pallide cceruleo. 
The \vhorls of this very small shell are fesv in number, the lašt dis- 
proportionately large, with about nine very thick rounded varices ; 
the aperture is oval, with a very thick edge, and the inner lip ex- 
panded. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming in sandy mud at tvventy to thirty 

fathoms, at Cagayan, province of Misamis, island of Mindinao. 

ScALARiA HEXAG0NA, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 67. Seal. testd 

brevi, lavi, imperforatd ; anfractibus contiguis, varicibus sex, 

crassis, prominentibus, ad apicem oblique continuis ; aperturd ro- 

tundatd ; colore albo . 

A short, imperforate, white species, with whorls closely umted 

and strong varices, forming about six obliąue continuous lines along 

the spire. cc e 

In the cabinet of Mr. Cuming : brought by Col. Moftat from Aca- 
pulco ; found in the sands, 

ScALARiA Elenensis, Thes. Conch. part 4. pi. 34. f. 102. Seal. 
testd pyramidali, Icevi, imperforatd; anfractibus contiguis; vari- 
cibus sex ; ad suturam subplicatis, irregulariter continuis ; aperturd 
ovali ; colore albo. 
Resembling Sc. unifasciata, butwithout any band, and having the 
varices straighter and not so regularly continuous. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming at Punta St. Elena, West Columbia ; m 
sandy mud at six fathoms. 

ScALARiA OBTUSA, Thes. Couch. part 4. pi. 33. f. 54. Seal. testd 

ventricosd, pyramidali, imperforatd, Icevi ; anfractibus contiguis ; 

varicibus numerosis, crassis, rotundatis, continuis, superne sub- 

angulatis ; aperturd rotundatd, antice subemarginatd ; labio interno 

spiraliter recurvo ; colore albo. 

Rather short and thick, white, with numerous varices, which con- 

tinue on the spire from whorl to whorl, and are slightly angular 

above ; the inner lip of the aperture is spirally tvyisted, and forms an 

undulated notch at its juncture with the outer lip. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming at Punta St. Elena, \Vest Columbia ; m 
sandy mud at six fathoms. 



30 

ScALARiA MiNDoaoENsis, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 34. f. 91. Seal. 

testd pyramidali, Itevi, imperforatd, tenui ; anfraclibus vix sepa- 

ratis ; varicibus numerosls, simplicibus, ad suturam subirregulari- 

ter junclis ; colore albo. 

A smaU, white, thin shell, slightly resembling Sc. obliqua, but less 

oblique, and with more numerous and prominent varices ; the whorls 

are contingent. 

Found by Mr. Cuming on the sands at Puerto Galero, island of 
Mindoro. 

ScALARiA POLiTA, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 34. f. 99. Seal. testd 

tenui, elongatd, IcBvi, imperforatd ; anfractibus numerosis, vix pro- 

minentibus ; varicibus subnumerosis, tenuibus, in medio anfractuum 

obsoletis ; colore pallide griseo. 

The \vhorls are numerous and not very prominent ; the varices 

appear as if \vorn away in the middle of the whorl3. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming at Xipixapi, We3t Columbia; in sandy 
mud at ten fathoms. 

ScALARiA STATUMiNATA, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 35. f. 127. Seal. 

testd parvd, crassd, brevi, leevigatd, imperforatd; anfractibus con- 

tiguis, vix prominentibus, antice lined elevatd cinclis ; varicibus 

guingue, prominentibus, ad apicem continuis ; antice crassis.postice 

in angulum elevatum expansis ; aperturd subrotundd, labio externo 

antice tenui ; colore inter varices cceruleo. 

A small, short, thick species, with very prominent ribs, VFhich are 

elevated and expanded into a broad angle at the upper part of the 

\vhorls and very thick at the lower ; they are united with each other 

so as to form five obliąue prominent ridges up the spire. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming at Payti, Peru; in black sand at seven 
fathoms. 

ScALARiA BiCARiNATA, Thes. Couch. part 4. pi. 35. f. 113, 114. 
Seal. testd subcj/lindricd, elongatd, imperforatd, minute cancellatd ; 
anfractibus sex, latis, ad laterd planis , ad suturam crenulatis, ul- 
timo carinis binis in medio cincto ; aperturd ovali, margine crasso, 
minute crenulato ; colore fere albo. 
A very curious little shell, with crenulated suture and two promi- 
nent keels in the centre of the lašt \vhorl ; the edge of the aperture 
is much thickened. 

Found by Mr. Cuming in coarse black sand at seven fathoms, at 
Dumaguete, isle of Negros. 

ScALARiA FuscA, Thcs. Conch. part 4. pi. 35. f. 138. Seal. testd 
elongatd, imperforatd, spiraliter minutissime striatd ; anfractibus 
12, subprominentibus, ultimo carind lineari antice cinctd; varicibus 
tenuissimis, obliquis, ad suturam flexuosis ; aperturd subovali, mar- 
gine tenui; colore obscure fulvo, flammulis fuscis obliguis inter va- 
rices serialim picto. 
An elongated species, with a very narrow but distinct keel on the 
lovver part of the lašt whorl : the varices are verj' thin, and bent in 
near the suture. The shell is finely striated and i)reitiiy marked 



31 

with flame-like patches of dark colour between the varices. There 
are two specimens in Mr. Cuming's collection, which were found on 
sand at Sierra Leone. 

ScALARiA ACUMiNATA, Thes. Coiich. part 4. pi. 35. f. 130. Seal. 
testd elongatd, imperforatd, acuminatd; anfractibus 15, vix pro- 
minentibus, antice carind tenui cinctis ; varicibus creberrimis, 
numerosis, tenuibus, cvrvilineatis ; aperturd ovali, margine tenui, 
labio interno tortuoso ; colore pallide fulvo, fasciis duabus, und 
prope suturam pallidd, und in medio anfractuum latd, distinctd. 

Elongated, keeled, with numerous whorls, and very numerous 
close-set curvilinear varices. 

Found by Mr. Cuming in sandy mud at seven fathoms at Malacca. 

Mr. Gould laid before the Meeting specimens of three new s.pe- 
cies of Mammalia, which he described as 

Halmaturus Houtmannii. Hal. Mas facie canescenti-cinered, 
fronte rufescente, spatio inter aures auribusgue externe nigrescenti- 
cinereis ; lined nuchali nigrescenti-fuscd ; dorso saturate fusco 
griseo irrorato, colli corporisque lateribus, artubus anticis et pos- 
ticis rvfis, gutture et pectore fulvescenti-albis, abdomine cinereo ; 
caudd canescente, superne et ad apicem nigrescente. 
Jfoemina mari assimilis, coloribus pallidioribus. Juniores nigrescenti- 

cinerei, colore apud dorsum saturatiore. 
Adult Malė. — Face dark grizled grey, stained with rufous on the 
forehead ; external surface of the ear and the space between the ears 
dark blackish grey ; sides of the neck, shoulders, fore-arms, flanks 
and hind-legs rufous, which colour is palest on the flanks ; a line 
of obscure blackish brown passes down the back of the neck, and 
spreads into the dark grizled brown of the back ; throat and chest 
bufFy white ; under surface of body grey ; tail grizled grey, deepen- 
ing into black on the upper side and the extremity ; the fur is some- 
what short, coarse and adpressed ; the base bluish grey, succeeded 
by rufous, then Avhite, and the extreme tip black. Weight 12^ Ibs. 
Adult Female. — Is similar in colour to the malė, but of a more 
uniform tint, in consequence of the rufous colouring of the shoulders 
and flanks being paler, and the grizled appearance of the back not 
so bright. Weight 8 Ibs. 

The young is dark grizled grey, approaching to black, particu- 
larly along the back. Weight 5 Ibs. 

Adult Malė. Female. 

Ft. Iii. Ft. In. 

Length from the nose to the tip of the tail ..36 34 

of tail 1 2i 1 2 

of tarsus and toes, including the nail . . O 5| O 5| 

of arm and hand, including the nails ..06 04 

of face from the tip of the nose to the 1 r. j i 

base of the ear / " "^T " 4 

of ear O ^ O 2i 



32 

Halmaturus Dama. Hal. vellere fusco , canescente, rubescente ad 
nuckam, ad dorsum imum, et per artus anticos;facie cinered rufo 
lavatd ; fronte spatio inter aures, auribusque eiterrie nigresccnti- 
cinereis ; artubus posticis pallidefuscis ; caudd canescente, corpore 
inferiore pallide cinereo. 
General colour of the fur grizled browii, becoming of a reddish 
tint on the back of the neck, arms and rump ; face grey, washed vvith 
rufous on the forehead ; outside of the ears and the space between 
blackish grey; hinder legs light brown ; tail grizled grey; under 
surface of the body pale grey. yt. In. 

Length from the nose to the extremity of the tail .... 2 11 

oftail 1 H 

of tarsus and toes, including the nail O 5f 

of arm and hand, including the nails O 4į 

of face from the tip of the nose to base of ear , O 4 

of ear O 2^ 

This animal is closely allied to and is nearly the šame size as H. 
Tlietidis, but has much larger ears, and the fur much more dense and 
lengthened ; the base of the fur is bluish grey, to which succeeds 
reddish brown, then silvery -fthite, the extreme tips being black. 

The above is the description of a female ; the malė will doubtless 
prove to be of larger size. 

It is very numerous on the islands of the Houtmann's Abrolhos, 
and also inhabits Western Australia, \vhere it is called 'Dama' by 
the aborigines. 

Lagorchestes hiksutds. Lag. arenaceo-fulvus , dorso griseo irro- 

rato ; spatio ciraimoculari conspicue rubescenti-fulvo ; auribus 

mediocribus, externe cinereo -f uscis, intus pilis albidis obsitis,pedi- 

bus flavescenti-fulvis. 

General colour of the fur, particularly on the hind quarters and 

under surface, rich sandy buff ; that of the head and back havang a 

grizled appearance, occasioned by each hair having a mark of grey- 

ish \vhite near the tip ; the fur, M'hich is exceedingly soft, is blackish 

brown at the base, then rufous, the \vhole beset with numerous hairs, 

■wliich graduaUy increase in length to\vards the lower part of the 

body, where they exceed the general length of the fur by nearly tvvo 

inches, and being of a rich rufous tint, give the animal a very con- 

spicuous appearance; broad space round the eye reddish bufF; ears 

moderately large, greyish brown externally, and clothed \vith whitish 

hairs within ; feet nearly uniform yellowish bufF. p^ j^ 

Length from tip of nose to tip of tail 2 3i 

of tail O 101 

of tarsus and toes, including nail O 5į 

of arm and hand, including nails O 2į 

of face from tip of nose to base of ear O 3| 

of ear O 1| 

The above is the description of a malė, from the York district of 
Westem Australia, where it is called by the aborigines ' \Voo-rup.* 



33 



It Is a very beautiful and welLmarked species, distmgui.hed from 
ele y oS member of its genus by the long ^edd^sh hairs of the 
rump The extreme tip of the tail is white, but vs-hether this cha- 
racter is constant or not is at present unknown. 

At the reauest of the Chairman, Mr. Gould read the foUovving ex- 
tracts from a Tetter he had received from Mr. Gilbert descnbmg the 
habt &c of some Mammalia and Avės of Western A- - .^"^ 
" With respect to the Kangaroos, I have heard of the httle silver- 
haired Lagorchestes (Lagorchestes alMpiUs) and ^-e tned hard to 
procure a specimen ; it is a species well known to the natives ot 
Moore's river by whom it is called ' Nar-nine,' and is only to be found 
i^denseiy thck^scrub on flats, and on the edges of swamps where 
the small bmsh Melaleuca grows so thickly that it is almost impos- 
sible for a man to force his way through; its runs bemg under this. 
he animal escapes even the quick eye of a native. The only po^sible 
means of obtaining it is by havmg a number of natives to clear the 
spot and two or three with guns and dogs to xv^tch for lt. 
^ " This beautiful little animal makes no nešt. but squats precisely 
likę a hare, as I have been assured by Mr. Johnson Drummond Of 
the other species with white behind the ears I can learn very httle : 
are you satisfied it is not a variety ? I have seen many w.th white 
:;otI about diiferent parts of the head. which is -;d bj^^į ^^e 
hunters to be a common oceurrence ; the only character ^hich ap- 
pears to me to approach a specific difference is the redness of colour- 
fnT^hich has been often observed by hunters ; the woolly nature of 
the fur is only the winter covering common to all ot them 

■'The grey kangaroo. Macropns Ocydromus, Gould, of wluch I 
have a vfry interesting series, has very thin hair m summer, ^vh.le 
in winter the coat is thiek and vvooUy. , „^ , u .-i, oi,^^ 

•• The malė is ealled Yoon-gur and the female TTor^ by the abon- 
<^nes. This large kangaroo is tolerably abundant over the ^hole 
foW of Western Australia. from King George s Sound. south to 
fo ty mUes uorth of Moore's river, the farthe.t pomt I have reaehed ; 
Itdoes not appear to confine itself to any pecuhar descnption of 
counTy. being as often seen in the gum-forests among hiUs. as ou 
the opi; plains and clear gi'assy hillocks ; it is hovvever more nume- 
rous Fn th^e open parts of the country, ^vhere it is not so hable to sur- 
prise ntrivelling from Guilford to York, from two to four or five 
mav occasionally be met ^^'ith; but farther in the mterior, particularly 
Tt Gwangum plins, herds of thirty to fifty may often be met ^h : 
?,^rther south, beyond Kojenup, they .re stiU more numerous ; m fact 
I have never seen in any part of Australia so large a herd as tl e one 
mlt\vith on the Gordon plains in 1840 ; at the mnst naoderate c^- 
cuTat on there could not have been less than five hundred kangaroos ; 
several of the party, in their astonishment. considered there were 
even a ereater number than I have stated. „ , „ „„ , 

'^Thf large full-grown malė is termed a Buck or Boomer, and 
-vttainra Seat size when he becomes a most formidable opponent 
?o 'h; bes? dogs in the country, few of .vhich will ever run a large 



34 

Boomer; tliis may in some degree account for the few instances of 
very large ones being killed. It is not by their greater speed that 
they are enabled to escape ; on the contrary, their great \veight 
in some measure incapacitates them for running fast, or to any great 
distance, so that almost any dog may overtake them ; instead, there- 
fore, of running away, the Boomer invariably turns round and faces 
his pursuers, erecting himself to his full height, if possible with his 
back against a tree, and thus awaits the rush of the dogs, endeavour- 
ing to Strike them -vvith his powerful hind-toe, or catching them in 
his fore-arms, and while thus holding them, inflicting dreadful and 
often fatal wounds with his foot. 01d dogs well broken in, and ac- 
customed to hunting the Boomer, will keep him at bay by their 
barking till the hunter comes up, ■vvho is generally furnished with a 
short heavy stiek, and vvith a blow or two on the head brings the 
animal down. Even the hunter often runs a hazard, for a Boomer 
will freąuently, on the approach of man, leave the dogs and attack 
his new opponent most fiercely ; and at times it is no easy matter to 
avoid being severely eut in attempting to kiU it. When closely pur- 
sued it takes to the \vater, and as the dogs api)roach, catches them 
in its arms and holds them under him till drowned. If the water be 
too shallow for drowning them, it lias been kno\vn to catch one dog 
and place it beneath its feet, while courageously \vaiting the ap- 
proach of a second. The svviftest runner is the female of the first 
year before having young, and of the second year with her first 
young ; at this age her speed is so great that she is termed the 
' Flying Doe' : if she obtains anything likę a fair start, she will give 
the fleetest dogs a long and severe run, and will freąuently succeed 
in outstripping them ; upon finding herself too closely pressed she 
attempts to evade the dogs by making a sudden leap, almost at a 
right angle \vith her course, and the dogs, not unfreąuently ■when 
very close to her, and at full speed, bound past her to such a distance, 
that by the time they regain the track the kangaroo has gained so 
much ground as to get fairly a\vay ; but this stratagem often accele- 
rates her death, for in turning otF so suddenly the vvhole vveight is 
thro\vn upon one limb ; the leg is consequently broken, the animal 
falls, and tiie next moment becomes an easy prey. Even large bucks 
are sometimes taken in this way : in their flight and anxiety to escape 
the dogs, they often run against a stump or a tree \vith such violence 
as to be killed on the spot. 

" It \vould scarcely be supposed, from seeing this animal in con- 
finement, where it appears so ąuiet and harmless, that it can be 
excited to rage and ferocity ; yet such is the case in a statė of 
nature. Upon finding itself \vithout a chance of escape, it summons 
up all its energies for a lašt struggle, and would often come off victor 
if it had dogs alone to contend vvith : the moment it sees the ap- 
proach of man, it appears to know instinctively that he is its most 
formidable opponent ; its lips are then curved and contracted ; its 
eyes sparkle vvith rage, and seem ready to start from their sockets ; 
its ears are in rapid and constant motion, and it utters its peculiar 
though not loud voice — a sort of smothered grunt, half hiss or hard 



35 

breathing ; its attention is totally withdrawn from the dogs to its 
new enemy ; regardless of their rush, it loses its former advantage ; 
and the dogs having once fairly got hold, the animal is easily brought 
down. 

" If a female with a tolerably large young one in the pouch be 
pursued, she will often, by a sudden jerk, throw the little creature 
out : whether this is dona for her own protection, or for the purpose 
of misleading the dogs, has been debated by hunters ; I am inclined 
to think the former is the case, for I have observed that the dogs 
pass 011 without noticing the j^oung one, which in general crouches 
in a tuft of grass, or hides itself among the scrub Avitbont attempting 
to run or make its escape : the mother, if she eludes her pursuers, 
doubtless returns for her ofFspring. 

" The kangaroos inhabiting the forests are invariably much darker 
and have a thicker coat than those of tlie plains ; the young are at 
first of a very light fawn-colour, and get darker until two years old ; 
from this age they again become lighter in colour, and the old malęs 
become of a very light grey ; the coat, as already mentioned, being 
in the summer thin and hairy, and in the winter of a more vv^oolly 
character. It is no unusual occurrence to find them with white 
marks on the head, particularly a vs^hite spot between the eyes or on 
the forehead ; in one instance I observed the whole of the throat, 
cheeks, and upper part of the head spotted \vith yellowish white. 
Albinoes have been frequently met with. The largest and heaviest 
kangaroo of this species, of -vvhich I have any authentic account, vr&s 
killed at the Murray, and vveighed 160 Ibs.*" 

" Halmaturus manicatus : — Brush and Blue Kangaroo of colonists ; 
Goorh-a, aborigines of Perth ; Qiiarra, aborigines of the interior. 

" This is by f ar the swiftest and most diflicult kangaroo to pro- 
cure with dogs, not only from its fleetness, but also from the zigzag 
manner of its successive leaps and the thick brush ■vvhich it inhabits ; 
it is very rarely seen in the open country, dwelling in scrubby dis- 
tricts, and the facility with vvhich it bounds ofF and rounds the 
clumps of bushes, enables it to make its escape with comparative 
ease : duiing the heat of the day it may be seen under the shade of 
a tree or thick clump of bushes, and may be often approached witliin 
a few yards before it bounds from its cover, thus afFording a tolerably 
easy shot. Weight from 17 to 21 Ibs." 

"Anous stolidus. — The Noddy and its allied species are the most nu- 
merous of all the inhabitants of the Houtmann's Abrolhos, breeding in 
prodigious numbers ; the bird lays in November and December, form- 
ing a nešt of sea-M^eed about six inches in diameter, and varying in 
height from four to eight inches, but without anything likę regularity 
of form ; the top is nearly Hat, there being but a very slight hollo\v 
to prevent the egg rolling ofF; for, likę others of the Sternida, they 
never lay but a single egg. The nests are so completely plastered 
with their excrement, that at first sight it appears to be almost the 
only material ; they are either placcd on the ground, in a clear open 

* The hciul, l'cct and fore-arms were cxliibitcd. 

d2 



36 

fipace, or on the tops of the thick scrub, over the Sterna fuUginosa : 
these two species incubate together in the utmost harmony, the 
bushes to an imiuense extent -vvearing a mottled appearance, from 
the great mass of birds of both species perched on the top ; the malė 
Sterna fuUginosa sitting quite close to the nešt of the Noddy, \vhile 
its mate is beneath, performing her arduous duties of incubation. On 
■vvalking among these birds' nests, I ■was surprised to observe the ex- 
treme tenacity vvith vvhich they kept their post ; in fact they -vpould 
not remove off the egg or young, but suffered themselves to be fairly 
trod upon, or taken ofF by the hand ; and so thickly were these nests 
placed, that it was no easy matter to avoid crushing either birds or 
eggs at every step. In the middle of January I found the eggs very 
nearly ready to hatch, and but few young birds ; in numerous in- 
stances the bird \vould suffer me to take it by the wing and thro-w it 
ofF the nešt, but -vv'ould immediately return, although I \vas still 
standing close to the spot. There vvould be an overwhelming increase 
of this species yearly but for one check \vhich nature has provided 
against it in the presence of a lizard, which is extremely abundant 
about their breeding-places, and which finds an easy prey in this and 
S. fuUginosa. I am satisfied, from constant observation, that on an 
average, not more than one out of every twenty birds hatched ever 
reach maturlty, or live long enough to take wing ; besides this, 
great numbers of the old birds are constantly killed : these lizards 
do not eat the whole bird, but merely extract the brains and ver- 
tebral marrow ; the remainder how'ever is soon cleared ofF by the 
Dermestes lardarliis, \vhich is here in amazing numbers, and gavę 
me a great deal of uneasiness and constant trouble to preserve my 
collection from their repeated attacks. I did not observe the Noddy 
inhabiting any other but South Island ; they do not appear to go far 
out to sea to feed, finding an abundance of food immediately outside 
the outer reef ; nor did I in any one instance observe it feeding in 
the smooth quiet water between the outer reef and the islands. Their 
food consists of small fish, small mollusca, medusse, cuttle-fish, &c. 
Irides bro\vn, bill and legs blackish grey ; flight somevvhat heavy and 
very irregular." 

" Anous ? (Lesser Noddy). — This; although an allied species 

to the Noddy, is totally different in its habits of incubation, and is 
even much more numerous than the former ; it builds a nešt of sea- 
■vveed on the branches of the mangrove, from four to ten feet above 
the ground ; likę the Noddy, ho\vever, it is truly gregarious, arranging 
their nests as closely as possible ; the sea-\veed is merely thrown 
across the branch vvithout any regard to form, till they have a heap 
varying from tvvo to four inches in height, the long pieces of sea- 
■weed in many instances hanging beneath the branch, ■vvhich makes 
it appear a much larger structure : their nests and the branches 
of the trees are completely white from their excrement, throwing 
out a most disagreeable and sickly odour, Avhich is perceptible at a 
considerable distance. Although there are large groves of man- 
groves on other islands, this bird only inhabits those of South 
Island. I have seen many vast flocks of birds, but I mušt con- 



37 

fess I was not at all ptepared for the surprise I experienced In wit- 
nessing the ainazing clouds (literally speaking) which these birds 
present when congregating iu the evening; while they had their 
young to feed, their departure and return -vvith food during the day 
in one direction had a most singular appearance. From their breed- 
ing-place, across the smooth M'ater to seaward, beyond the outer 
reef, is a distance of about four miles, and this entire distance, in 
their one and regular track, wore the appearance of one continuous 
dark line, from their prodigious numbers : after the young were en- 
abled to aceompany the parent birds, I observed they all left the 
breeding or roosting-place in the morning and did not again return 
till evening, apparently the first comers waiting the arrival of the 
lašt before finally roosting for the night ; it is Avhen thus assembling 
that the amazing number is seen to perfection : even Audubon, "who 
has been so accustomed to see such vast flocks of the passenger pigeon, 
could hardly avoid expressing surprise if he had an opportunity of 
seeing these birds at sunset, moving in one immense mass over and 
around their roosting-place ; while the noise of the old birds' quack 
and the piping \vliistle of the young ones is almost deafening. This 
bird, likę its congener, lays but a single egg; it commences incu- 
bating in December, and appears to be the exclusive inhabitant of 
the mangroves ; and while sitting on its egg or tending its young is 
as easily caught as the Noddy, sufFering itself to be taken ofF its nešt 
rather than leave it. As an article of food it was the favourite, 
several hundreds being killed almost daily during our stay on the 
island. From the circumstance of this bird inhabiting the upper 
branches may be attributed its numbers being greater than any 
other of the numerous birds which inhabit the islands, the lizards 
being unable to climb the branches Avith the facility necessary for 
capturing their prey, and it thus escapes their repeated attaoks, to 
which the others mušt at all times be subject on the ground." 

Mr. L. Fraser laid upon the table three new species of Birds, which 
he described as 

Lagopus ferrugineus. Lag. dorso, humeris, et uropygio, nitide 

ferrugineis ; singulis plumis in mediofusco nofatis ; capite et colio 

fuscis ; plumarum radicibus albis ; primariis cinereis ; caudd su- 

pertie cinered,ferrugineo marginatd et ad apicem albd ; femoribus 

tarsisgue ferrugineis nigro atąue albo, vix distincte fasciatis; 

rostro et unguibus nigris, ceromate et digitis flavis. 

Upper surface dark brown, mottled slightly with -vvhite on the head 

and neck ; tail above the basai half "vvhite, terminai brown, totally 

white beneath, the feathers on the breast having brown quills and 

those on the sides and thighs spotted with brown. 

Totai length 23Į in. ; wings, 17 ; tail, 10; gape, 1| ; tarsi, 3. 
Hab. Mexico. 
Mus. Zooi. Soc. Lond. 

There are three specimens of this bird in diflferent stages of plu- 
mage in the Society's coUection, all from Mexico ; one was presented 
by John Taylor, Esq., another by N. A. Vigors, Esq. 



38 

PsiTTACUs TiMNEH. Ps. sūturūte cinereus, uropygio, abdomine imo, 
crisso, et femorihus pallide cinereis, caudd saturate ferrugineo- 
rubrd, rectricibus singuUs acutis. 

Hab. Timneh country, Sierra Leone. 

Le Perroąuet cendre noir ; Le Vaillant, Hist. Nat. des Perroąuets, 
pi. 102. 

Mus. Zool. Soc. Lond. 

This bird is confined to that part of Western Africa near Sierra 
Leone ; it is never seen so low down as Cape Coast, which is the 
locality of the Psittacus erithacus, from \vhich it differs in its much 
darker tints of colouring, and the tail-feathers terminating in a point. 

Plyctolophus ciTRiNo-cRiSTATus. PI. ūlbus, cristu citrind, plu- 

mis auricnJaribus sulpliureo leviter iinctis. 
In vivario, Zool. Soc. Lond. 
About the size of PI. sulphureus. 

A letter from George Roberts, Esq., of Lyme Regis, \vas com- 
municated by Mr. Yarrell. lt announced the appearance of large 
shoals of Sprats off Lyme Regis, from the 14th to the 20th of De- 
cember lašt. So numerous were these shoals, that at the distance 
of only fifty yards from the shore, at high \vater, the fishermen 
dipped the sprats out with tlieir shrimp-nets ; and so great was the 
quantity taken, that the price at one time was as lo\v as 3rf, per 
bushel. The oldest fishermen do not remember any such occurrence 
at Lyme. After a short cessation shoals again made their appear- 
ance about the 23rd of January, the fish being even more numerous 
than before, giving fuU employment to about seventy-five fishermen. 

Many of the sprats \vere obsers'ed to be infested with the long 
slender parasite figured by Mr. Sowerby in bis ' British Miscellany,' 
plate 68. It is also described by Pennant in the fourth volume of 
bis 'British Zoology,' page 113, edition 1812, under the name of 
Lernea spratta. It is the Lerneunema monillaris of M. Milne Ed- 
wards, ' Hist. Nat. des Crustacės,' tome iii. p. 525, planche 41, fig. 5, 
and is generally found adhering by its arrow-shaped head to the soft 
parts about the eye of the fish, or along the line of the abdomen. 
A specimen and a drawing of the fish and its parasite \vere exhibited 
in illustration. 



:?d 



March 12. 1844. 
William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Loveli Reeve described thirty-three new species of Arca : — 

Arca pilula. Arca testd orbiculari, valde gibbosd, subinteguivalvi, 
vicc inteijui/aierali, lateribus superne angulatis, infrci rotundatis ; 
albidd, fuscescente pallide tinctd, epidermide fuscd, inter costas 
setosd, indutd ; radialini costatd, costis quinque vel $ex et viginti, 
angustis, valv<e sinistralis omnibus, valvce dextralis anticis tantum, 
subtUiter tiodulosis; umbonibtts subremotis, ligamenti ared elongato- 
rhomboided. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 2. f. 8. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (found in sandy mud at the 
depth of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This species is so exceedingly gibbous that the shell is as wide as 
it is high, and it is the šame in aU stages and varieties of growth. 

Arca anomala. Arca testd giiadrato-ovatd, subcoinpressd, in<Equi- 
valvi, latere antico rotundato, postico subangulato-rotundato ; albd, 
viridescente pallide tinctd, epidermide corned inter costas sparsim 
indutd į radiatim costatd, costis octo et viginti, valva destralis 
IčEvibus, planulatis, sinistralis convexis, nodulosis ; ligamenti ared 
angustd. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 2. f. 9. 

Hab. ? 

It seems rather anomalous that the ribs in one valve of this sheU 
should be convex and nodulous, vvhilst in the other they are flat and 
smooth ; but it is an interesting fact that the larger valve of the in- 
equivalve species of Arca exhibits a much more elaborate style of 
sculpture than the smaller. The Arca pilula just described shows 
this remarkable peculiarity very distinctly, but not so prominently 
as the species under consideration ; and it now remains to be deter- 
mined whether this difference arises from any superiority of organi- 
zation in the left lobe of the mantle of the animal inhabitant. 

Arca holoserica. Arca testd obliąue ąuadratd, tequivalvi, lateribus 
superne angulatis, antico infra rotundato, postico angulato-extenso ; 
albidd, epidermide holoserica obtectd ; radiatim costatd, costis 
duabus vel tribus et triginta, creberrimis, planulatis, umbones ver- 
sus yninutissime pertuso-cancellatis ; umbonibus subobliquis ; liga- 
menti ared latiusculd. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 2. f. 11. 

Hab. Island of Samar, Philippines (found in coarse sand and gra- 
vel at the depth of four fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This is a very fine species, remarkable not only on account of its 
Nos. CXXXIII. & CXXXIV.— Proceedings of the Zool. Soc. 



40 

general form and velvety epidermis, but for the minute cancellated 
sculpture of the umbones. 

Arca gubernaculum. Jrca testd subelongato-ovatd, compressius- 
culd, inceąuivalvi, lateribus superne angtdatis, latere antico valde 
breviore,poslico compresso-eipanso ; viridescente, epidermide inter 
costas sguamosd indutd ; radiatim costatd, costis duobus vel tribus 
et triginta, planulatis, leviter noduhso-serratis ; ligamenti ared 
angustd. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 3. f. 11. 

Hab. Basey, island of Samar, Philippines (found in coarse sand 
and amongst shells at the depth of four fathoms) ; Guminę. 

This shell may be recognised by the compressly expanded charac- 
ter of the posterior side. 

Arca cornea. Arca testd subguadratd, gibbosiusculd, ineecuivalvi, 
lateribus superne angulatis, infra rotundatis, latere antico breviore ; 
albd, corio tenui, corneo, viridescente, epidermide inter costas sgua- 
mosd indutd; radiatim costatd, costis ad novem et viginti, valvee 
dextraUs planis , sinigtralis noduloso-crenatis ; ligamenti ared me- 
diocri. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi 3. f. 16. 

Hab. Basey, island of Samar, Philippines (found in sandy mud at 
low water) ; Cuming. 

The horny covering of this species is of an unusually transparent 
eharacter. 

Arca gibbosa. Arca testd rotundato-ovatd, gibbosissimd, ceguivalvi, 
lateribus subangulatis, infrci rotundatis, latere antico breviore; 
albidd, epidermide fuscd indutd ; radiatim costatd, costis sex vel 
septem et viginti, rotundatis, angustis, leviter nodulosis ; ligamenti 
ared mediocri. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 4. f. 20. 

Hab. } 

This shell is almost as round as the Arca pilula, from which it 
differs however essentially in having the umbones obliquely tumed 
to the anterior, and the ribs rounded. 

Arca maculosa. Arca testd obligue ovatd, ceguivalvi, lateribus 
superne subattenuato-angulatis, infra rotundatis, antico brevissimo, 
postico oblique eitenso ; albidd, fuscescente tinctd, latere postico 
maculis perpaucis fuscis ornato, epidermide tenui, corned, inter 
costas setosd, obtectd ; radiatim costatd, costis ad sex et triginta, 
planulatis, con/ertis, marginibus serratis, posticis leviter nodulosis, 
anticis prope marginėm sulco divisis ; umbonibus pallide rufescen- 
tibus ; ligamenti ared mediocri, declivi. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 4. f. 24. 

Hab. North coast of Nevy Holland. 

It is scarcely possible to conceive two species more immediately 
allied than this and the Arca scapha, though perfectly distinguished 
by the number and arrangement of the ribs, vvhich in the former are 



41 

divided by a narrow cut ratlier than a groove ; the scattered brown 
spots, though few in number, are also peculiar to the Arca maculosa. 

Arca compacta. Arca testii suhelongato-quadratd, inaquivalvi, 
gibbosd, lateribus superne angulatis, antico breviore, postico leviter 
angulato-extenso ; albidd, epidermidefuscdpartim indutd ; radiatim 
costatd, costis tricenis, valvcB dextralis subangustis , planulatis, 
sinistralis latioribus, rotundatis, interstitiis cancellatis ; ligamenti 
ared subangustd, declivi. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 5. f. 27. 

Hab. .? 

This is a short compact shell of rather solid growth. 

Arca pertusa. Arca testd subobligue guadratd, vix esįuivalvi, 
lateribus snperne angulatis, infrd rotundatis ; albidd, viridescente 
tinctd, epidermide fuscd spursim indutd ; radiatim costatd, costis 
duabus vel tribus et triginta, confertis, plano-convexis, subtiUssime 
pertusis ; ligamenti ared latiusculd, umbonibus subcentralibus. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 5. f. 28. 

Hab. Mouth of the Gambia, Africa. 

The ribs of this shell are very finely pricked or indented, a charac- 
ter which I do not remember to have observed in any other species. 

Arca cistula. Arca testd svbguadratd, inceguivalvi, lateribus su- 
perne angulatis, antico infrd rotundato, postico quadrato ; albd, 
epidermide tenui fuscescente, inter costas sguamosd, indutd; radi- 
atim costatd, costis angustis, numerosis, septem vel octo et triginta, 
valvce sinistralis umbones versus subtiUssime nodulosis ; ligamenti 
ared mediocri ; umbonibus subacutis, prope extremitatem anticam 
dispositis. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 5. f. 29. 

Hab. } 

An interesting species, remarkable for the neatness and regularity 
of the ribs, as well as for the verj' anterior situation of the urabon&s. 

Arca inflata. Arca testd oblique ovatd, tenui, inflatd, vix tegui- 
valvi, lateribus superne leviter angulatis, infrd rotundatis ; albidd, 
epidermide corned fuscd, inter costas sguamosd, indutd ; radiatim 
costatd, costis numerosis, guadragenis, planulatis, hevibus ; liga- 
menti ared subangustd, declivi ; umbonibus tumidis, paululum ap- 
proximatis. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 5. f. 30. 

Hab. Ilo Ilo, isle of Panay, Philippiaes (found in soft mud at the 
depth of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This is a light inflated shell of rather ląrge size, at present UDique 
in the coUection of Mr. Cuming. 

Arca cymb.«:formis. Arca testd elongato-ovatd, tumidiusculd, in~ 
<Bqulvalvi, postice attenuatd ; albidd, epidermide corned viridescente, 
inter costas squamosd, indutd ,• radiatim costatd, costis duabus et 
triginta, valvee siHL<itralis rotundatis, tuberculato-crenatis, valv/e 
deitralis planulatis, anticis tantum crenatis ; ligamenti ared parvd, 
declivi. 



42 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 5. f. 31. 

Hab. ? 

This is a shell of very peculiar growth, inasmuch as the posterior 
side is smaller and more attenuated than the anterior, a condition 
reverse to that usually presented. 

Arca Japonica. Arca testd elongato-ovatd, tenuimld, valde inagui- 
valvi, lateribiis rotundatis, postico latiore, antico brevissimo ; albd, 
epldermide cornedfuscescente, inter costas squamosd,indutd ; radi- 
atim costatd, costis quinqtie et triginta, angustis, Icevibus, planu- 
latis, ant kis subobsolete nodulosis ; ligamenti ared angustissimd. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 5. f. 32. 

Hab. Coast of Japan (found in sandy mud) ; Dr. Siebald. 

The lateral extremities of this shell are peculiarly rounded. 

Arca vellicata. Arca testd trapeziformi, subcompressd, in medio 
leviter contractd, vix ceguivalvi, lateribus superne angulatis, an- 
tico infrCi rotundato, postico angtilato-expanso ; albidd, epidermide, 
inter costas sguamosd, partini indutd ; radiatim costatd, costis 
angustis, mmierosissimis, guinguagenis aut pluribits, anticis sulco 
divisis ; ligamenti ared angustd ; umbonibus latis, peculiariter de- 
presso-vellicatis. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 5. f. 33. 

Hab. : 

' This is a very remarkable shell, both on account of the large 
number of ribs, and of the peculiar comjjressiou of the umbones. 

Arca Gambiensis. Arca testd elongato-guadratd, tenuiculd, valde 
compressd, in medio coarctatd, aguivalvi, lateribus rotundatis, 
postico subangulato extenso ; albidd, epidermide tenui olivaced, 
sparsim setigerd, indutd ; radiatim costatd, costis duabus vel tribus 
et viginti, Icevigatis, plano-expansis, lira exili intercurrente ; liga- 
menti ared parvd, angustd ; umbonibus angulato-mucronatis . 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 6. f. 3G. 

Hab. Mouth of the Gambia, Africa (found in sandy mud in deep 
\vater). 

The ribs of this shell become peculiarly liattened and spread out 
towards the margin, and there is a fine ridge running down the cen- 
tre of the intermediate grooves. This is the only species in 'vvhich I 
have as yet observed any kind of fine interribbing. 

Arca cuneata. Arca testd obligue ovatd, ceguivalvi, marginėm 
versus coarctatd, lateribus superne angulatis, infru obligue rotun- 
datis ; albidd, radiatim costatd, costis ad vicenas, rotundatis, irre- 
gulariter nodosis ; ligamenti ared latissitnd, declivi; umbonibus 
parvis, distantibus. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 6. f. 37. 

Hab. Zanzibar. 

The great width of the ligamentary area, separating the umbones 
asunder to a considerable extent, imparts a 'vvedge-like form to this 
shell, by vvhich it raay be easily recognised. 



43 

ArCa secticostata. Arca tesld elongato-ovatd, yibbosiss'und, lenui- 
aild, lateribus superne unyulatis, infru suboblique rohmdatis ; ul- 
bidd, fuscescente partim tinctd ; radiatim costatd, costis numerosis, 
angustis, ad gitadragems, guamplurimis sulco subprofundo divisis ; 
ligamenti ared olongatd, latuisculd ; nmbonibus tumidis. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 6. f. 38. 

Hab. ? 

This shell is probably one of those that have been confounded 
with the Arca antiąuata ; it diifers in having a much greater number 
of ribs, and a larger proportion of them more distinctly grooved. 

Arca ferruginea. Arca testd ovato-oblongd, ceąuivalvi, lateribus 
rotundatis; albidd, epidermide ferrugineo-fuscd iiidutd; radiatim 
costatd, costis ad septem et viginti, angustis, compressis, subtilis- 
sime nodulosis; ligamenti ared subangustd; umbonibus obligui iii- 
curvis. 

Conch. Icon. Ai'ca, pi. 6. f. 39. 

Hab. ? . ^ , 

The ribs of this species are unusually naiTow, and being finely 
nodulous, present a kind of beaded appearance. 

Arca radiata. Arca testd ovato-oblongd, tsįuivalvi, lateribus ro- 
tundatis; albidd, fuscescente ad umbones tinctd, epidermide spur- 
sim indutd; radiatim costatd, costis ad tricenas, nngustissimis, 
obsoletb nodulosis. interstitiis clathratis ; ligamenti ared mediocri. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 6. f. 40. 

Hab. ? . ^ 

The ribs are much less prominently developed than in the prece- 
ding species; they are also narrower, more numerous, and less 
strongly noduled. 

Arca oblioua. Arca testd ovatd, valde obliųud, rcguivalvi, lateri- 
bus superne angulatis, infrh rotundatis, antico brevissimo, postico 
obligue expanso ; albd, epidermide fuscescente sericd, inter costas 
setosd, indutd; radiatim costatd, costis quinque vel sex et triginta, 
planulutis, confertis, interstitiis subtilissimė striatis, anticis pos- 
ticisgue leviter crenatis, anticis sulco divisis; ligamenti ared sub- 
angustd, declivi ; umbonibus approximatis. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 6. f. 41. 

Hab. West coast of Africa. 

This is a very interesting species, and altogether one of very di- 
stinct character. 

Arca myristica. Arca testd subguadrato-ovatd, gibbosiusculd ,^ 
inccguivalvi, lateribus angulato-rotundatis ; albd, epidermide temti 
rubido-fuscescente indutd; radiatim costatd, costis tribusvel gva- 
tuor et viginti, valva sinistralis omnibus nodulosis, dextrans anticis 
tantum ; ligamenti ared subangustd. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 7. f. 42. / . , • 

Hab. Jimamailan, island of Negros. Philippines (tound m saudy 
mud at the dcpth of three fatlioms) ; Cumirig. 



44 

In this species there is no trace of that peculiar green colour which 
is so prominent in the foliowing. 

Arca chalcanthum. Arca testd obIongo-quadratd, subcompressd, 
in<squivalvi, lateribus superne angulatis, latere antico brevissimo, 
postico latiore, compressd ; albidd, corio corneo viridi, epidermide 
fuscd, indutd ; radiatim costatd, costis octo et viginti, angustis, 
valvce sinistralis leviter nodulosis ; ligamenti ared subangustd. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 7. f. 43. 

Hab. San Nicolas, island of Zebu, Philippines (found in sandy 
mud at the depth of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

The peculiar colour of this shell gives it the appearance of having 
been stained with green copperas. 

Arca Luzonica. Arca testd elongato-quadrutd, gibbosiusculd, aqui- 
valvi, lateribus superne angulatis, infra rotundatis , latere antico 
brevi ; albidd, corio corneo viridescente, epidermide fuscd, indutd; 
radiatim costatd, costis octo et viginti, latiusculis, valva sinistralis 
subobsolete nodulosis ; ligamenti ared subangustd, declivi. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 7. f. 44. 

Hab. Island of Luzon, Philippines (found in sandy mud at low 
vvater) ; Cuming. 

This is a stouter shell than the preceding species ; it is mere gib- 
bous, and the ribs are broader. 

Arca rotundicostata. Arca testd cvatd, gibbosd, čequivalvi, la- 
teribus superne angulatis, antico brevi, rotundato, postico suban- 
gulato-extenso ; albd, umbones versus fuscescente tinctd ; radiatim 
costatd, costis ad vicenas, subdistantibus, elevatis, rotundatis, cre- 
natis, valva sinistralis potius latioribus ; ligamenti ared latd, pau- 
lulitm concavo-declivi. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 7. f. 4C. 

Hab. ? 

A species in which the ribs are peculiarly rounded. 

Arca clathrata. Arca testd subguadrato-ovatd, aguivalvi, late- 
ribus leviter compressis, superne angulatis, infrd. rotundatis; 
albidd, epidermide tenui fuscescente, inter costas exilissime setosd, 
indutd; radiatim costatd, costis leviter crenatis, interstitiis pro- 
fundis, lineis elevatis clathratis ; ligamenti ared subelongatd. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 7. f. 48. 

Hab. Islands of Buriąs and Ticao, Philippines (found at the depth 
of about six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

A small species, in which the interstices betvveen the ribs, which 
are very deeply engraved, are distinctly latticed with raised lines. 

Arca ovata. Arca testd subelongato-ovatd, tenui, valde inccguivalvi, 
lateribus superne angulato-rotundatis, postico breviore, subtūs an- 
gulato-extenso, antico attenuato-rotundato ; albidd, rufescente-fusco 
tinctd, epidermide tenuissimd ; radiatim costatd, costis ad tricenas, 
anticis nodulosis, posticis minus distinctioribus, planulatis, leevibus, 
costis valvee sinistralis valde latioribus; ligamenti ared parvd, 
latiusculd. 



45 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 8. f. 49. , . , t 

Hab. St. Elena, South America (found in sandy mud at the depth 
of from six to eight fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This shell partakes of the characters of the Arcee Brasiliam and 
incongrua ; it is however more elongated than either, and the ribs are 
nairower and more in number. 

Arca. crenata. Arca testd subelongato-quadratd, subcompressd, 
solidiusculd, vix (equwalvi, lateribus angulato-rotundatis ; albidd, 
epidermide tenuifuscd indutd; radiatim coutatd, costis septem vel 
octo et triginta, valvarum ambarum omnibus noduloso-crenatis ; 
ligamenti ared subangustd, declivi, umbonibus depresso-approxi- 
matis. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 8. f. 51. 

Hab. ? , . ,. . r -u 

This species may be distinguished by its multiplicity of nbs. 
coupled with the manner in which the whole of them in both valves 
are crenated. 

Arca globosa. Arca testd globosd, tumidd, subescuivalvi, lateribus^ 
superne subangulatis, antico breviore ; albidd, epidermide corned 
fuscd indutd; radiatim costatd, costis duabus vel tribus et triginta. 
laibus, planulatis ; ligamenti ared mediocri, umbonibus latiusculis, 
subapproximatis. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 8. f. 52. . 

Hab. Catbalonga. island of Samar. Philippines (found in coarse 
sand and gravel at the depth of four fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Chiefly characterized by its globular form and the smooth horny 
nature of the epidermis. 

Arca rufescens. Arca testd elongato-ovatd, valde in<equivalvi. la- 
teribus superne leviter angulatis, infrh rotundatis, postico subelon- 
gato-extenso ; albidd, rufescente tinctd, epidermide inter costas 
partim indutd; radiatim costatd, costis numerosis, ąuadragems, 
confertis, Icevibus ; ligamenti ared mediocri, umbonibus subtrun- 
catis. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 8. f. 53. 

Hab. ? , ^ , . . , • 

This shell is of a more solid structure than the Arca inaguivatvis ; 
the ribs are much more numerous and close-set, and independent of 
the difFerence of colour, there is a truncated peculiarity in the um- 
bones. 

Arca contraria. Arca testd oblique ovatd, solidd, turgidd, cEqui- 
valvi, lateribus rotundatis, postico brevi, antico elongato-extenso ; 
albidd, epidermide sericd fuscd crassd partim indutd; radiatim 
costatd, costis tricenis, lavibus ; ligamenti ared latiusculd, declivi ; 
umbonibus contrarie contortis. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 8. f. 55. 

Hab. ? . ^ , 

This is another contrary or reversed species, and ą very remark- 
able one, the sheU being completely reversed, whUst the position of 



46 

the lio-araentary area remains the šame. This and the Arca reversą, 
Gray, are the only species of the genus I have as yet seen exhibit- 
ing this peculiarity of growth. 

Arca angicostata. Jrca iestd subguadrato-ovatd, subtEguivalvi, 
lateribus superne angulatis, infra rotnndatis, antico brevi ; albidd, 
fuscescente parthn tinctd, epidermide fuscd, inter costas sąuamosd, 
indutd ; rndiatim costatd, costis ad tricenas, anticis angustis, sub- 
distantibus, leviter crenulatis, posticis latioribus, expansioribus ; 
Ugamenti ared latiusculd. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 9. f. 57. 

Hab. ? 

There is a very unusual disproportion in the width of the ribs of 
this species, the anterior ribs being exceedingly narrow, whilst the 
posterior are wider and spread out as it -vvere. 

Arca loricata. Arca testd subguadraid, gibbosd, lateribus superne 
attenuato-angulatis, antico brevi, rotundato, postico angulato- 
extenso ; albidd, corio corneo cceruleo-viridescente loricata, epider- 
mide tenui, fuscd, inter costas squamosd, indutd ; radiatim costatd 
costis septem vel octo et viginti, planiusculis, acutangulis ; umbo- 
nibus subapproximatis ; Ugamenti ared leviter decltvi. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 9. f. 58. 

Hab. ? 

This shell is covered with a peculiarly strong horny cuticle, and 
difFers from any previously described species in the arrangement and 
formation of the ribs. 

Arca disparilis. Arca testd ovatd, tenui, subcompressd, valde in- 
(Eįuivalvi, lateribus angulato-rotundatis, latere postico subcom- 
presso-expanso ; albidd, corio corneo tenui cceruleo-viridescente, 
epidermide fuscd indutd; radiatim costatd, costis sex vel septem et 
triginta, planiusculis, umbones versus obsolete crenulatis ; umboni- 
btis subapproximatis ; Ugamenti ared angustd, declivi. 

Conch, Icon. Arca, pL 9. f. 59. 

Hab. ? 

The nearest approach to the Arca inaguivalvis , but a shell of more 
compressed growth ; the valves exhihit a still greater rlisparity of size, 
and the ribs are rather more numercus. 

Arca crebricostata. Arca testd elongato-guadratd, ccguivalvi, la- 
teribus superne angulatis, antico infra rotundato, postico elongato- 
extenso, subattenuato ; albd, epidermide fuscd holosericd indutd ; 
radiatim costatd, costis numerosissimis, tribus vel guatuor et qua- 
draginta, planis, latiusculis, creberrimis, anterioribus sulco diiisis, 
subtilissinie crenulatis; umbonibus latis, subapproximutis ; Uga- 
menti a)-ed angustd, declivi. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 9. f. 61. 

Hab. . ? 

The ribs of this species are very characteristic, being comparatively 
broad, flat, very close-set, and more in nuraber than in any other of 
tiic genus. 



47 



Arca hians. Arca testd eloncjato-cvatd. a-rjuhcdin a,,lki hlunte, 
lateribus rotundatis. postico anenucUo-crlenso ; M.da,f>^ccsce,^ 

radiatim costatd. costis duabus vel tribus et trigmla, laUusculu, 

umbonibus subapproxmtttis ; ligamenti area angus:a, pofunde de- 

clivi. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 9. f. 62. 

"t^Joi the Arca hians approaches some^hat to that of the 
Arcacymblforrr>.is, but the species d.ffer most essentmily from each 
other on eimination. In the Arca l^ans the valves -re eqaal he 
anterior ribs are divided by an unusually broad groove, and the .heli 
Spe at the anterior end'to the extent of about three-s.xteenths of 
S^inch, a peculiarity of v'hich I have not obsen^ed the shghtest m- 
dication in any other species of this divisiou of the Arca^. 

AucA occLUSA. Arca testd subguadratd, valde gibbcsd inceųmvalvK 

TteribuTsuperne attenuato-angulatis ; albd; rad^aUm cosatd. 

costs evtei vel acto et riginti, subdistantibus, vaivos de.trahs 

ZTbus%stralis nodulosis ■ umbonibus prominenttbus. pecuhar.- 

ter approrimatis ; ligamenti ared subdechvi. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 10. f. 64. 

?he^L of this Shell are so closely approximated over the 
ligamentrry area. as to prevent the valves from opemng beyond the 
extent of about a ąuarter of an mch. 

Arca ambigua. Arca testd subguadratd, tenuiculd inagnivalci, la- 
te"Z subattenuato-angulatis, antico ivfra rotundato, P-^-° J-. 
gulato; albidd, epidermide fuscd, inter costas sgvamosa , mduta 
faZm costatd costis tribns vel guatuor et trųrnta, angustis 
rotundatis, anticis subtilissime rotundatis; hgamentt arca suban- 

gusta. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 10. f. 65. 

The Arca čistula is the nearest allied species to this. 
Arca cepoides. Arca testd subquadrato-ovatd, tenui, verdricosd, 
^^^vi, lateribus angulato-rotu.datis ; ^idajuscesa^e^ 
Udi tinctd, corio corneo carulescente, epidcnmde Jvsca, nte> 
Tostas sauamosd,indutd; radiatim costatd, cost, s dnį^yU'^;- 
ninta, llvibus, planulatis, costis valvce stmMrahssublat,oribus; 
Lbonibus tumidis; ligamenti ared latiuscula, valde dechvi. 

^«f San Migtr'sttl'ALdca (found in sandy .nd) ; Cunung. 
This is a fine^bold .pecies, but it does not exlubit any very str.king 
peculiarity of character. 

A-^ca HANKEY^NA. Arcū testd ohHque ovatd, crassiusculd. valde 
itbbosd, Uanidd, cegulvalvi, lateribus rotundatis, .uperne attenuatts 
Vre aalico brevssimo, postico obUque e.ienso ; albu. eptdenmde 



48 

tenui, inter costas hirsutd, sparsim indutd ; radiatim costatd, costis 
duabus vel tribus et triginta, planulatis, confertis, guadriliratis ; 
umbonibus parvis, distantibus ; ligamenti ared brevi, latd, declivi. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 10. f. 68. 

Hab. Harbour of Mozambiąue (found in a mass of white coral on 
the reefs at low water, spring tide) ; Hankey. 

I close this division of the genus \vith a new species, ■vvhich ex- 
hibits a peculiarity in the structure of the ribs of great novelty and 
interest, each of them being composed of four distinctly separated 
ridges. 

I have great pleasure in naming this important species after the 
gentleman to whom I am indebted for it, Lieut. Hankey, R.N., a 
zealous conchologist, whose researches on the coast of Africa have 
greatly contributed to science. 

The following description of some new species of Columbella, in 
the collection of H. Cuming, Esq., by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, was then 
read ; — 

Columbella Duclosiana, nob., Thes. Conch. part4. pi. 36. f. 15, 
16. Col. testd ovatd, utrincue acuminatd, longitudinaliter costel- 
latd, saturate fuscd, zonis binis pallidioribus ; spird acvminatd, 
anfractibus 5, costatis, ultimd magnd parte ventrali longitudinaliter 
costatd, interstitiis costarum transversim striatis, dorsali Icevigatd, 
antice transversim striatd ; aperturd latiusculd, flexuosd, nigri- 
cante ; labio externo crasso, intiis denticulis 8-9, posticis majori- 
bus ; interno postice callifero ; canali breviter acuminato, subre- 
flexo ; epidermide crassiusculd. 

Epidermis coarse and rough. Found under stones on the coast of 
Malacca by H. Cuming ; also from Java. 

Columbella chlorostoma, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 36. f. 17, 18. 
Col. testd ovatd, longitudinaliter costatd, Icevi, albd, nigro-macU' 
latd; spird mediocri, anfractibus 5, subventricosis, costatis, ultimo 
antice transversim striato, parte dorsali anticd costis obsoletis ; 
aperturd oblongd, latiusculd, peritremate fulvescente ; labio externo 
postice angulato. 
A single specimen is in the collection of M. Petit de la Saussaye, 
vvhich he has obligingly communicated. It is not Buccinum chloro- 
stoma of Wood. 

Columbella rudis, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 36. f. 33, 34, 35. Col. 
testd oblongd, rudi, plerunigue albidd, punctis strigisque irregu- 
lariter ornatd; spird longiusculd, acutiusculd, anfractibus 7, trans- 
versim crasse granuloso striatis, postice anguliferis, ultimo magno ; 
aperturd subflexuosd, albd, peritremate postice angulifero ; canali 
subreflexd. 

From Nevis : in Mr. Cuming's and other coUections. 

Columbella pcecila, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 37. f. 51, 52. Col. 
testd ovatd, utrincue subacuminatd, transversim striatd, fulvd, 
lineis 2-3 transversis castaneis, maculisgue albis variegatd ; an- 



49 

fractibus 5-6, postice subcoronatis, ultimo magno, subtrigonali ; 
aperturd latiusculd, flexuosd, labii externo medio subcoarctato . 
Two specimens only were brought from Matnog by H. Cuming. 

CoLUMBELLA vENusTA, Dob., Thes. Conch. pi. 37. f. 53, 54. Col. 
testd oblongd, IčEvigatd, pallescente, strigis maculisgue castaneis, 
undatis, punctisve albis ornatci ; spirte apice nigricante ; anfracti- 
bus 6, ultimo magno, antice transversim striato ; aperturd latius- 
culd, labio externo exttLS striato, interno denticulis externis 8-9, 
internis 2-3 ; canali latiusculo. 

A very graceful species, brought lately from the Swan River Set- 
tlement. 

CoLUMBELLA sPLENDiDULA, nob., Thcs. Conch. pi. 37. f. 65, QQ. 
Col. testd oblongd, leevi, aurantiacd, maculis albis castaneisąue 
variegatd ; spird breviusculd, subacuminatd ; anfractibus 7-8, bre- 
vibus, ultimo magno, antice transversim striato ; aperturd subflex- 
uosd, albd; labio externo extus varicoso, margine tenuiusculo ; labio 
interno antice lamind levatd columellari instructo ; canali brevi, 
subreflexo. 

Found in coarse sand at a depth of seven fathoms, near the island 
of Corregidor, bay of Manila, by H. Cuming. 

CoLUMBELLA OBSCURA, uob., Thcs. Conch. pi. 37. f. 70, 71. Col. 
testd oblongd, lepvi, obscure fulvd, strigis longitudinalibus nigris ; 
spird subacuminatd, anfractibus 7, postice albo nigroque articula- 
tis, ultimo antice transversim sulcato ; labio interno subincrassato, 
margine acutiusculo, intūs mediane dentibus 3-4 obsoletis ; interno 
antice laminam levatam columellarem efformante ; canali brevi, 
subreflexo. 

North-west coast of New Holland ; Mr. Cuming's coUection. 

CoLUMBELLA coNiFORMis, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 37. f. 77, 78. 
Col. testd ovato-turbinatd, Icevi, pallidd, coloribus variis pictd ; 
spird breviter conicd, anfractibus 7, primis sex medio obtuse an- 
yulato, marginibus prope suturam levatiusculis ; ultimo anfractu 
magno, elongato-coiūco, antice transversim striato ; labio externo 
tenuiusculo, intus denticulis plurimis ; canali subrefiexo. 

In Mr. Cuming's collection. 

CoLUMBELLA ASPERSA, uob., Thcs. Couch. pi. 37. f. 79, 80. Col. 
testd oblongo-ovatd, l<evi, albd, castaneo-reticulatd et maculatd; 
spird subacuminatd, apice obtuso, anfractibus 6, postici rotundatis, 
ultimo antice transverse obsolete striato ; aperturd latiusculd, flex- 
uosd, labio externo intiis mediane tuberculato denticulis obsoletis, 
margine lavigato ; canali latiusculo, brevi. 

Two specimens are in Mr. Cuming's and one in Lady Harvey's 
collection : locality unknown. 

CoLUMBELLA LiGULA, Ducl., Thcs. Conch. pi. 38. f. 83, 84, 85. 
Col. testd oblongd, acuminatd, Icevi, albidd, coloribus variis f ascia- 
tim pictd ; spird elongatd, turritd, anfractibus 8-9, subventricosis, 
niti'fis ultimo magno ; labio externo extus crassiusculo, variciformi. 



50 

hitus denticulalo ; labio interno antict laminam levatam columel- 
larem efformante, inths denticuUs, riigosiusculo. 
Found by Mr. Cuming at Ticao. 

CoiTJMBELLA Fabula, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 38. f. 86, 87 ; C. Sa- 
donosta, Ducl. Col. testd ovatd, lavi, pallidd, coloribus ohscuris 
variis pieta ; spird acuminatd, conicd, apiceacuto ; un/ractibus 6-7 , 
margine suturarum levatiiiseulo ; uttimo magno, antiee transversim 
striato ; aperturd latd, labio eiterno tenuiusculo, postiei subemar- 
ginato, intits in mediam subtumido, denticulato ; eanaliculato. 

A variety has been found under stones iu the bay of Muerte, 
island of Corregidor, by Mr. Cuming. 

CoLUMBELLA vuLPECuLA. nob., Thcs. Conch. pi. 38. f. 93. Col. 
testd ovatd, crassd, Icevi, albidd, ferrugineo-marmorald; spird 
subacuminatd, anfractibus 6-7, ultimo magno, leviter transversim 
striato, antiee striis validioribus ; labio externo crasso, extus trans- 
versim striato, inths in mediam tumido, denticulato; aperturd 
fiexuosd ; canali luto, brevi. 

CoLUMBELLA MisER, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 38. f. 111. Col. testd 
ovato-oblongd, albicante vel lutescente ; spird pyramidaU, anfrac- 
tibus 6, convexiusculis, antiee castaneo-inaculatis, posticis quinque 
longitudinaliter costatis, antico costato, sed costis dorsalibua antiee 
evanidis; aperturd latiusculd, subrhomboidali, dentibas internis 
labii externi paucis, parvulis. 

There is a variety \vith nearly obsolete ribs. Locality unknown. 
In Mr. Bean's collection and in my own. 

CoLūMBELLA DiCHROA, uob., Thes. Couch. pi. 40. f. 168, 169. 
Col. testd oblongo-siibpyramidali, l<r.vigatd, albd, castanco-sphace- 
latd ; apice obtuso ; anfractibus quinque ; aperturd latd, 

St. Vincent's ; Rev. L. Guilding. In my ovvn collection. 

CoLUMBELLA GUTTATA , nob., Tlics. Conch. pi. 39. f. 124. Col. 

testd oblongd, laevi, castaned, albo-guttatd, apice obtuso, violaceo ; 

spird longiusculd, anfractibus 5, subplanulatis, ultimo magno; 

aperturd magnd, latd, denlibus internis labii externi irregularibus, 

labio columellari dente unico postico. 
In Mr. Norris's and Mr. Stainforth's coUections. 

CoLUMBELLA jASPiDEA, Hob., Thcs. CoHch. pi. 39. f. 125. Col. 
testd oblongd, pyramidaU, Icevigatd, albicante. f ulvo-marmoratd, 
apice acuminato, roseo ; anfractibus 7, costellatis, tenuissiine decus- 
satim striatis, costellis ullimi anfractds antiee obsoletis ; aperturd 
latiusculd; labio externo extiis incrassato, intiis denticuUs nonnullis 
munito, dente unico antiee prope canalem admoto, labio columellari 
antiee tubercularum oblonge instructo. 

Found under stones at low \vater on the island of Ticao, by Mr. 
Cuming. 

CoLUMBELLA ACHATiNA, nob., Thes. Couch. \)\. 39. f. 126. Col. 
testd oblongo-turritd, Iccvi, pallidf brunneo-marmoratd, apice de- 



51 

coUuto ; anfractihus 6, conveitiusculis, ultimo majori, aniici sul- 
cato, suleis paucis, inconspicuis ; aperturd brevi, latiusculd, intus 
violascente, labio externo untice effuso. 
In Mr. Cuming's collection ; from Swan River. 

CoLUMBELLA iMPOLiTA, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 39. f. 127. Col. 
testu oblongd, subturritd, leevi, obscurd, fulvescente, fascid spirali 
unicd albidd ; anfractibus 7, subplanulatis ; aperturd breviusculd, 
sinuosd, denticulis internis labii externi paucis, prominentibus, labio 
columellari antice paululum levato. 

In Mr. Cuming's collection. 

CoLUMBELLA RūGULosA, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 39. f. 131. Col. 
testd obovatd, rugulosd, crassd, violaceo-nigricante, fascid anticd 
maculisįue parvis albidis ornatd; anfractibus 5, longitudinaliter 
costatis, tenuiter decussatim striatis, striis unticis fortioribus ; 
aperturd latiusculd, dentibus internis labii externi paucis majus- 
culis. 

Gallapagos Islands ; H. Cuming. 

CoLUMBELLA ATRAMENTAHIA, nob., ThcS. Conch. pi. 40. f. 174. 

Col. testd ovato-acuminatd, crassd, medio ventricoso, transversim 
striatd, nigrd ; anfractibus 5—6, tenuiter longitudinaliter costatis ; 
aperturd latd, labio extemo incrassato, interne denticulis subin- 
conspicuis. 
Chatham Island, Gallapagos ; G. B. Sowerby's collection. 

CoLUMBELLA TicAONis, nob., Thcs. Conch. pi. 39. f. 142. Col. 
testd oblongd, utrdque acuminatd, medio turgido, pallescente, cas- 
taneo-sphacelatd ; anfractibus 6, transversim striatis, svturis leva- 
tiusculis ; aperturd oblongd, labio externo extiis incrassato, margine 
tenui, denticulis internis paucis, parvulis. 

Found at a depth of seven fathoms in sandy mud, at the island of 
Ticao, by H. Cuming. 

CoLUMBELLA DECUSSATA, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 39. f. 133. Col. 
testd oblongd, crassd, albd, fusco-marmoratd ; anfractibus 5, tur- 
gidiusculis, decussatim costatd ; aperturd oblongd, subsinuosd, labio 
externo albo, crasso,postice extiis obtuse ajigulato, margine externo 
crenato. 

Australia; G. Humphrey. 

CoLUMBELLA BLANDA, Sol., Thes. CoDch. pi. 39. f. 145, 146. Col. 
testd ovato-pyramidali, pallidd, apice acuto ; anfractibus 8, Icevibus, 
longitudinaliter undulatim fusco-lineatis, lineis prope suturam dor- 
salem vltimi anfractūs fortioribus ; aperturd latd, postice acumi- 
natd, labio externo tenuiusculo, extiis turgido, intUs denticulis 
parvis instructo ; canali latiusculo. 

Africa ; on the shore. Solander. 

CoLUMBELLA xivEA, nob., Tlics Couch. pi. 39. f. 151. Col. testd 
ovato-pyramidali, crassiusculd, IcEvi, nived, apice acuminato ; an- 
fractibus 8,primis 6 l(evigatis,penultimo longitudinaliter costellato. 



52 

ultimo costato, ad partem dorsalein anticam Itevi ; aperiurd suhan- 
gustd, subsinuosd, labio eiterno crasso, intus subdenticulato, labio 
columellari antice levato. 
In Mr. Cuming's coUection. 

CoLūMBELLA suBULATA, nob., Thcs. Conch. pi. 40. f. 158, 159. 
Col. testu turrito-pyramidali, Icevigatd, albidd, epidermide tenui, 
corned, pallescente indutd ; spira subulatd, anfractibus decem, con- 
vexiusculis, primis octo l<evibus, tribus nltimis postice transversitn 
striatis, ultimo striato, postice tumido ; aperturn sinuosd, albd, 
labio eiterno extus incrassato, intiis mediane incrassato.deniiculato ; 
labio interno incrassato, levato; canali brevi, refleio. 

In Mr. Norris's collection : locality unknovvn. 

CoLŲMBELLA PuELLA, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 40. f. 160, 161. Col. 
testd ovato-pyramidali, spira acuminatd, acutd, pallide castaned 
vel brunned variegatd, anfractibus 9, longitudinaliter costellatis, 
lavibus, ultimo antice transversitn striato ; suturd crenulatd, albd ; 
canali distincto, extus transversitn sulcato ; aperturd oblongd, sub- 
rkomboided, labio columellari uniplicato. 

From Buriąs ; H. Cuming. A variety nearly free from the longi- 
tudinal ribs occurs at Catbalonga. 

CoLUMBELLA suFFūSA, Dob., Thes. Concli. pi. 40. f. 166, 167. 
Col. testd oblongd, crassiusculd, albicante, maculis liturisgue 
fuscis ornatd ; spird acuminatd, conoidali ; anfractibus 6-7, longi- 
tudinaliter costatis, interstitiis costarum tenuiter transversim stri- 
atis ; aperturd latiusculd. 

Pacific Ocean ; Cuming. 

CoLUMBELLA PARVA, nob., Tlies. Conch. pi. 40. f. 170. Col. testd 
oblongd, pallidd, fascid spirali castaned unicd ornatd, apice acumi- 
nato ; anfractibus 6, longitudinaliter costatis, decussatim striatis, 
ultimo antice prope labium externum variciformatum leevigato, 
supra canalem transversim striato; aperturd breviusculd, sub- 
sinuosd, labio columellari levato. 

Found under stones at Monte Christi, West Columbia ; H. Cuming. 

CoLUMBELLA CATENATA, uob., Thcs. Conch. pi. 40. f. 171. Col. 
testd oblongd, crassii, pallidd, undulatim castaneo-marmoratd, apice 
acuminato, obtusiusculo ; anfractibus 6, longitudinaliter costatis, 
interstitiis lavibus, ultimo antice transversitn striato ; aperturd 
latiusculd, denticuUs parvis 4, labii columellaris obtusis. 

Locality unknovvn ; Mr. Cuming's collection. 

CoLUMBELLA NiGRiCANs, uob., Thcs. Conch. pi. 40. f. 172. Col. 
testd oblongd, nigricante, apice acuminato, anfractibus 6, longitu- 
dinaliter costatis, interstitiis costarum tenuiter transversim striatis; 
suturd distinctd, crenulatd, albicante, margine labii externipallido. 

Gallapagos Islands ; Mr. Cuming's collection. 

CoLUMBELLA DoRMiTOR, nob., Thcs. Conch. pi. 40. f. 173. Col. 
testd ovatoconoided, pallescente, spird conicd, breviusculd ; anfrac- 



53 

tibus 6, transversim sulcatis ; aperlurd lavigatd, margine interno 
labii externi crenulato. 
St. Vincent's ; Rev. L. Guilding. In Mr. Gray's coUection. 

CoLUMBELLA GuiLDiNGii, nob., Thes. Conch. pi. 40. f. 175. 176. 
Col. testu oblongo-pyramidaU.pallescente, brunneo-variegatd, apice 
acuminato-subturritd ; anfractibus 6, longitudinaliter coslatis et 
transversim striatis ; aperturd longiusculd, sinuosd, canali subelon- 
gato, extus transversim sulcato. 
In the British Museum ; found at St. Vincent's by the late Rev. 
Lansdowne Guilding. 

CoLUMBELLA Brodf.ripii, nob., Tbcs. Conch. pi. 40. f. 178. 179. 
Col. testd oblongo-turritd, Icevi, castaned, varie albo-maculatd et 
guttatd; anfractibus 5. subventricosis, oblongd. latiusculd, labto 
externo iiitiis denticulis 2-3 obsoletis instructo ; anfractu ultimo 
antice transversim striato. 

Alboran Island ; W. J. Broderip, Esq. In the British Museum. 

CoLUMBELLA Kraussii, nob.. Thes. Conch. pi. 40. f. 180. 181. 
Col. testd ovato-oblongd, Icevi, albicante, lineis castaneis undulatis 
signatd; anfractibus 5-6, subventricosis, longitudinaliter costel- 
latis, costellis distantibus, interstitiis lavibus ; aperturd latd; 
canali brevissimo. 

In the British Museum ; found at Natai by Dr. Krauss. 

CoLUMBELLA MONILIFERA, UOb.. ThcS. Couch. pi. 40. f. 177. Col. 

testd turritd, albd, maculis irregularibus brunneis pictd, spird 
acuminatd; anfractibus 1, longitudinaliter costatis et transversim 
sulcatis, series tres posticas et seriem unicam costellarum gramli- 
ferarum anticam efformantibus ; aperturd brevi, latiusculd. 
From the West Indies ; the late G. Humphrey. 

CoLUMBELLA pusiLLA, uob., Thes. Conch. pi. 40. f. 182, 183. 
Col. testd ovatd, lavi, albicante, lineis pallide brunneis pictd ; spird 
subacuminatd ; anfractibus 5-6, subventricosis ; aperturd latiusculd, 
labio externo crassiusculo, intiJs obsolete denticulato ; labio interno 
intils tuberculo obtuso instructo ; canali brevi. 

St. Vincent's ; the late Rev. L. Guilding. 

CoLUMBELLA ATOMELLA, Ducl.. Thcs. Conch. pi. 40. f. 184, 185. 
Col. testd oblongd, albicante, nonnunquum pallide castaneo-unifas- 
ciatd, spird acuminatd; anfractibus 6, longitudinaliter costatis; 
suturd crenatd ; ultimo anfractu antice Icevi, supra canalem trans- 
versim sulcato ; aperturd angustd. 

West Indies ; Rev. L. Guilding. 



54 



March 26, 1844. 

The Right Hon. William Sturges Bouriie in the Cliair. 

A letter was read from Anthony White, Esq., describing the mor- 
bid appearances which presented themselves on examining the body 
of the Lioa {Felis Leo) which died in the Society's Gaidens on the 
15th hist. 

A communication was made by Dr. Falconer, conveying the sub- 
stauce of a paper by Capt. Cautley and himself on the osteological 
characters and palaeontological history of the Colossochelys Atlas, a 
fossil tortoise of enormous size, from the tertiary strata of the Se- 
walik hills in the north of India — a tertiary chain apparently formed 
by the detritus of the Himalaya mountains. 

A great number of huge fragments, derived from all parts of the 
skeleton except the neck and tail, were exhibited on the table, illus- 
trative of a diagram by Mr. Scharf of the animal restored to the 
natūrai size. 

The communication opened with a reference to the reptilian forms 
discovered in the fossil slate, among wliich colossal representatives 
have been found of all the known tribes, such as the Iguanodon, Me- 
galosaurus, Labyrinthodon, &c., besides numerous forms of which no 
living analogues exist, such as the Enaliosaurian reptiles and Ptero- 
dactyles. No fossil Testudinata remarkable either for size or devia- 
tion from existing forms, have hitherto been found in the fossil statė. 
The Colossochelys supplies the blank in the first respect, while it 
difFers so little frora the land-tortoises in the general construction 
of its osseous frame, as hardly to constitute more than a subgenus 
of Tes tildo. 

The plastron or sternal portion of the shell afFords the chief di- 
stinctive character. The epistemal portion in the adult is six and a 
half inches thick, and contracted into a diameter of eight inches, bifid 
at the apex, and supplied with a thick cuneiform keel on its inferior 
side : this keel constitutes one of the principai features in the fossil. 
The entosternal portion exhibits exactly the form of Testudo, the 
šame being the case with the xiphiosternal or posterior portion. The 
plastron in the adult animal \vas estimated to be nine feet four 
inches long. 

The carapace or buckler of the shell coincides exactly with the 
general form of the large land-tortoises, of which it exhibits only a 
magnified representation, flattened at the top and vertical at the sides, 
■vvith the šame outline and recurved margin. The shell vvas estimated 
to have been twelve feet three inches long, eight feet in diameter, 
and six feet high. 



55 

The extremities were described as constructed exactly as in the 
land-tortoises, in which the form of the femur and humerus is marked 
by peculiar characters. These bones in the fossil were of a huge 
size, corresponding to the dimensions of the sheli. The ungueal 
bones indicated a foot as large as that of the largest Rhinoceros. The 
humerus was more curved, and the articulating head more globular 
and deejDer in the fossil, from which it was inferred that it had a 
stronger articulation, greater rotation, and that the Colossochelys 
■was enabled to bring its anterior extremities more under its weight 
than is the case Avith existing tortoises. 

The affinities 'with Testudo shown in the shell and extreraities were 
found to hold equally good in the construction of the head, of -vvhich 
a comparatively small-sized specimen, inferred to have belonged to 
a young or half-grown Colossochelys, was exhibited. The head of 
the adult to correspond w'ith the dimensions of the shell, and aceord- 
ing to the proportions furnished by a large Testudo Indica, was de- 
duced to have been two feet long. 

There were no ascertained cervical vertebrae to afFord direct evi- 
dence as to the length of the neck, \vhich \vas constructed in the 
diagram relatively to the proportions of Testudo Indica. The entire 
length of the Colossochelys Atlas was inferred to have been about 
eighteen feet, and that it stood upwards of seven feet high. 

The generic name given by the discoverers has reference to the 
colossal size of the fossil (^ku\o(t(t6s et \ė\vs), and the s^jecific one to 
its fitting representation of the mythological tortoise that sustained 
the world, according to the systems of Indian cosmogony. 

The anatomical details occupied so much of the evening, that space 
■w'as not left for Dr. Falconer to enter on general points connected 
Avith the fossil, such as its possible connexion -vvith the mythological 
fables of the Hindoos and the aera of its extinction, which -vvill form 
the subject of another communication. 

The results of a chemical analysis of the bones by Mr. Middleton 
were communicated, showing that they contained a very large quan- 
tity of fluorine. Some rough sketches of the Colossochelys were 
exhibited, etched on glass by means of the fluorine yielded by its 
own bones. The analysis indicated the presence of 11 per cent. of 
fluoride of calcium. 

Mr. Gould exhibited a series of Birds from Australia, coUected 
partly by himself and partly by Mr. Gilbert, viz. : — 

Fam. CoLUMBiDJE. 

Geopelia PLACIDĄ. Geop.fūcie et gutture cinereis ; occipite, dorso 

alisque e cinereo-fuscis ; singulis plumis ad apicem nigerrimo fas- 

ciatis, alulis spuriis primanisqtie saturate fuscis, humeris subtUs 

castaneis, pectore, laterihus, et nuchd cinereis lineis angustis nigris 

crebre/asciatis, et laterihus vinaceis. 

Face and throat grey ; occiput, back and -vvings ashy brown ; each 

feather -vvith a band of deep velvety black at the extremity ; spurious 

wings and primaries dark brown ; under surface of the shoulders 



56 

chestnut ; chest, sides and back of the neck grey, crossed by nume- 
rous narrow bands of black ; abdomeu and flanks vinous ; four centre 
tail-feathers ashy brown, the remainder black, largely tipped with 
■white ; irides light ash-grey ; bill and orbits bright greyish blue, 
becoming much paler before and behind the eye ; frontai scales of 
tarsi and feet dark greenish grey ; remainder of the legs and feet 
reddish flesh-colour. 

Totai lengtb, 7| inches ; bill, f ; \ving, 3| ; tail, 3| ; tarsi, £r. 

Hab. Port Essington. 

This and the next species are very nearly allied, but on comparison 
of numerous individuals I find that size invariably points out the 
locality from which they have been procured ; the larger birds ( G. 
tranquilla) being an inhabitant of the interior of New South Wales, 
and the smaller {G. placida) of the north coast ; besides -vvhich, the 
bands crossing the chest are broader and more distinct in the latter 
than in the fonner. 

Geopelia tranqcilla. Geop.facie et gutture pallidi cinereis, oc- 

cipite dorso allsque e cinereo-fuscis, shigulis plumis ad apicem 

anguste nigerrimo fasciatis ; alulis spuriis, jmmariisgue saturati 

fuscis, pectore, lateribus, et nuchd pallide cinereis, lineis angustis 

nigris crebre notatis, abdomine et lateribus pallide vinaceis, ab- 

domine medio crissoque albis ; humeris subtus castaneis. 

Face and throat pale grey ; occiput, back and wings ashy brown, 

each feather bounded at the end %vith a naiT0w band of deep veh'ety 

black ; spurious \ving and primaries dark bro\vn ; chest, sides and 

back of the neck pale grey, crossed by numerous narrow, irregular 

bands of black ; abdomen and Hanks pale vinous ; centre of the abdo- 

men and under tail-coverts Avhite ; under surface of the shoulder 

deep chestnut ; four centre tail-feathers greyish bro^n, passing into 

black at the tip ; the lateral tail-feathers black, largely tipped with 

■white ; irides transparent bluish white ; base of bill and nostrils light 

blue ; tip of the bill bluish black ; naked skin of the orbits deeply 

■vvrinkled and of a beautiful light greenish blue ; frontai scales of the 

tarsi and toes dark purple ; hind part of the legs flesh-colour. 

Totai length, 8| inches ; bill, į ; wing, 4 ; tail, 4į ; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. Liverpool plains and banks of the Namoi, interior of New 

South Wales. 

Family Rallid^. 

Genus Eulabeornis. 

Gen. char. — Rostrvm capite longius, ferė rectum, et leviter incur\'um, 
lateraliter compressum ; naribus elongatis, apertis, singulis in sinu 
per mandibulre tres ferfe partes a basi excurrente positis. Alte 
pault^ breves atque debiles, valdė rotundatfe ; tertiariis elongatis, 
ferė ad apicem alae. Tarsi paulo longi, et robustiores quam in 
genere 'Ralius;' digitis attamen brevioribus. C«M6?rt longa, cu- 
iieiformis, pogoniis laxis et effusis. 

EūLABEORNis CASTANEOVENTKIS. Eul. cūpite et collo cincreis į 



67 

corpore superiore in toto olivaceo ; pectore et corpore in/eriore e 
cinereo-castaneis. 
Head and neck ash-grey ; all the upper surface, wing8 and tail 
olive ; breast and all the under surface greyish chestnut ; bill yellow 
at the base, horn-colour at the tip ; legs and feet brown. 

Totai length, 19 inches ; bill, 2^; \ving, 9^; tail, 6; tarsi, 2^. 

Hab. North coast of Australia. 

The " Morduggera " of the aborigines at Port Essington. 

Family Procellarid^. 

PuFFiNUS CARNEiPES. Puff. castūtieo-niger ; rostro e carneo albo, 
culmine apicecue fuscis ; pedibits flavescenti-carneis . 

All the plumage chocolate-black ; bill fieshy white ; culmen and 
tips of the mandibles brown ; legs, feet and membranes yellowish 
flesh-colour. 

Totai length, 15 inches ; bill, 1| ; wing, 12 ; tail, 5 ; tarsi, 2 ; mid- 
dle toe and nail, 2|. 

Procellaria Solandri. Proc. capite, nuchd, humeris, primariis 

et caudd saturate fuscis ; dorso, alaruin caud<eque tectricibvs eplum- 

beo-cinereis, plumis fusco marginatis ; facie, corporegue snbtUs 

fuscis, abdomine cinereo lavato. 

Head, back of the neck, shoulders, priraaries and tail dark brown ; 

back, wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts slate-grey, each feather 

raargined with dark brown ; face and all the under surface brown , 

washed with grey on the abdomen ; bill, tarsi and membranes black. 

Totai length, 16 inches; bill, lį; wing, 12; tail, 5^ ; tarsi, |; 

middle toe and nail, 2g. 

Procellaria leucoptera. Proc. vertice, corpore stiperiore, alisgue 

e plumbeo nigris ; caudd e plumbeo-cinered ; facie, gutture, corpore 

inferiore, rectricum pogoniis internis ad basini, Unedąve humerali 

albis ; tarsis, et membranis interdigitalibus per dimiditnti basale e 

carneo-aJbis. 

Cro-rni of the head, all the upper surface and -^vings dark slaty 

black; tail slate-grey; greater ■v\'ing-coverts sUghtly fringed with 

white ; face, throat, all the under surface, the base of the inner webs 

of the primaries and secondaries, and a line along the inner edge of 

the shoulder, pure \vhite ; bill black ; tarsi and basai half of the inter- 

digital membrane fleshy white ; remainder of the toes and interdigital 

membrane black. 

Totai length, 13 inches; bill, 1; wing, 8^ ; tail, 4 ; tarsi, 1^ ; 
middle toe and nail, 1|. 

Aptexodytes undina. Apt. corpore superiore, lateribus, alisąue 

superne nitide carulescentibus, per pltimas singulas lined nigrd 

longitudinaU{laiiore in plumis dorsalibus); corpore inferiore alisųtie 

subtiis et ad marginėm, 7-ectricumque pogoniis internis albis. 

Tiie whole of the upper surface, flanks and upper surface of the 

■vvings glossj' light blue, with a narrow stripe of black down the 

centre of each feather, the black mark being broadest and most con- 



58 

spicuous on the back ; all the under surface of the body, under side, 
and the inner margin of the upper side of the wing and inner -vrebs 
of the tail-feathers silky \vhite ; bill reddish brown beneath, black 
above ; feet yellowish -vvhite. 

Totai length, 13^ inches ; bill, lį ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land. 

This is less than Ap. minor, to which it is nearly allied. 

For the fine specimen here described I am indebted to Ronald C. 
Gunn, Esq., who procured it at Circular Head, Van Diemen's Land. 



59 



April 9, 1844. 

William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A paper by Mr. Sylvanus Hanley ■vvas read, containing the follow- 
ing descriptions of new species of the genus Tellina, chiefly collected 
by H. Cuming, Esq. in the Philippine Islands and Central America : — 

Tellina Cumingii*. Tel. testd elongato-oblongd, subteąuilaterali, 
solidu, compressiusculd, vix nitidd, albidd aut flavescente, maculis 
aut strigis lineisve brunneis aut fusco-purpurascentibus radiatd, 
concentrice sulcatd ; suleis antice confertis, subimbricatis, postice 
sublamellosis remotiusculis ; margine ventrali eotwexo, utrinque 
sursilm acclinante ; dorsali utrinąue subdeclivi, antice convexius- 
culo, postice subrecto, subincurvato, subdentato ; latere postico 
attenuato, rostrato, paululilm breviore, nd extremitatem biangulato ; 
costd umbonali valde prominente ; ligamento inconspicuo ; super- 
ficie internd albidd aut flavidd ; dentibus lateralibus validis, sub- 
aguidistantibus. Long. O" 95 ; lat. 2-40 poli. 

Hab. Guacomayo, Central America ; in coral sand. 

Intermediate bet\veen Spengleri and Mexicana. 

Tellina Rastellum. Tel. testd elongatd, convexiusculd, aguilate' 
rali, solidd, flavidd, pallide roseo radiatd, antice sulcatd, postice 
sguamosd ; sguamis erectis, lamellosis, in iisdem seriebus cum suleis 
concentricis, ordinatis ; margine ventrali vix convexiusculo ; dor- 
sali utringue paululilm declivi, antice vix convexiusculo, postice 
recto aut subincurvato ; latere postico attenuato, subrostrato, ad 
extremitatem obligue biangulato ; extremitate anticd rotundatd ; li- 
gamento, et costd umbonali, conspicuis ; superficie internd albidd, 
umbones verstis aurantio utringue fucatd; dentibus lateralibus 
validis, subceguidistantibus, Long. 1'61 ; lat. 3"61 poli. 
Hab. Zanzibar. Mus. Cuming, Stainforth, &c. 
A species freąuently confused ■with pulcherrima, but much more 
elongated, the sulci stronger, and the scales entirely absent from the 
anterior side. 

Tellina asperrima. Tel. testd ohlongo-ellipticd, convexiusculd , 
solidiusculd, flavidd aut incarnatd, roseo-radiatd, totd superficie 
externd, sguamis asperrimd ; sguamis antice semilunatis, postice (et 
prtesertim supra costam umbonalem distinctam) spinosis ; margine 
ventrali medio subrecto flexurd distinctd ; dorsali utringue subde- 

* In my formev papers I have used the terms postevior and anterior in 
the Lamarckian sense of the vvords ; but as 1 find this is contrary to the 
practice of the other writers in these Proceedings, for the sake of uniformity 
I now conform to their phraseology. 

No. CXXXIV. — Proceedings of the Zool. Soc. 



60 

clivi et paululuvi convexiusculo ; latere antico hreviore ; extremitate 
posticd suhbiangulatd, attenuatd ; dentibus lateralihits magnis, an- 
tico approximttto. Long. TO; lat. T 85 poli. 
An unique specimen, in the cabinet of Mr. Cuming ; found by him 

at Sual, province of Pangasinan, isle of Luzon (sandy mud, 6ix 

fathoms). Allied to puhherrima. 

Tbllina Jūbar. Tel. testd T. virgatse affinis, sed magis trian- 
gulari, altiore, minus elongatd ; ruhro-purpured, radiis albis aut 
albidis ornatd ; margine ventrali subarcuato ; dorsali utrinque de- 
cliviore; superficie internd albidd, aut coloribus externis fucatd. 
Long. 1-65 ; lat. 250 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming, Sowerby, &c. 

Tei-lina verbucosa. Tel. testd oblongo-elongatd, solidd, com- 
pressd; aut flavidd, rubro-purpureo radiatd, aut pallidi rosed, 
radiis subalbidis angustis, zonisgue saturatioribus, ornatd ; valvuld 
alterd, undique (^natibus excipiendis) verrucosd ; ulterd, medib con^ 
centrice sulcatd, lateribus soliim verrucosd ; verrucis elUpticis, aut 
semilunatis, in seriebus vix interruptis, concentrice ordinatis ; mar- 
gine ventrali antice subarcuato, postice sursiim accUnante ; dorsali 
antice convexiusculo et vix subdeclivi, postice subrecto, subdeclivi; 
latere antico longiore, rotundato ; extremitate posticd attenuatd, 
subrostratd, oblicue subbiangulatd ; ligamento haud prominente ; 
fiexurd ventrali costdgue umbonali, conspicuis ; dentibus lateralibus 
magnis, ceguidistantibus. Long. O" 75 ; lat. 1'50 poli. 

Hab. Corregidor, bay of Manila. 

General shape of T. crucigera, but in sculpture quite distinct. 

Two specimens only of this rare Tellen are as yet knowu, and both 
of them in the cabinet of H. Cuming, Esq. 

Tellina Guildingii. Tel. testd oblongd, tenui, compressd, sub- 
<equilaterali, albidd, radiis aurantio-roseis, zonisgue albido-roseis, 
ornatd; suleis cxilibvs, confertis, concentrice eiaratd ; margine 
ventrali subrecto, medib subretuso ; dorsali utringue declivi, et 
vix convexiusado ; latere postico paululum breviore, attenuato ; 
eitremitate posticd infeme angulatd, anticd rotundatd ; natibus 
acutis ; costd umbonali et flexurd ventrali inconspicuis ; ligamento 
prominente i dentibus lateralibus magnis, ceguidistantibus. Long. 
0-70; lat. I" 30 poli. 

Hab. West Indies. Mus. Metcalfe, Walton. 

Possesses the general appearance of a Psammobia, and belongs to 
that section of Tellince of which virgata is the type. 

Tellina rubescens, Tel. testd T. striatse et T. puniceaj simil- 
limd ; ab hdc autem differt, testd tenuiore anticm emarginationis 
experte ; ab illd, natibus obtusioribus, et extrenntate posticd minus 
attemiatd ; ab utrogue, superficie nitidissimd, ligamento infosso, 
marginegue ventrali conveiiore et utringue subcegualiter declivi; 
suleis in utrdgue valvuld postice obsoletis ; dentibus ut in T. pu- 
nicea, sed minimis, inconspicuis. Long. 1*25 ; lat. 175. 

Hab. Panama and Tumbez ; in sandy mud. 



61 

Tellina regia. Tel. testd oblongd, temti, compressiusculd, sub- 
incEguivalvi, subceąuilaterali, nitidissimd, pellucidd, intus extusque 
roseo-purpurascente, concentrice sulcatd ; suleis remotis, alterd in 
valvuld posticP evanescentibus ; margine ventrali subrecto, medih 
subretuso ; dorsali utringue sub(equaliter declivi, postice subrecto ; 
latere antico paululum breviore, ad extremitatem obtuse rotundato ; 
extremitate posticd superne anguhitd, attenuatd ; costd umbonali 
et flexurd ventrali obsoletis ; ligamento prominulo ; dentibus ut in 
T. punicea. Long. 10; lat. 1"80 poli. 
Hab. Real Liejos, Central America ; in coarse sandy mud, seven 

fathoms. ' 

This species forms one of that group of which punicea is the 

type. Though closely allied to that species, its transparency, the 

more distant sulci, and its deep purplish-red colouring suffice to 

distinguish it. 

Tellina eburnea. Tel. testd oblongd, opacd, solidd, incequivalvi, 
convexd, 7ntidd, albidd, incequilaterali, concentrice sulcatd ; suleis 
profundis, remotis {alterd in valvuld, nonnunquam postice evanes- 
centibus) ; margine ventrali convexiusculo, antice sursiim accli- 
nante ; dorsali antice subrecto, leviterque declivi, postice recto 
subitbque declivi; latere postico multiim breviore, subcuneiformi ; 
lineis erectis obliquis, aream nymphalem et analem rugantibns ; 
ligamento brevi, prominente ; jiexurd ventrali costdque umbonali 
subobsoletis ; superficie internd candidd ; dentibus lateralibus, ut 
in T. punicea. Long. 0"90 ; lat. 1'50 poli. 

Hab. Tumbez, Peru ; in soft sandy mud, five fathoms. 

Allied to punicea, but easily distinguished from that and any other 
allied species by the peculiar elevated sulci on the dorsal areas. 

Tellina Proba. Tel. testd subtrigond, ovali, solidd, convexiusculd, 
sub(equilaterali, nitidd, extus intusque pallide rosed, aut subleevi- 
gatd, aut concentrice et temiissime striatd ; margine ventrali con- 
vexo ; dorsali utrinque valde et subeegualiter declivi, subrecto ; 
extremitate posticd aeuminatd ; flexurd ventrali costdque umbonali 
subobsoletis ; ligamento prominulo; dentibus lateralibus magnis, 
antico approxitnato. Long. 120; lat. 1*80 poU. 
Hab. Porto St. Elena, "West Columbia ; sandy mud, six fathoms ; 
and Salango, West Columbia, sandy mud, nine fathoms. 

-Its extremely delicate concentric strise and acuminated extremity 
separate it from most of the allied species. It belongs to that group 
which contains punicea. 

Tellina laceridens. Tel. testd oblongo-subtrigond, solidd, opacd, 
sub(Equilaterali, nitidissimd, convexiusculd, albd (intus candidd), 
superne IcBvigatd, inferne concentrice et confertim striatd ; margine 
ventrali convexiusculo ; dorsali utrinque convexiusculo, et subcequa- 
liter declivi; extremitate anticd rotundatd {plerumque subattenu- 
atd), posticd rotundato-acuminatd ; costd umbonali et flexurd ven- 
trali inconspictiis ; ligamento magno, elongato, prominente ; dentibus 
primariis laceratis, antico laterali subapproximato, postico laterali, 
minore, remoto. Long. \50 ; lat. 2"50 poli. 



62 

Hah. Tumbez, Peru; soft sandy mud, five fathoms. 

Var. Testu magiš trigond, suleis confertis, imdique exaratd. Long. 
1-20; lat. 1-80 poli. 

Hab. Chiriąm, West Columbia ; sandy mud, three fathoms. 

The ragged primary teeth, the large and elongated ligament, and 
tlie either smooth or closely sulcated surface, distinguish it from any 
of the allied species. 

Tellina princeps. Tel. testd oblongo-elUpticd , ceguilaterali, solidd, 
compressd, nitidiusculd, intus extusque roseo-purpurascente, con- 
centrice sulcatd ; striis exiUbus, profundis, radiantibus, sulcos 
conf ertos utringite (et alterd in valvuld undicue) decussantibus ; 
margine ventrali subrecto, dorsali utrinque leviter et aqualiter 
subdeclivi ; extremitate posticd, obtusissime angulatd ; flexvrd ven- 
trali costdque umbonali obsoletis ; Ugamento prominente ; dente 
laterali antico approximato, postico purvo, remoto, inconspicuo. 
Long. 2 ; lat. 3-50 poli. 
Hab. Tumbez, Peru ; soft sandy mud, five fathoms. 
Although uot easily confused w-ith any of that section (with two 
lateral teeth) to which it belongs, it closely resembles Tellinides pur- 
purascens. 

Tellina Sowerbii. Tel. testd subellipticd, subin<equivalvi, tenui, 
compressd, Itevigatd, poUtd, candidd ; margine ventrali arcuato, 
postice sursiim acclinante ; dorsali antice vix paululiim declivi, 
convexiusculo, postice paululiim declivi, prope nates subincurvato, 
deinde convexo ; latere antico longiore, stibproduct o, postico rotiin- 
dato-acuminato ; Ugamento parvo, angustissi77io, in/osso ; fleiurd 
ventrali costdque umbonali subinconspicuis ; superjicie internd 
albidd, j)lerumque aurantio tinctd ; dentibus lateralibus tenuibus, 
subcequidistantibus. Long. 2; lat. 330. 

Hab. ? Mus. Sowerby, Hanley. 

Bears a slight resemblance to the actita of Wood. 

Tellina pudica. Tel. testd parvd, solidd, ovato-subtrigond, sub- 
cequilaterali, nitidd, candidd, subl(evigatd, tenuissimi concentrice 
striutd : margine ventrali antice arcuato, postice subito svrsiim 
acclinante ; dorsali utrinque valde declivi, antice convexo, postice 
elongato, subrecto ; latere antico pauhilum breviore, subventricoso, 
rotundato ; j^ostico compresso, rostrato ; extremitate posticd sub- 
acuminatd ; tiatibus prominentibus ; flexurd ventrali costdque um- 
bonali subiticonspiciiis ; Ugamento minimo, in/osso; superjicie in- 
ternd politii ; dentibus lateralibus distinctis, subapproximatis, 
sub(Bquidistantibus . Long. O' 30 ; lat. 0'40 poli. 

Hab. Catbalonga, isle of Samar ; ten fathoms, soft mud. 

A stout little shell, possessing the general contour of a Ketera, and 
not easily to be confused \vith any species of this genus. 

Tellina nux. Tel. testd obovali, subin<equivalvi, subeeguilaterali, 
tenui, conveid aut subventricosd , nitidd, sublcevigatd aut inferne 
concentrice substriatd, intus extusque albidd, umbonibus hyalinis et 
fulvis ; margine ventrali subarcuato, dorsali utrinque convexo, satis 



63 

et (Bqualiter declivi ; extremitate posticd obtusd, attenuatd ; liga- 
mento angustissimo, infosso ; natibus obtusis ; 'flexurd distinctd ; 
costd umbonali inconspicud ; dentibus lateralibus distinctis, mitico 
paululUm propinquiore. Long. 0'50; lat. 0-75 poli. 

Hab. St. Nicholas, Zebu ; sandy mud, four fathoms. 

More oval than the three succeeding closely allied species. 

Tellina pinguis. Tel. testdparvd, rotundato-ovali, tenui, subinaąui- 
valvi, subcequilaterali, nitidd, convexd aut subventricosd, intus ex- 
tusgue ulbidd {rariiis incarnatd), leevigatd (nonnunguam concentrice 
substriatd) ; margine ventrali arcuato, dorsali utrinque convexo 
et sub<eqmliter declivi ; extremitate posticd obtusd ; flexurd di- 
stinctd; natibus minimis ; costd umbonali f ere obsoletd ; ligamento 
angustissimo, infosso; dentibus ut in T. nuce. Long. 050; 
lat. 0-60 poli. 
Hab. St. Nicholas, Zebu. 

By its more orbicular outline it may be distinguished from nux 
and casta. It is still more closely allied to robusta, but its tenuity, 
more obtuse hinder extremity. and the greater convexity and less 
sudden slope of the dorsal edges, suffice for its separation. 

Tellina robusta. Tel. testd parvd, rotundato-subtrigond, solidd, 
subin(equivalvi, subaquilaterali, ventricosd, nitidd, aut albo-flaves- 
cente, aut pallide rosaced, sublcevigatd (plerumgue inferius remote 
substriatd) ; margine ventrali valde arcuato, dorsali utringue sub- 
recto et valde declivi; latere postico attenuato, fere subrostrato, 
ad extremitatem acuminato ; ligamento angustissimo, infosso ; na- 
tibus distinctis, prominentibus, et recte incitrvatis ; umbonibus 
tumidis ; flexurd distinctd ; costd umbonali fere obsoletd ; lunuld 
parvd ; superficie internd, plerumgue sub umbonibus, flavidd aut 
rosed ; dentibus ut in T. nuce. Long. 0-70 ; lat. 0-80 poli. 
Hab. Isle of Annaa, South Seas, and isle of Buriąs, Philippines ; 
sandy mud, low -vrater. 

Is closely allied to nux, pinguis and casta, but of a stouter tex- 
ture even in the youngest iudividuals. The Hgamental edge being 
nearly straight, easily separates it from pinguis, \vhere it is decidedly 
convex. 

Tellina casta. Tel. testd obovali, tenuissimd, subineeguivalvi, 
suba:quilaterali, pellucidd, convexd, nitidd, extus intusgue candidd, 
lavigatd ; margine ventrali maxime arcuato ; dorsali utrinque sub- 
recto, subagualiter satisque declivi ; extremitate posticd angustd. 
biangulatd; ligamento angustissimo, subinfosso ; natibus ucutis ; 
flexurd ventrali costdque umbonali distinctis ; dentibus ut in T. 
nuce. Long. O' 36 ; lat. 0-48 poli. 
Hab. Singapore ; sandy mud. 

Bears some resemblance to T. nux, but the shape is less broad, 
the ventral edge decidedly arcuated, the dorsal edges less convex and 
shorter, and the umbones colourless. 

Tellina Discus. Tel. testd T. Remiei simillimd, sed subobliqud et 
suleis concentricis valde irregularibus, vixque continuis ; natibus 



64 

haud recte incurvatis ; margine postico dorsali elevatiore, antico 
dorsali, prope nates prominulas siibincurvato ; umbonibus Itevi- 
gatis ; extremitate posticd angulatd. Long. 2"75 ; lat. 3 poli. 
Hab. Isle of Mindanao ; on reefs, in coarse sand. 

Tellina cyrenoidea. Tel. testd suhorbiculari, solidiusculd, in- 
ceguivalvi, valde inxquilateraU, subventricosd, sordide ulbd {intus, 
sub umbonibus, purpured), concentrice costellatd ; striis minutis 
obligue radiantibus, costellas conf ertas postice decussantibus ; 
margine ventruli arcnato ; dorsali utrinque valde et subrecte declivi, 
antice brevi, postice longiore ; latere antico breviore, obtuse rotun- 
dato ; extremitate posticd obtusd, paulultim attenuatd ; natibus 
prominentibus ; lunuld distinctd ; ligamento infosso ; flexurd cos- 
tdque umbonali obsoletissimis ; dentibus lateralibus patais, distinc- 
tis, sub(equidistantibus. Long. O' 60; lat. O" 70. 

Hab. St. Nicholas, isle of Zebu ; sandy raud, low \vater. 

In external appearance bears much resemblance to a Cyrena. 

Nineteen specimens of Stuifed Birds, from Van Diemen's Land, 
presented by Thomas Alexander, Esq., F.Z.S., ■vvere exhibited. 

Letters were read from E. D. Dickson and H. J. lloss, Esqrs., Corr. 
Memb., \vhich were accompanied by a donation of Mammals, Birds, 
Reptiles, Insects, &c. Also seven Birds' Skins, from the island of 
Cerigo, presented by Capt. Thomas Graves, U. N., Corr. Memb. 

The birds, which \vere in an excellent statė of preservation, were 
named by Mr. Fraser, and the follo\ving notes by Messrs. Dickson 
and Ross Avere read : — 

Circus rufus, Briss. 

" Shot near Lake Tajoora, December 1, 1842. Female. Had an 
imraense ąuantity of eggs in its ovarium ; I never before met ^ith 
so astonishing a number in any bird. Its brain was large, and, ex- 
cepting the tubercular masses on its base, consisted of almost entirely 
cineritious matter. Cranium strongly marked \vith protuberances 
on its upper surface." 

Alcedo ispida, Linn. 

" Female. Shot on the sea-shore 18th of November 1842. Said 
to be a rare bird at Tripoli. This specimen, together with others 
I found at Trebizond, were a good deal smaller than those birds I 
procured at Erzeroom." 

Muscicapa grisola, Linn. 

" Very common about the trees on the Jebel mountains, May and 
June 1843." 
Muscicapa albicollis, Temm. 

" Malė. Killed at Tripoli June or July 1843. Female. Common 
in the Owaniyeh valley on Jebel mountains, May 1843. Flies ex- 
actly likę a swaUow." 

Lanius Excubitor ? Linn. 

" Malė. Sent by Mr. GagliufR, H. M. B. Vice-Consul at the capi- 
tal of Fezzan, March 1843." 



65 

Lanius rufus, Briss. 

" Malė. Shot on the Jebel mountains June 1843. Femalc. Food 
small beetles : disposition shy. Totai length from bill to tail 7*6 
inches. Common on Jebel mountains; shot 5th of May 184.3." 
Oriolus galbula, Linn. 

From the island of Cerigo, Mediterranean. Presented by Capt. 
Thomas Graves, R.N. 

Saxicola rubetra, Bechst. 

" Malė. Shot in a garden on the 9th of November 1843. Fe- 
male. Shot on the Jebel mountains May 1843." 

Saxicola Deserti, Riipp. 

" Shot at Sokna by G. B. Gagliuffi, Esq., March 1843. Food, ants 
and other small insects." 

Saxicola (Enanthe, Gould. 

Two specimens. Shot by G. B. Gagliuffi, Esq. at Sokna, March 
1843, and one in the autumn of 1843. 

Saxicola .■' 

This is apparently a new species, nearly allied to S. cachinnans, 
Temm., but I defer describing it until more specimens are received. 

" Malė. Shot in the Wadi Belkashim. Sent from Fezzan in the 
autumn of 1843 by G. B. Gagliuffi, Esq." 

Saxicola ? 

" A young bird, shot upon the Jebel mountains June 1843. Ap- 
pears to belong to an undescribed species." 

Phcenicura ruticilla, Swains. 

" Malė. Shot by G. B. Gagliuffi, Esq. at Sokna, March 1843." 

Curruca cinerea, Bechst. 

" Sent from Fezzan during the autumn of 1843 by G. B. Gagliuffi, 
Esq." 

Curruca melanocephala, Lath. 

" Malė. Shot in a garden on the 9th of November 1843. Eye- 
lids orange-red." 

Curruca orphea, Gould. 

" Shot in Owaniyeh valley on the Jebel mountains 5th of May 
1843. Malė. Totai length 6"7 inches: food beetles: eyes pale 
straw-yellow, with dilated black pupils : lives among rushes. It had 
the largest testes I ever observed in any bird of its size ; they were 
O' 7 of an inch long, and equal in raagnitude to its gizzard." 

Salicaria Phragmitis, Selb. 

" Shot on the Jebel mountains May 1843." 

Salicaria galactotes, Gould. 

" Malė. Songster. Food, minute grasshoppers, insects, &c. Totai 
length 7^ inches ; bill dusky brown, legs light brown ; testicles white 
and very large, each being nearly equal in size to its gizzard. Habits 
shy. This lovely bird, whenever it perches upon a branch, wags its 
tail likę a Motacilla." 



66 

Malurus Acacice ? Rūpp. 

" Female. Shot by G. B. Gagliuffi, Esq., betvveen Tarhona and 
Benoleed. Food, ants." 

Motacilla negieda, Gould. Budytes negieda, Cuv. 

" Sent from Fezzan during the autumn of 1843 by G. B. Gagliuffi, 
Esq." 

Anthus pratensis, Bechst. 

" Malė. Shot on the 30th of October 1843." 

Alauda arvensis, Linn. 

" Shot on the 30th of November 1843, in the vicinity of Lake 
Tajoora, -n'here they were collected into large flocks in the stubble- 
fields, apparently migrating. They were very shy." 

Alauda brachydactyla, Temm. 

" Malė and female. Shot by G. B. Gagliuffi, Esq. at Sokna in 
March 1843." 

Alauda cristata ? Linn. 

" Samsoon Lark. Very common at times. Shot in May } 1842." 

Pyrgita domestica į Cuv. 

Two very pretty varieties ; one nearly white, but retaining the 
black throat. " Malė. Sent by G. B. Gagliuffi, Esq., March 1843." 

The other pale cinnamon. " Sent from Fezzan during tlie autumn 
of 1843 by G. B. Gagliuffi, Esq." 

Cuculus canorus, Linn. 

" Shot either in June or July 1843." 

Perdix petrosa, Lath. 

" Killed in December 1842. Very common all over the country, 
frequenting ravines, hills, and all places \vhere they can find cover, 
and often met \vith even in our gardens : flies in coveys : a shy bird : 
used as food by the natives, though its flesh is dry and without fla- 
vour. Its heart is so small that it does not exceed that of a sparro\v." 

Otis Houbara, Linn. 

" Malė. Houbara. Caught by falcons on the 23rd of March 1843. 
Totai length 28^ inches ; stomach capacious, but thin ; distended 
with bits of vegetable matter, likę portions of green dates." 

Cursorius Isabellinus, Meyer. 

" Malė. Shot at Tripoli. This is probably an inhabitant of the 
inland lakęs of Africa, for it makes its first appearance \vith us during 
the months of July and August, and quits us again for the winter. 
It frequents pools and other moist situations, \vhere it occasionally 
is seen in astonishing numbers. A shy bird, and reckoned good 
cating." 

Ardea cinerea, Linn. 

" Brought by an Arab 14th of March 1843. Malė. Totai length 
.53^ inches : eyes of a sulphur-yellow colour ; bill bright yellow ; legs 
light brown with dusky claws." 



67 

Ardea garzetta, Linn. 

From Cerigo. Presented by Capt. Thoraas Graves, K.N. 

Ardea comata, Pall. 

From Cerigo. Presented by Capt. Thoraas Graves. R.N. 

/Jis Falcinellus, Temm. 

From Cerigo. Presented by Capt. Thomas Graves, K. M. 

Gallimla chlor opus, hath. r^ n f< 

" Sent from Fezzan during the autumn of 1843 by G. ti. Uag- 
liuffi, Esq." 

" Sent from Fezzan during the autumn of 1843 by G. B. GagliufE, 

Esq." 

Limosa melanura. Leisi. 

" Tripoli, June or July 1843." 

Himantopus melanopterus , Meyer. 

"Tripoli June or July 1843," and an apparently young bird. 
" Shot atTajoora Lake Ist of December 1843." AndUvo specimens 
from Cerigo, presented by Capt. Thomas Graves, R.N. 

Charadrius pluvialis, Linn. n 4. ^ ^r ;t= 

"Young female? Totai length 13-3 mches. Contents of its 
gizzard insects, grass and pebbles. Shot on the 17th of Noyember 
1843. Said to be common on the shore to the westward of the town. 

Charadrius hiaticula, Linn. 

" Female. Shot on the oth of December 1843. ^Legs pale orange- 
red. Common along the sea-beach in December." 

Tringa variabilis, Meyer. ^^ 

" Shot 24th of December 1842, on the sea-side. 

A beautiful specimen of Siliąuaria anguina formed a part of this 
donation. 



68 



April 23, 1844. 

"Williain Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A continuation of Mr. Sylvanus Hanley's paiier on new Tellina was 
read, containing the following descriptions : — 

Tellina sincera. Tel. testd T. carnarise shnillhnd, sed majore, 
lutiore, compressd et albidd ; striis tenuioribus ; ligamento vald'c 
anglisto ; natibus pauluUim ad latus anticum spectantibus ; margine 
ventrali tantimi subarcuato ; denlibiis lateralibus conspicuis, sub- 
<Equidistantibus . Long. 1-20; latv 1'40 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming, Metcalfe. 

Extremely likę T. carnaria, but larger, broader, and raore flattened. 
The obliąue striae are minute, and almost entirely disappear in aged 
specimens. 

Tellina Senegalensis. Tel. testd T. splendidse similUmd, sed 
striis sulcisąue crilioribus magisctie confertis ; extremitate etiam 
posticd, striis arcuatis obliqiiis in utrdgiie vulvithi, ornatd ; supcr- 
ficie internd purptired, albo postici biradiatd. Long. O'BO ; lat. 1 
poU. 
Hab. Senegal. 

An extremely common shell, bearing some slight resemblance to 
curnaria, and has probably been hitherto neglected, from its close 
approximation to the splendida of Anton. 

Tellina incarnata. Tel, testd obovatd, aubobligud, inccąuilutcrali, 
ventricosd, solidd, incarnatd aut albido-rosed, impolitd ; striis ele- 
vatis concenfricis tenuissimis, strias radiantes elevatas conferlis- 
sime deciissantibiis ; margine ventrali arcuato, postice stirsiim 
accliviore ; dorsali untice declivi et prope nates puiihilitm incitrvato, 
jmstice elevatiore subarcuato et siibito decUnante; ligamento infosso; 
siiperficie internd flavescente, margines versits subrosed; dentibus 
lateralibus maximis. Long. O' 70 ; lat. 0*95 poli. 
Hab. San Nicholas, Zebu ; sandy mud, low water. 
This graceful species is allied in sculpture to the deciissata of 
Lamarck, but the shape and colouring easily distinguish it. In 
almost every adult specimeu the tips of the beaks are chalky \vhite, 
the umbones yellow, and the ligamental edge rosy. 

Tellina Lyra. Tel, testd ovali, tenui, compressd, nitidiusculd, 
albd, striis concentricis elevatis ornatd, interstitiis Icevigatis ; tnar- 
gine ventrali ad utramque extremitatem arcuato, medio convexius- 
culo ; dorsali postice ultiore, convexo satisgue decUnante, antice 
prope lunulam excavatam, aut horizontali ant leviter acclivi ; latere 
antico paululitm longiore, rotundato ; extrcmitate posticd obtusd ; 



69 

natibus acutis, prominentibus ; flexurd obsoletd ; dentibus latera- 
libus distinctis, antico approccimato, postico parvo, remoiiore. 
Long. 1-80; lat, 2-60 poli. 
Hab. Tumbez, Peru. 

This most exqui8ite shell will probably prove ineąuivalve, but as I 
have never met ivith any but left vai ves, I can only judge so from 
analogy. Although very difFerent in shape, its texture and tlie ex- 
cavated dorsal areas remind us of Burnetti. The ventral fold is obso- 
lete, and the situation of the umbonal ridge is indicated by a linear 
carina, which is only separated from the dorsal edge by a narrow 
concavity. 

Tellina Philippinarum. Tel. testu ovatd aut subovatd, tenui, 

subaguilaterali, intus ejctusgue candidd, nitidd, concentrice ei tenv- 

issime striatd ; margine ventruli arcuato, posiice sursūni acclivi ; 

dorsali antico brevi, recto, subdeclivi ; lutere postico subcunei- 

formi ; ligamento prominulo ; extremitate anticd obtusd ; cardine 

dente laterali (in junioribus subobsoleto) antico subapproximato . 

Long. 0-70; lat. 1 poli. 

Hab. St. Nicholas, isle of Zebu, and Jimmamailan, isle of Negros. 

This shell, which appears to be common throughout the Philippine 

Islands, reminds us by its shape of the T. solidula. It is rather vari- 

able in its proportions, and but rarely attains the assigned dimen- 

sions. In aged specimens the vicinity of the umbones is usually of 

a flesh-colour or tavvny orange. 

Tellina Listeri. Tel. testd obovatd, solidd, ventricosd aut sub- 
venlricosd, <Equilaterali, ylabrd, eitus intusąue candidd ; margine 
ventrali medih subrecto ; dorsali antice arcuato paululumque de- 
clivi, postice recto, declivi ; latere antico dilatato, obtuse rotundato ; 
postico obtusissime biangulato ; ligamento magno, infosso ; natibus 
obtusis ; umbonibus plerumgue subplanulatis ; cardine dente late- 
rali antico subapproximato. Long. 2"3 ; lat. 3" poli. 
Hab. Senegal. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

This species appears to be represented in Lister's ' Historia Con- 
chyliorum,' plate 288. lig. 235. Although in general shape it is 
approached by many of its section (Tellina w'ith a single lateral tooth), 
its superior size and soliditj' rendcr it remarkable. 

Tellina pumila. Tel. testd T. Philippinarum simillimd, sed an- 
gustiore ; margine ventrali medih subrecto ; dorsali utringue recto 
aut subconcavo, antice paiiluliim declivi, latere postico cuneiformi ; 
margine antico recto, verticali. Long. O'GO ; lat. 090 poli. 
Hab. Valparaiso ; sandy mud, from seven to thirty fathoms. 
Easily to be confused \vith T. Philippinarum, but is decidedly nar- 
rower and the margins less convex. The front dorsal edge, which 
is longer and less sloping than in that species, forras an angle with 
the straight and direct anterior margin. 

Tellina Culter. Tel. testd parvd, ovatd, intEquilaterali, tenuius- 
culd, convexd, nitidd, intus extusque aurantio-rosed, lavigatd į 



70 

margine ventrali antice arcuato, postice sursum accUvi ; dorsali 
antici magis minusve convexo satisįue declivi, postice recto et valde 
declivi ; latere antico producto, ad extremitatem ohtuse rotundato ; 
postico acuminato ; natibus acutis ; Ugamento vix prominulo ;flexurd 
ventrali obsoletd ; cardine dente laterali antico parvo, approxi- 
mato. Long. 0-35 ; lat. 0-55 poli. 
Hab. Cagayan, province of Misamis, Mindanao ; twenty-five fa- 

tlioms, sandy mud. 

This species is closely allied to the tenuis of our own shores, but 

may be distinguished by its acuminated extremity. In young speci- 

mens there are indications of concentric strije near the front of the 

ventral margin. 

Tellina Corbuloides. Tel. testd subovali, inceguivalvi, solidd, sub- 
ventricosd, subleevigatd, roseo-incarnatd (intus plenimque aurantio- 
rubru) ; margine ventrali sinistrce valvula, ultra marginėm convex- 
iusculum alterius.prominente ; latere antico breviore, obttise acumi- 
nato ; exlremitate posticd rotiindatd ; ared dorsali posticd in 
adultis subplanulatd ; natibus obtusis ; flexurd ventrali distinctd; 
cardine dente laterali, parvo, approximato, antico. 

Var. Testd extus intusgue candidd. Long. 0*80 ; lat. 1-20 poli. 

Hab. Catbalonga, isle of Samar ; ten fathoms, soft mud. 

The general appearance of this shell gives us the idea of a Corbula. 
It is covered when fresh \vith a thin fugacious epidermis, which re- 
flects the most brilliant prismatie colours. 

Tellina Cycladiformis. Tel. testd parvd, rotundato-subtrigond , 
tenui, ventricosd, intus extusque incarnatd aut pallide rosed, sub- 
leevigatd ; margine ventrali convexo ; dorsali utrinque declivi, con- 
vexiuscttlo ; latere antico rotundato et paullb breviore; extremitate 
posticd obtuse subangtdatd ; Ugamento prominulo ; flexurd costdgue 
umbonali obsoletis ; cardine dente laterali parvo, approximato, an- 
tico. Long. 0-20; lat. 0-25. 

Hab. St. Nicholas, Zebu. 

Not unlike pisiformis, but destitute of obliąue strise, 

Tellina insculpta. Tel. testd oblongo-elongatd, solidiusculd, com- 
pressd, <equilaterali, cxtus intusgue candidd; suleis confertis con- 
centrice exaratd, striisque te7iuissi7nis radiantibus (prcBsertitn pos- 
tice) decussatd ; margine ventrali elongato, subrecto ; dorsali 
utringue subrecto, subdeclivi ; extremitate posticd subbiangulatd ; 
flexurd ventrali distinctd; cardine dente laterali quamplurimum 
approximato, antico. Long. 1 ; lat. 2 poli. 
Hab. Chiriqui, West Columbia; sandy mud, three fathoms. 
This uniąue and elegant shell possesses the shape and general ap- 
pearance of a Psammobia. The single anterior lateral tooth is so 
olose to the primaiy ones, that the hinge appears to be composed of 
three cardinal teeth in the left valve. Beyond the almost obsolete 
umbonal ridge the concentric sulci become broken into small scales. 
The delicate radiating strise are quite obsolete in front. The shell 
seems slightly inequivalve. 



71 

Tellina iN^dUALis. Tel. testd subovatd, valde intEquilaterali, 
solidd, convexd, candidd, tenuiter striatd ; striis superne obliquis, 
inferne concentricis , flexuosis ; supra costam umbonalem inconspi- 
cuam, rugis erectis jlexuosis, asperatd ; margine ventrali convex- 
issimo ; dorsali antice subincurvato et valde declivi, postice brevi, 
recto, subdeclivi ; latere antico producto, ad extremitatem attenuato, 
rotundato ; extremitate posticd obtusd ; tiatibus acutis ; lunuld di- 
stinctd ; superficie internd candidd, aut flavescente ; cardine dente 
laterali magno, subremoto, antico. Long. 0"90; lat. r20 poli. 
Hab. Ceylon. Mus. Cuming. 

An unique specimen of this curious shell is in the museum of Mr. 
Cuming, aad reminds us in many particulars of the Tellina Gargadia ; 
but tliat species is neither so narrow nor so greatly ineąuilateral, its 
obliąue strise do not extend over the posterior portion of the shell, 
and its hinge is clearly provided \vith t\vo lateral teeth. The elevated 
flexuous wrinkles radiate down the umbonal slope in three distinct 
lines. 

Tellina Felix. Tel. testd subovali, solidiusciild, valde incBcuilate- 
rali, convexiusculd, nitidd, Icevigatd, inius extusque rosed ; margine 
ventrali vix convexiusculo ; dorsali antice vix declivi, convexo, 
postice valde declivi ; latere postico brevissimo, obtuse subtruncato, 
inferne subangulato ; extrsmitate anticd rottindatd ; costd timbonali 
et flexurd ventrali subobsoletis ; cardine dente laterali magno, 
approximato, antico. Long. 0'38 ; lat. 0"80 poil. 

Hab. Panama; sandy mud, six to ten fathoms. 

This elegant little shell approximates in form to the British Dona- 
cina, but difFers as ■well in colouring as in sculpture and teeth. 

Tellina Columbiensis. Tel. testd ellipticd aut oblongo-ellipticd, 

compressiusculd, subtenui, lavigatd, intus extusque albidd, epider- 

mide tenuissimd, fulvo-cinered indutd ; margine ventrali medib 

convexiusculo, ulrinque arcuato ; dorsali utrinque convexo, antice 

paullh, postice satis declivi ; latere antico longiore, rotundato ; 

extreniitate posticd acuminatd ; flexurd subobsoletd ; dcntibus pri- 

mariis minintis, lateralibus nullis. Long. 1*70 ; iat. 3 poli. 

Hab. Monte Christi, West Coiumbia ; sandy mud, tvvelve fathoms. 

Its more compressed valves and minute teeth ■will distinguish it 

from the few species ■vvhich are allied to it in outline. The hinge- 

margin is very short and rather broad . The general shape is that of 

T. Soverbii. 

Tellina Souleyeti. Tel. testd. oblongd, tenuiusculd, convexo- 
depressd, intus extusque albidd, Icevigatd ; margine ventrali magis 
minusve convexo ; dorsali antice convexiusculo et subdeclivi, pos- 
tice subrecto aut subretuso et valde declivi; fleiurd costdque um- 
bonali distinctis ; ligamento infosso ; natibus acutis ; latere antico 
longiore, rotundato ; extremitate posticd subrostratd ; dentibus 
lateralibus nullis. Long. 0'75 ; lat. 1-25 poli. 

Hab. St. Nicholas, Zebu ; sandy mud at low water. 

I liave nanied this species in honour of my friend M. Souleyet, 



72 

whose investigation of the Pteropoda promises to be of high interest 
to natūrai scieuce. 

Tellina undulata. Td. testd oblongd, tenuissimd, compressd, 
impolitd, inius extusqite albidd, subohlique et concentrice undulata ; 
margine ventrali convejco ; dorsali antice subrecto et vix declivi, 
postice incurvato, satisque declivi ; latere postico brevi, attenuato, 
rosirato ; fleivrd costdque umbonali distinctis ; natibus acutis ; 
dentibus lateralibus nullis. Long. 040 ; lat. O' 80 poli. 
Hab. St. Elena, West Columbia; sandy tnud, six fathoms. 
The obliąue waves are chiefly conspicuous in front of the shell, 
and become concentric posteriorly. This character is so distinct 
that the species cannot possibly be confounded with any of this genus. 
The general shape is that of crucigera ; the fold is very distinct and 
the ligament sunken. 

Tellina micans. Tel. testd subovali, lenui, nitidissimd, compressd, 
nived, lavigatd ; margine ventrali convexo ; dorsali antice convex- 
iusculo, subhorizontali ; latere antico longiore, ad extremilatem 
rotundato aut obtuso ; postico cuneiformi ; flexurd costdque umbo- 
nali obsoletis ; natibus obtusis ; dentibus lateralibus nullis. Long. 
0-50; lat. 1 poli. 
Hab. Catbalonga, isle of Samar, and Bias, isle of Negros. 
Bears a close resemblance to the margarilacea of Lamarck, but 
that species is not devoid of lateral teeth. It is a glassy-looking 
shell and highly polished ; the surface too is sometimes slightly opa- 
lescent. 

Tellina cuspis. Tel. testd ovatd, solidiusculd, convezd, nitidius- 
culd, rosed, antice et infernt substriatd; margine ventrali arcuato ; 
dorsali utrinque subdeclivi, antice convexo, postice recto aut subre- 
tušo ; flexurd costdque umbonali distinctis ; latere antico paululūm 
longiore, rotundato ; postico subacuminato, subrostrato ; dentibus 
lateralibus nullis. Long. r20 ; lat. rfc5 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming, Walton, Metcalfe. 

A beautiful shell, \vhose general appearance is that of an abbre- 
viated specimen of the T. depressa of Lamarck, \vhich latter mušt 
resume its prior appellation of incarnata, being decidedly the species 
so designated by Linnseus. 

" Descriptions oi Marginelhc collected during the voyage of H. M. S. 
Sulphur, and from the coUection of Mr. Cuming," by Mr. Hinds. 

Marginella, Lamarck. 

Section I. Pheenospira. 

Marginella piperata. Mar. testd obovatd, maculis parvis nigris 
et albidis, interdum longitudinaliier coalitis, confertim ornatd ; 
spira retuso-conicd, oblusd ; an/ractu ultimo rotundate angulato ; 
spird lined unicd comitatd ; labro incrassato, extus nigro maculato, 
intUs IcEvi ; columelld quadriplicatd. Axis 9 lin. 

Hab. r 

Cab. Cuming. 



73 

Marginella scRii'TA. Mor. testd parvd, reiuse ovatd, cinered, 
lineis nigris longitudinalibus valde angulatis (zic-zac) sparsi?n 
maculatis ; spird retusissimd ; lahro inttis denticulato ; columelld 
quinqueplicatd, duabus superioribtis transversis. Axis 3^ lin. 

Hab. Straits of Macassar ; in eleven to fifteen fathoms, coarse sand. 

Cab. Belcher. 

Marginella livida. Mar. testd ovatd, pallide carulescente, ob- 
solete trifasciatd ; spird retusd ; labro albido, valde incrassato, 
inttis leevi ; columelld late callosd, supra spiram ascendente, quadri- 
plicald. Axis 6į lin, 
Hab. Cuba. 
Cab. Griiner. 

Shell ovate, dull pale blue, indistinctly banded by a darker colour ; 
the face covered by a white callosity spreading over the columella, 
ascending along the spire, and running into the labrum, which is 
thus thickened even beyond what is usual ; the back shouidered and 
slightly angular. 

It is to the liberality of M. Griiner that I am indebted for the op- 
portunity of including this shell in these descriptions. 

Marginella nodata. Mar. testd elongate ovatd vel subfusiformi, 
luteo-olivaced, lineis nigris subflexuosis longitrorsum ornatd, punc- 
tis concoloribus conspersis ; spird elongatd, inconspicue plico- 
costatd ; labro incrassato, intils denticulato ; columelld ąuadripli- 
catd. Axis 10 lin. 
Hab. Cape Blanco, west coast of Africu ; in from twelve to fifteen 
fathoms, among sand. 
Cab. Belcher. 

With the general aspect and character of M. Cleryii, but .somewhat 
larger, more broadly shouidered, the longitudinal lines studded at 
intervals with dark spots, and •vvhich are somewhat regularly disposed 
in the transverse direction ; and lastly, the spire is less elongated and 
furnished vnt\x rather indistinet pliciform ribs. 

Marginella musica, Mar. testd ovatd, cinereo-olivaced, lineis 
nigris transversim ornatd; spird retuso-conicd ; labro paululum. 
incrassato, intUs leevi ; columelld quadriplicatd. Axis 8 lin. 
Hab. Cape Blanco, west coast of Africa; in thirty-five fathoms, 
sand. 

Cab. Belcher. 

Readily distinguished from any species hitherto recorded by the 
transverse, somewhat distant, and regularly disposed dark lines. 

Marginella Belcheri. Mar. testd concinnk ovatd, albd, lineis 
eleganter punctatis raris,frequentioribus, velconfertis transversim 
dispositis, interdum albo fasciatd ; spird mediocri, conicd ; labro 
incrassato, albo, prope medium subdilatato, inttis lavi ; columelld 
quadriplicatd. Axis 9 lin. 

Hab. Cape Blanco, west coast of Africa ; in from twelve to fifteen 
fathoms. 

Cab. Belcher. 



74 

This very beautiful species displays considerable variatibn in the 
character of its markings. In some individuals the exterior is nearly 
vvhite, \vith a fe\v scattered transverse lines, composed of elegant 
minute dottings, and these are perhaps the older shells ; from this 
they gradually become more and raore covered with them, till in some 
the whole surface is ąuite darkened. In this latter case irregular 
lines become conspicuous in the longitudinal direction. In many 
specimens the transverse lines are separated by intervals, \vhich per- 
mit the ground-colour of the shell to sho\v through likę milk-white 
bands. The outer lip seems in all cases to retain its uniform white 
colour, and at its upper part is slightly emarginate, but becomes 
thickened at and a little beneath the centre. 

Margixella sapotilla. Mar. testd elongate ovatd, /ere subcy- 
lindraceo-ovatd ; vinered vel glaucescente, concolore ; spird retuso- 
conicd ; aperturd intus fuscd ; lahro incrassato, recto, albo, postice 
fvlvo, intiis lavi ; columelld guadrip/icatd. Axis 11 lin. 
Hab. Panama ; in from five to thirteen fathoms, sandy mud. 
Cab. Belcher et Cuming. 

The American analogue of M. ccerulescens, or more correctly M. 
prunuin, than •ft'hich it is of smaUer size, more cyliiidncal in shape, 
vv'hence result its straight outer lij), less fullness and roundness of the 
shoulders, but without any disposition to.that obscure banding which 
is visible in some specimens of M.primum. Both species present a 
vich bro\vn colour within the aperture, and in general appearance 
they are remarkably alike. 

Marginella coNSTRicrA. Mar. testd albidd, obscure trifasciatd ; 
spird retiise conicd ; anfractu ultimo prope medium coarctato ; labro 
incrassato, medio i/iciirvato, intits Icevi, siipenie ad spiram adscen- 
dente ; columelld guadriplicatd. Axis S lin. 

Hab. ? 

Cab. Cuming. 

Marginella nivosa. ^far. testu ovatd, cinereo-fuscd ; maculis 
lacteis Inceratis siiper lineas longitudinales dispositis ; spird retusd ; 
labro siibrecto, incrassato, albo, ad spiram adscendenle, intus infra 
medium Iceviter denticttlato ; columelld quadriplicatd. Axis 9 lin. 

Hab. ? 

Cab. Cuming. 

A fuU-shaped oval shell of a fa\vu colour, with longitudinal lines, 
as if marking the periods of growth, on which are aggregated small 
irregular milk-\vhite spots ; these are generallj' clustered on the lines, 
but a fe\v occupy the intervals between them. The outer lip is of 
an uniform white, and beneath its middle are a few rather indistinct 
denticulations ; above it ascends to the spire, %vhich it renders cal- 
lous on that side. \Vithin it is of a pale fawn-colour. 

Marginella pruinosa. Mar. testd ovatd, coarctatd, albidd, obso- 
lete trifasciatd, maculis parvis lacteis conspersd ; spird conico- 
retusd, subcallosd ; lahro incrassato, pauhUim incurvato, intis 



75 

Iteviter denticulato ; aperturd angustd ; columelld ųuadriplicatd. 
Axi£. C lin. 
Hab. West Indies. 
Cab. Cuming. 

In some respects similar to the foregoing, but, in the place of its 
full rounded form, this is contracted towards the middle of the body- 
whorl. The fasciation is constant cn all the specimens, but ahvays 
very faint and indistinct, and the small milk-white spots are scattered 
with little regularity over the surface. 

Marginella austealis. Mar. testd retuse ovatd, alhidd vel pal- 
lide corned ; spird conico-retusd ; lahro incrassato, poni albido, 
intus l<evi; columelld quadriplicatd, versus hasin albo fasciatd. 
Axis 3^ lin. 
Hab. North-west coast of Australia ; in coral sand at low water. 
Mr. Dring, R.N. 
Cab. Cuming. 

The characters of this little shell arė ąuite unobtrusive, if we ex- 
cept the white base of the columella; and this may serve to distinguish 
it from any species hitherto on record. 

Margixella vitrea. Mar. testd coniformi, hyalind, nitidd ; spird 
valde retusd; labro paululum incrassato et refleaio, intiis lavi ; 
columelld plicis guatuor gracilibus. Axis 3 lin. 
Hab. West coast of Africa. 
Cab. Belcher. 

Marginella fusiformis. Mar. testd fusiformi.albidd vel pallidi 
corned; spird elatd, obtusd ; anfractu ultimo gradatim attenuato ; 
labro paululum incrassato, intiis Icevi ; aperturd lineari ; columelld 
ąuadriplicatd. Axis 3 lin. 
Hab. Straits of Malacca ; in seventeen fathoms, mud. 
Cab. Belcher. 

This species departs so far from the usual outline of the genus as 
to become decidedly fusiform. The recent shell is most probably of 
a delicate horn-colour, though the prevailing number of our speci- 
mens are \vhite, shining and glossy, and, there seems little doubt, 
have lošt their original colour. 

The following species belongs to a section of this genus, which 
might \vith much propriety be separated as a subgeneric group, under 
the name of Volvarina. They are all dehcate and rather thin shells, 
with an apparent spire, the labrum never varixed, and usually not 
even thickened, with a sharp edge, ahvays bent in on the aperture. 
The columellar folds are nearly constantly four in number, slender. 
and more or less obliąue. M. avena, Valenciennes, is a typical spe- 
cies. 

Marginella nitida (Volvarina). Mar. testd elongati ovatd, 
fuscd, politd, nitidd, concolore ; spird conicd, obtusd ; labro tenui, 
acuto, inflexo. pallido ; columelld cuadriplicatd. Axis 4 lin. 

Hab. ? 

Cab. Cuming. 



76 

Section II. Cryptospira. 

Marginella tricincta. Mar. testd obeso-ovatd, cinereo-carules- 
cente.fusco trifasciatd, lahro incrassato, luteo, intus leevi; colu- 
melld sexplicatd, ad basin albd ; plicis tribus superioribus trans- 
versis, supremd paululum obsoletd. Axis 11 lin. 

Hab. Straits of Macassar ; in eleven fathoms, coarse sand. 

Cab. Belcher. 

Marginella blanda. Mar. testd ovatd, tenui, sardonychid, obsO' 
lete fasciatd ; spird vix occultd, pallidd ; labro subiticrassato et 
subreflexo, intits leevi ; columelld albidd, sexpUcatd, plicis superi- 
oribus evanidis. Axis 9 lin. 

Hab. Cape Blanco, west coast of Africa ; in twelve to fifteen 
fathoms. 

Marginella imbricata. Mar. testd ovatd, albidd, maculis rufis 
cuadratis prope medium unifasciatd, aliter punctis transversis or- 
dinate vestitd ; apice puncticulato ; labro reflexo medio et cum basi 
columellm ustulato ; columelld subcallosd,quadriplicatd, Axis 5 lin. 
Hab. Acapulco. Col. Moffat. 
Cab. Cuming. 

In one specimen the tessellated band wh!ch encircles the body- 
whorl is broken up iuto a number of small spots and punctations, so 
that though these markings present usually a nearly square shape, 
they are most probably disposed to vary. The shell in some respects 
approaches M. interrupta. 

Marginella muralis. Mar. testd elongate ovatd, fere subcylin- 
draced, lacted, nitidd ; maculis pallide rufis guadratis transversis 
ornatd, interdum albo marginatis , majoribus per series iręs dispo- 
sitis; labro vix incrassato, subinfiexo, intiis sulcato ; columelld 
plicis tribus inferioribus distinctis, obliquis, alteris superioribus 
obsoletis transversis. Axis 5^ lin. 

Hab. ? 

Cab. Cuming. 

This is a remarkably pretty glittering species, and the specific 
name seems justified by the appearance of the pale red regularly- 
disposed sųuare markings, which resemble the extremities of the 
bricks ifa a wall. The labrum is not merely toothed w'ithin, but di- 
stinctly sulcate. It approaches M. Kiener's M. maculosa, but the 
omation is quite of a difFerent character, and it has no angular ele- 
vation on the body-whorl. 

Marginella sagittata. Mar. testd retuso-ovatd, pallidd, lineis 
rufis sagittatis transversis, alteris longitudinalibus confluentibus, 
ornatd; apice puncticulato ; labro subinfiexo, intiis leevi ; columelld 
vix ąuadriplicatd. Axis 5 lin, 

Hab. Brazils : Humphreys. 

Cab. Cuming. 

Shell shortened, ovate, the omation consisting of reddish brown, 
transverse, arrow-headed markings, disposed in regular series and 



77 

connected by ■vvaved longitudinal lines. The labrum is not the least 
thickened, and slightly inflexed, and the superior fold of the columella 
is scarcely distinguishable. 

" On the evidence of the former existence of Struthious Birds 
distinct from the Dodo in the islands near Mauritius," by H. E. 
Strickland, Esq., M. A. 

It is well known that Leguat, a French Protestant refugee, who 
for more than two years (from 1691 to 1693) resided in the island of 
Rodriguez, near Mauritius, described a bird under the name of le 
Solitaire, which Latham considered to be allied to, but distinct from, 
the Dodo, and which Gmelin denominated Didus solitarius. Later 
autliors have supposed Leguat's bird to be either altogether fictitious, 
or to be founded on an imperfect description of the true Dodo, Didus 
ineptus, Linn., of whose former existence in the island of Mauritius 
there is now no dispute. Considering, however, that Leguat was a 
man of education, and that the ręst of bis narrative bears intrinsic 
proofs of veracity, there is no reason to doubt the general accuracy 
of his description of the Solitaire ; and if this be admitted, it follows 
that his bird was distinct, geneįically as well as specifically, from the 
Dodo. 

The Solitaire, as described and figured by Leguat, mušt have dif- 
fered from the Dodo in the following respects : — 

1 . The beak is stated to resernble that of a turkey, except in 
being rather more curved. Leguat's figure corresponds with this 
description, and exhibits a moderate-sized gallinaceous-formed beak, 
totally unlike that Avhich we know the Dodo to have possessed. 

2. The Solitaire is said to have had hardly any tail, whereas the 
Dodo was depicted with an arched tail, likę that of the ostrich. 

3. The Solitaire is said to be longer in the leg (" plūs haut mon- 
tėe") than a turkey, ■while the Dodo was a very short-legged bird, 
as shown by the specimens in the British and Oxford Museums. 

4. The Solitaire carried its neck erect, and this member was said 
to be longer in proportion than that of a turkey. But the Dodo is 
depicted with a short, thick and curved neck, correspoading with the 
massive proportions of its head. 

5 . Though unable to fly, the wings of the Solitaire appear to have 
been more developed than in the Dodo, as they vi^ere enlarged at the 
end into a knob the size of a musket-ball, with which the bird at- 
tacked its enemies. 

6. The female Solitaire is stated to have a kind of band (probably 
composed of feathers) at the upper part of the beak, resembling a 
widow's cap ; but in the Dodo the whole face ■was naked. 

It seems then sufficiently evident, that as late as the year 1693 the 
island of Rodriguez Avas inhabited by a large species of bird distinct 
from the Dodo of Mauritius, and now exterminated. This bird was 
unable to fly ; and Leguat, \vho gives a minute description of its 
habits, mentions the remarkable circumstance that it lays one egg 
on a heap of palm-leaves a foot and a half high, a character which 
possibly indicates an affinity to Tulegalla and the Megapodiincc of 
Australia. 



78 

The Solitaire of Rodriguez seems not to have been mentioned by 
any other author than Leguat, and \ve may presume that the species 
•vvas extenninated Avithin a fevv years after his visit. 

There is evidence however that other apterous birds of this ano- 
malous class formerly existed in the adjacent island of Bourbon. In 
the library of the Zoological Society is a manuscript presented by 
that active naturalist the late C. Telfair, Esq., who during his resi- 
dence in Mauritius collected many valuable scientific and historical 
documents. This MS. is entitled ' Journal et Relation des Voyages 
faits par le S"" D. B. aux iles Dauphine ou Madagascar et de Bour- 
bon ou Mascarenne.' 1669. The author, who seems to have been 
a very intelligent observer, speaking of the birds of the island of 
Bourbon, has the foUovving passage : — 

" Oiseaux de terre et leurs noms. 

" Solitaires : ces oiseaux sont nommes ainsi, parce qu'ils vont tou- 
jours seuls. Ils sont gros comme une grosse Oye, et ont le plumage 
blanc, noir a rextrėmite des ailes et de la queue. A la queue ii y a 
des plumes approchantes de celles d'Autruche, ils ont le col long, et 
le bec fait comme celui des bėcasses, mais plūs gros, les jambes et 
pieds comme poulets d'Inde. Cet oiseau se prend a la course, ne 
volant que bien peu. 

" Oiseaux bleus, gros comme les Solitaires, ont le plumage tout 
bleu, le bec et les pieds rouges, faits comme pieds de poules, ils ne 
volent point, mais ils courent extrėmement vite, tellement qu'un 
chien a peine d'en attraper a la course ; ils sont trės bons." 

The author then proceeds to describe the wild pigeons and other 
birds of Bourbon. 

It appears then that about the year 1670 the island of Bourbon •vvas 
inhabited by two species of Struthious birds, one of which was called 
Solitaire, and the other Oiseau bleu. The Solitait'e of Bourbon seems 
however to have been distinct from, though probably allied to, the 
Ijird of that name in Rodriguez. Its plumage is stated to have been 
white, with the wings and tail terminated ^vith black, \vhereas Leguat 
describes the Rodriguez bird as greyish and brown. The Bourbon 
species further differed in having a tail similar to that of an ostrich, 
and in the beak being lengthened, " likę that of a woodcock, but 
stouter," in ■ft'hich respect it mušt have reserabled the Apteryx of New 
Zealand. The phrase "ne volant que bien peu" \vould seem to im- 
ply that the bird possessed some powers of flight, though possibly it 
may only mean that when hard pressed the bird aided its progress 
by flapping the \vings, or by springing into the air for a short distance. 

The Oiseaux bleus seem to have been a distinct species both from 
the Dodo and from the Solitaires of Bourbon and of Rodrigutz, and 
to have been wholly unable to fly, but possessed, likę the Anterj^x, 
of great cursorial powers. 

We are then justified in believing, from the relations of authors 
apparentlj' deserving of credit, that the three contiguous islands of 
Mauritius, Bourbon and Rodriguez were formerly inhabited by at 
least four distinct species of birds, deprived, or nearly so, of tlie povver 
of flight, and more nearly allied in structure to the Apteryx of Nevv 
Zealand than to any other exisfing genus of birds. And if the ac- 



79 

count given by Cauche of a tridactylous and apterous bird ia Mau- 
ritius, called Oiseau de Nazarette, be correct, we mušt believe in the 
former existence of a fifth species of the šame anomalous family. 

Nor need we be surprised at the suppositioii that the species allied 
to the Dodo may have been thus numerous, when we recoUect that 
Prof. Owen has already shown that no less than five species of that 
ornithic \vonder, the Dinomis, inhabited New Zealand at a very 
recent date, and were doubtless contemporaries of the still surviving 
Apteryx, Still less should we \vonder at the speedy extinction of 
these birds after man took possession of the Mauritian archipelago. 
Confined to very small islands, unable to escape from their enemies 
by flight, and highly esteemed for food, they soon experienced the 
šame fate as that of the Dinomis, a fate which -vvill shortly overtake 
the unprotected Apteryx*. 

Having thus shown that there is good historical evidence of the 
former existence of several Struthious or Didiforvi birds in the Mau- 
ritian group of islands, we may inąuire whether any actual remains 
of these deceased species are still attainable. On this point I mušt 
be content rather to excite inąuiry than to supply Information. Of 
the Dodo, as is well known, we possess an entire head, and the feet 
of two individuals ; but of the other birds above referred to, no relics 
have yet been identified. M. Quoy, however, assured M. de Blain- 
ville that the bones in the Paris Museum which Cuvier supposed to 
belong to the Dodo, were brought, not from Mauritius, but from 
Rodriguez ; and it is therefore probable, as supposed by M . de Blain- 
ville, that they may have belonged to the SoUtaire of Leguat. There 
are, too, certain bones from Rodriguez presented by Mr. Telfair to 
this Society (Zool. Proceedings, Part I. p. 31) ; and in the Ander- 
sonian Museum at Glasgow there are also some so-called " Dodo's 
bones from Mauritius." Ali these materials should be submitted to 
careful examination ; and ■we may feel confident that if Prof. Owen, 
■who has so skilfuUy demonstrated the affinities of the Dinomis from 
a few fragments of the skeleton, were to take these materials in hand, 
he would soon deduce some valuable results, \vhether positive or 
negative, from the investigation. 

Much light also might probably be thrown on the subject if natu- 
ralists residing in Mauritius, Bourbon and Rodriguez would endea- 
vour to obtain further evidence. The alluvia of streams, the soil on 
the floors of caverns, and even the ancient mounds of rubbish near 
to-wns and villages, should be carefully searched, and every fragment 
of bone preserved. We may hope that the success -vvhich has at- 
tended such researches in New Zealand -vvill stimulate the naturalists 
of Mauritius to similar efForts, and that the Solitaires and Oiseaux 
bleus ■vvill ere long, likę the Dodo and the Dinomis, take their just 
rank in our systems of ornithology. 

* It is probable that in 1693, when Leguat visited Mauritius, the Dodo 
had been extinct a considerable time. He makes no mention of any such 
bird, but remarks " L'ile ėtait autrefois toute remplie d'Oyes et de Canards 
sauvages, de Poules d'eau, de Gelinottes, de Tortues de mer et de terre ; 
mais tout cela est devenu fort rare ;" shovving that at that period, when the 
Dutch had occupled Mauritius for nearly a century, civilization had made 
great inroads on the fauna of the island. 



81 



May 14, 1844. 

Rev. John Kirby in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Walter Elliott, Esq. of Madras to Col. 
Sykes, which was accompanied by a number of skins of animals from 
the Neilgherry Hills and the Camatic. 

At the reąuest of the Chairman, Professor Percy called the atten- 
tion of the Meeting to the following remarks on the management of 
various species of Monkeys in confinement : — 

" Having during the lašt five years paid considerable attention to 
the habits and management of various species of Monkeys, I have 
pleasure in complying with the reąuest of Mr. Frazer, and presenting 
the results of my experience concerning these animals ; apologizing, 
however, for the crude and unconnected style of this communication. 

" 1 . Character of the locality. — I fitted up a capacious hay-loft for 
these animals, arranging the cages on each side. The roof at first 
consisted merely of slates without mortar. The cages -n-ere con- 
structed of an iron grating in front, of -vvood partitions and roof, and 
of a brick wall at the back. The boards composing the roof were 
not rabbeted, so that \varm air could freely escape from the cage 
through the roof. At the upper part of each cage -vvas a close box, 
with an aperture large enough for a monkey to pass through, and a 
door opening extemally and fixed on a slide. By this arrangement 
it was easy thoroughly to scrape and cleanse the floor of the box ; 
every night, for a considerable period, fresh sawdust and straw •vvere 
introduced into each box through the sliding-doors, and the animals 
regularly at the hour of dusk resorted to them, and remained in them 
during the night. Some of them, however, invariably threw out the 
straw. Great care was reąuired to keep the bottom of the box clean. 
I would recommend, that in the event of such an arrangement being 
adopted, the bottom of the box should be made to slide out, and 
that it should be always removed during the day ; and further, that 
a wire door should also be attached to the entrance from within, 
with a view to keep the animals out during the day and to secure 
them within during the night. I think that this arrangement of 
boxes is most applicable for the more delicate species, as those of 
the genus Cehus ; and that for the large monkeys, as Cynocephalus, 
Papio, etc, it is quite superfluous. 

"The gi'eat objection to the preceding plan is the trouble ■which 
it imposes upon the keeper. I am satisfied, however, that for the 
delicate monkeys above mentioned it is -nell adapted during the 
winter months ; it has the advantage of keeping them warm without 
the aid of much ai-tificial heat, -vvhich is at all times in a greater or 
less degree injurious. Of late, not having had any of the delicate 

Nos. CXXXV & CXXXVI.— Proceedings of the Zool. Soc. 



82 

species, but only some individuals of the two genera Papio and Cer- 
copithecus, I have found, as before remarked, that -n-here two or three 
individuals are kept in each cage the arrangement of sleeping-boxes 
is not reąuired. 

" 2. Mode of heating. — For two years during the winter months, 
from November to the beginnmg of April, I employed an Olmsted 
stove, which was kept constantly buming ; since that time I have 
used, -with much more convenience and greater economy, an Arnott 
stove. I have not observed any unpleasant or injurious effects to 
arise from this mode of warming, in conseąuence I believe of the free 
ventilation through the roof. Freąuently during the winter nights 
the thermometer has sunk to the freezing-point. Of one thing I am 
convinced, namely, that a constant temperature is not only not bene- 
ficial, but is highly injurious to animal life. If w'e search through 
nature we do not find on any spot of the globė a uniform tempera- 
ture, and in many regions \vhere monkeys abound the extremes of 
heat and cold are very considerable. We are led then to the con- 
clusion, from H-priori reasoning as well as from practical experience, 
that a condition of uniform temperature, as has been supposed by 
some persons, is not the condition adapted to promote the health of 
monkeys. The object in the construction of a menagerie for mon- 
keys should be to enable these animals as much as possible to keep 
themselves warm, in precisely the šame way as they do in nature ; 
and this may in great measure be effected by adopting the arrange- 
ment of sleeping-boxes, in the manner previously described. During 
the winter nights I have not found it necessary to maintain the tem- 
perature higher than 45° or 50° Fahr., and, during the day, than 56° 
or 60°. 

"3. Food. — I have alv?ays given as much variety as I could obtain 
in the season ; I allow them daily bread and milk, potatoes roasted 
and occasionally raw, onions roasted as vvell as raw, lettuce, carrots, 
and any scraps of food which the house may fumish. In order to 
amuse their minds, if I may be allowed the expression, I direct rice 
or -vvheat to be thrown down amongst the sawdust ; by this means 
they amuse themselves in picking up the grains. Great care is 
always to be taken that the feeble animals obtain their proper pro- 
portion of food : as is well knowTi to those accustomed to the ma- 
nagement of monkeys, the strong t3Tannise greatly over the -vveak, 
and appropriate an undue measure of food to themselves. Keepers 
then should be particularly careful in ensuring to the M-eak monkeys 
their proper allowance ; I have occasionally known some to become 
much emaciated in conseąuence of the tyranny exerted over them. 
I may remark conceming the Marmozet (HapaleJacchus), that spiders 
appear to be beneficial ; the animal eats them vi^ith great avidity. 

" 4. Exercise and amusement. — It is desirable as much as possible 
to induce the monkey to take exercise which is amusing to himself ; 
various expedients may be suggested in the case of different species. 
Small trees -^-hich turn vertically are ■svell adapted to many of the 
Cebus tribe. I am satisfied that amusement is an element of essen- 
tial importance in the successful treatment of monkeys. We shall 



83 

be convinced of the truth of this statement when -vve reflect upon the 
excitable temperament of the monkey and upon his natūrai habits : 
in the forest or on the rocks, roaming and jumping about, ■whether 
in pursuit of food or in the way of frolic and gambols, his mind is 
ever employed and amused. If amusement be withheld from the 
monkey he becoraes desponding, and his health declines in conse- 
quence, just as in the case of man. In the summer there is no diffi- 
culty in providing the reąuired amusements in the open air : I have 
one monkey, a female Cercopithecus radiatus, who for two years 
during the summer consecutively MPas aceustomed to roam at "large 
over all the surrounding premises ; she became a favourite with 
neighbours, -vvho used to encourage her visits. She returned to her 
domicile \vith as much regularity as a common household animal. 

" 5. Catamenia. — I have a Papio leucophcms , which I have had four 
years, which regularly, so far as I have observed, menstruates at in- 
tervals of about six weeks. The labia become enormously swelled 
and protuberant, and during the subsidence of the swelling a san- 
guineous discharge appears. I have also a female Cercopithecus 
radiatus which has occasionally exhibited a discharge of the šame 
character. I have noticed that two individuals of Cercopithecus ra- 
diatus are habitually afFected with a copious mucous discharge from 
the vagina. I have sometimes seen large, transparent, colourless 
clots of mucus evacuated. 

" 6. Lice. — I have occasionally observed small lice, especially about 
the shoulders. I have found the best remedies in cleanliness and 
sulphur ointment. 

" 7. Diseases. — Although I have had seventeen living monkeys 
at one time I have only lošt one, of phthisis pulmonalis ; and in the 
case of that one (Papio Rhtesus) I am satisfied that the disease had 
far advanced before he came into my possession. I lošt one, which 
had previously belonged to an itinerant sho-wman (Cercopithecus 
Mona), of tubercular ulceration of the mucous membrane of the intes- 
tines ; the liver, and, what is rare in man, the spleen also contained 
tubercular deposit. I have lošt some from acute diarrhcea. In a 
Barbary Ape (Tnuus sylvanus) which I lošt I found only congestion 
of the vessels of the pia mater and a small hydated cyst at the base 
of the brain ; he had just arrived at the period of cutting the canine 
teeth. A Cercopithecus niber (Patas or Senegal monkey) died con- 
vulsed ; it was examined by my friend Mr. Goodsir of Edinburgh, 
■who found no appreciable lesion. A brown Cebus, Tvhich I kept 
during two years, died of moUities ossium. Severai of the bones 
were broken, and, \vhat is remarkable, the large canine teeth con- 
tinued to be developed long after the bone of the head. Accordingly, 
they remained in situ, and formed beneath each eye a curious tuber- 
cle. No appearance of disease existed in any of the viscera. The 
first approach of the disease was indicated by slight dragging of the 
hinder extremities, a sjinptom ^hich, so far as I have hitherto ob- 
served, has uniformly terminated after several months in death. The 
animal before death had a depraved appetite, occasionally eating his 
own ordure. He was much in the habit of masturbation, which he 



practised by dra^ving the hairs of his fore-arra over the glans. I 
castrated him some time before death, but not until the ravages of 
mollities had very far advanced. 

" In conclusion, I beg again to apologize for these unconnected 
remarks, which I have put together hastily and AS'ithout being en- 
abled to refer to any notes." 

The conclusion of the paper by Dr. Falconer and Captain Cautley 
on the Gigantic Fossil Tortoise of India was then read : — 

" On a former meeting -vve ■vvent through the anatomical characters 
presented by the remains of the Colossochelys Atlas. Commencing 
■vvith the plastron, we traced the modifieations of form through the 
costal elements of the carapace and the dorsal vertebrse, all of which 
bear the closest resemblance to the ordinary type of the Chersite Che- 
lonians, or true land toitoises. A likę result follo\ved the examina- 
tion of the extremities, -vvhich, as exhibited in the remains of the 
humerus, femur and ungueal phalanges, were seen to be constructed 
exactly on the jjlan of Testudo, -^'ith columnar legs and truncated 
club-shaped feet, as in the proboscidean Pachydermata. The šame 
direction of affinity was observed throughout the conformation of 
the head. The only portions of the skeleton from ■vvhich more or less 
direct evidence ■vvas not derived, ■were the neck and tail vertebrse, of 
■which there M^ere no specimens in the collection. The general re- 
sult of the examination showed that the Colossochelys Atlas "vvas 
strictly a land tortoise in every part of its bony frame ; and the im- 
pressions of the horny scutes proved the likę in regard to the arrange- 
ment of its dermal integument. 

" The principai distinctive characters were found in the stemum, 
■vvhich is enormously thickened at its anterior extremity, along the 
united portion of the episternal bones, and contracted into a narrow 
neck, so that the ■vvidth of the combined episternals does not much 
exceed their thickness : this thickened portion bears on its under side 
a deep massive cuneifonn keel, which terminates upon the commence- 
ment of the entosternal piece. There is more or less thickening of 
this part in all the species of Testudo, and the amount of it is very 
variable in difFerent individuals of the šame species ; but there is 
nothing approaching the šame degree of contraction in reference to 
the thickness, nor aught likę a developed keel, in any of the existing 
land tortoises -vvhich v;e. have either had an opportunity of examining, 
or seen described in systematic -vvorks on the tribe. The keel in the 
fossil is feebly sho^vvn in the young animal, but strongly marked in 
the adult. Conceiving that generic distinctions are only legitimate 
in the case of ■well-defined modifieations affecting some of the leading 
characters in the organization of an animal, ■vve do not consider our- 
selves -vvarranted in attaching a higher systematic importance to the 
Colossochelys than as a subgenus of Testudo, yihich may technically 
be defined thus (the distinction resting mainly on the form of the 
stemum) : — 

Subgen. Colossochelys. 

Testą solidu, immobilis, sterno antici in collum valde incrassatnm, 



85 

subtUs carind crassd cuneiformi instructum, angustato. Testudo 
terrestris, statura et mole ingenti (inde nomen ko\oit(t6s et xe^vs) 
sui tribus prodigium ! Olim in Indise orientalis provinciis sep- 
tentrionalibus degebat. 
" Colossochelys Atlas. — The first fossil remains of this colossal tor- 
toise were discovered by us in 1835 in the tertiary strata of the Se- 
walik Hills, or Sub-Himalayahs skirting the southern foot of the great 
Himalayah chain. They were found associated with the remains of 
four extiiict species of Mastodon and Elephant, species of Rhinoceros, 
Hippopotamus, Horse, Anoplotherium, Camel, GirafFe, Sivatherium, 
and a vast number of other Mammalia, including four or five species of 
Quadrumana. The Sewalik fauna included also a great number of 
reptilian forms, such as crocodiles and land and freshwater tortoises. 
Some of the crocodiles belong to extinct species, but others appear 
to be absolutely identical with species now living in the rivers of 
India: -vve allude in particular to the Crocodilus longirostris, from 
the existing forms of which we have been unable to detect any dif- 
ference in heads dug out of the Sewalik Hills. The šame result 
applies to the existing Emys tectum, now a common species found 
in all parts of India. A very perfect fossil specimen, presenting 
the greater part of the evidence of the dermal scutes, is undistin- 
guishable from the living forms, not varying mere from these than 
they do among each other. Prof. Thomas Bell, the highest living 
authority on the family, after a rigid examination, confirms the result 
at -vvhich \ve had arrived, that there are no characters shovrn by the 
fossil to justify its separation from the living Emys tectum. There 
are other cases which appear to yield similar results, but the evidence 
has not yet been sufficiently examined to justify a confident affir- 
mation of the identity at present. 

" The remains of the Colossochelys were coUected during a period 
of eight or nine years along a range of eighty miles of hilly country : 
they belong in conseąuence to a great number of different animals, 
varying in size and age. From the circumstances under which they 
are met with, in crushed fragments, contained in elevated strata 
•vvhich have undergone great disturbance, there is little room for hope 
that a perfect shell, or anything approaching a complete skeleton, 'vvill 
ever be found in the Sewalik Hills. It is to be mentioned, however, 
that remains of many of the animals associated vi^ith the Colossochelys 
in the Sewalik HiUs have been discovered along the banks of the 
Irra\vaddi in Ava, and in Perim Island in the Gulf of Cambay, show- 
ing that the šame extinct fauna was formerly spread over the whoIe 
continent of India. 

" This is not the place to enter upon the geological ąuestlon of 
the age of the Sewalik strata ; suffice it to say, that the general bear- 
ing of the evidence is that they belong to the newer tertiary period. 
But another ąuestion arises : ' Are there any indications as to \vhen 
this gigantic tortoise became extinct ? or are there grounds for 
entertaining the opinion that it may have descended to the human 
period r ' Any il-jjriori improbability, that an animal so hugely 
disproportionate to existing species should have lived down to be a 



86 

contemporary with man, is destroyed by the fact that other species 
of Chelonians whicli were coeval -vvith the Colossochelys in the šame 
fauna, have reached to the present time ; and what is true in this 
respect of one species in a tribe, may be eąually true of every 
other placed under the šame circumstances. We have as yet no di- 
rect evidence to the point, from remains dug out of recent aliuviai 
deposits ; nor is there any historical testimony confirming it ; but 
there are traditions connected ■with the cosmogonic speculations of 
almost all Eastem nations having reference to a tortoise of such gi- 
gantic size, as to be associated in their fabulous accounts with the 
elephant. Was this tortoise a mere creature of the imagination, or 
wa8 the idea of it dravvn from a reality, likę the Colossochelys ? 

" Without attempting to follow the tortoise tradition through all 
its ramifications, we may allude to the interesting fact of its exist- 
ence even among the natives of America. The Iroąuois Indians 
believed that there were originally, before the creation of the globė, 
six malė beings in the air, but subject to mortality. There ■vvas no 
female among them to perpetuate their race ; but learning that there 
was a being of this sort in heaven, one of them undertook the dan- 
gerous task of carrying her a\vay . A bird (likę the Garūda of Vishnoo 
or the Eagle of Jupiter) became the vehicle. He seduced the female 
by flattery and presents : she was turned out of heaven by the supreme 
deity, but ■vvas fortunately received upon the back of a tortoise, \vhen 
the otter (an important agent in all the traditions of the American 
Indians) and the fishes disturbed the mud at the bottom of the ocean, 
and dra\ving it up round the tortoise formed a small island, \vhich 
increasing gradually became the earth. We may trace this tradition 
to an Eastern source, from the circumstance that the female is said 
to have had two sons, one of whom slew the other ; after which she 
had several children, from whora sprung the human race. 

" In this fable \ve have no comparative data as to the size of the 
tortoise, but in the Pythagorean cosmogony the infant world is repre- 
sented as having been placed on the back of an elephant, which was 
sustamed on a huge tortoise. lt is in the Hindoo accounts, however, 
that we find the fable most circumstantially told, and especially in 
what relates to the second Avatar of Vishnoo, when the ocean •was 
churned by means of the mountain Mundar placed on the back of the 
king of the tortoises, and the serpent Asokee used for the churning- 
rope. Vishnoo was made to assume the form of the tortoise and 
sustain the created world on his back to make it stable. įso com- 
pletely has this fable been impressed on the faith of the country, that 
the Hindoos to this day even believe that the world rests on the back 
of a tortoise. Sir William Jonės gives the folio wing as a translation 
from the great lyric poet Jyadeva : ' The earth stands firm on thy 
immensely broad back, Avhich grows larger from the callus occasioned 
by bearing that vast burden. O Cesava ! assuming the body of a tor- 
toise, be victorious ! Oh ! Hurry, Lord of the Universe ! ' 

" The next occasion in Indian mythology \vhere the tortoise figures 
prominently is in the narratives of the feats of the bird-demigod 
' Garūda,' tlie carrier of Vishnoo. After stating the circumstances of 



87 

his birth, and the disputes between his mother Vinūta and ' Kudroo/ 
the mother of the serpent, it is mentioued that he was sent on an 
expedition to bring ' Chundra' the moon, from \vhom the serpents 
were to derive the water of immortality, While pursuing his journey, 
amidst strange adventures, Garūda met his father Kiishgiifa, who 
directed him to ' appease his hunger at a certain lake, where an ele- 
phant and tortoise tverė fighting . The body of the tortoise was eighty 
miles long — the elephant's 160. Garūda \vith one claw seized the 
elephant — \vith the other the tortoise, and perched with them on a 
tree 800 miles high.' He is then, after sundry adventures, stated to 
have fied to a mountain on an uninhabited country, and finished his 
repast on the tortoise and elephant. 

" In these three instances, taken from Pythagoras and the Hindoo 
mythology, we have reference to a gigantic form of tortoise, com- 
parable in size with the elephant. Hence the ąuestion arises, are 
we to consider the idea as a mere fiction of the imagination, likę the 
Minotaur and the chimaera, the griffin, the dragon, and the cartazo- 
non, &c., or as founded on some justifying reality .' The Greek and 
Persian monsters are composed of fanciful and wild combinations of 
different portions of known animals into impossible forms, and, as 
Cuvier fitly remarks, they are merely the progeny of uncurbed imagi- 
nation ; but in the Indian cosmogonic forms we may trace an image of 
congruity through the cloud of exaggeration with which they are 
invested. We have the elephant, then as at present, the largest of 
land animals, a fit supporter of the infant \vorld; in the serpent 
Asokee, used at the churning of the ocean, we may trace a represen- 
tative of the gigantic Indian python ; and in the bird-god Garūda, 
■with all his attributes, we may detect the gigantic crane of India 
(Ciconia gigantea) as supplying the origin. In likę manner, the 
Colossocheiys would supply a consistent representative of the tortoise 
that sustained the elephant and the world together. But if we are 
to suppose that the mythological notion of the tortoise ■vvas derived, 
as a symbol of strength, from some one of those small species which 
are no\v knoviTi to exist in India, this congruity of ideas, this har- 
mony of representation would be at once violated ; it Avould be as legi- 
timate to talk of a rat or a mouse contending \vith an elephant, as of 
any known Indian tortoise to do the šame in the case of the fable of 
Garūda. The fancy would scout the image as incongruous, and the 
weight even of mythology would not be strong enough to enforce it 
on the faith of the most superstitious epoch of the human race, 

" But the indications of mythological tradition are in every case 
vague and uncertain, and in the present instance we \vould not lay 
undue weight on the tendencies of such as concern the tortoise. We 
have entered so much at length on them on this occasion, from the 
important bearing which the point has on a very remarkable matter 
of early belief entertained by a large portion of the human race. The 
result at which we have arrived is, that there are fair grounds for 
entertaining the belief as probable that the Colossocheiys Atlas may 
have lived down to an early period of the human epoch and become 
extinct since : — Ist, from the fact that other Cheloniau species and 



88 

crocodiles, contemporaries of the Colossochelys in the Sewalik fauna, 
have survived; 2nd, from the indications of mythology in regard to 
a gigantic species of tortoise in India. 

" Some of the bones were analysed with great care by Mr. Mid- 
dletou, and yielded a large proportion of fluorine, the constituents 
being, — 

Phosphate of lime 64*95 

Carbonate of lime 22*36 

Fluoride of calcium 11*68 

Oxide of iron 1*00 

A trace of chloride of soda. 

99-99 
" Other Sevvalik fossil bones were at the šame time subjected to 
analysis, such as the Mastodon elephantoides, Camelus sivalensis, Horse, 
Ruminants, &c., and the whole of them yielded similar results, \vith 
a proportion of fluoride of calcium varying from 9 to 11 per cent. 
This is much above the usual ąuantity found in fossil bones ; the 
utmost that has been met with having been in bones of the Anoplo- 
therium from the Paris basin, 14 per cent." 



89 



May 28, 1844. 

William Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

The foUowing extracts were read from a letter from Robeit Tem- 
pleton, Esq., M.D., Corr. Mem., Royal Artillery, Colombo, Ceyloii : — 

" You ■vvill be glad to learn that I yesterday heard of a new mon- 
key, which I imagine, from the description, mušt belong to the šame 
genus as the "VVanderoo. Every day brings some novelty to my no- 
tice, but I regret to say that although I have many promises from 
officers at out-stations, I do not receive specimens as fast as I could 
wish. 

" You may announce to the Society that 1 had an accouchement 
in my house of a Loris, the afFair occupying about half an hour, at 
the end of which a httle naked object was fuUy in the "vvorld, about 
two inches long, likę a young mouse, perfectly without covering, a 
large head, attenuate body, and excessively slender legs ; the face 
and eyes were proportionally much smaller than in the older animal. 
It clung to the mother so tenaciously, that I believe it would have 
almost parted with its legs rather than let go its hold. The mother 
died on the following night and the young one immediately after, so 
that I had little time for observing them. You will perceive from 
the half-finished sketch I enclose that it is not at all entitled to the 
usual appellation of dog-like, which has been derived I presume from 
the drawings having hitherto been made from stuflred specimens. 

" The loss of the ' Memnon' has been a matter of serious concern 
to me, as she canied a paper which cost much trouble, and of which 
I foolishly destroyed the copy ; unfortunately, since that time I have 
had neither leisure nor specimens from which to work out another. 
In the meantime I wish you to inform the Society that there is found 
in the alpine regions of Ceylon during the rainy season enormous 
■vvorms, reaching from twenty to forty inches in length, and about 
an inch or lį inch in thickness. From the size and colour I have 
adopted the name of Megascolex c^eeuleus. 

" The body is composed of 270 rings, the sexual organs occupying 
the 16th, 1 7th and ISth ; betvv^een this part and the head it is some- 
what ventricose, but at the 1 7th ring there is a decided narrowing. 
Each ring is dilated in the middle of its length into a ridge, ^hich 
carries on it, except in the mesial line of the back, minute conical 
mammillse, 100 in number, each surmounted with a minute bristle, 
arched back\vards ; the dermoid covering is striated in opposite di- 
rections diagonally, to admit of the contractions of the museles be- 
neath ; dorsally the depressed parts of the rings are deep bright blue, 
■which becomes gradually narrowed as it descends the sides, and ter- 



90 

minates abruptly, leaving the inferior parts orange-yellow, but the 
absolute ventral part is pure j'ellow. 

" The intestinal canal is very large, extending to within an eigbth 
of an inch of the surface, and supported on all sides by a series of 
membranous partitions, attached extei-nally to the edge of each ring. 
The walls of the intestine are composed of strong but fine membrane, 
which is separable into layers, but is without any distinct appearance 
of fibres ; exterior to this are the muscular bundles, -vv'hich serve for 
the progressive movements of the animal ; they are compound, 
whitish, shining fibres, collected into longitudinal fasciculi, separated 
by tolerably strong cellular membrane, and are deficient, as far as I 
am aware, only in one position. 

" In all work8 which I have examined it is stated (I tbink origi- 
nedly by Sir Everard Home) that the respiration of this tribe is car- 
ried on through a system of pores on the sides of the animal, as in 
the leech. This is a complete mistake ; the facts are as follows : — 
Along the middle line of the back, as I have before noticed, the 
mammillary projections are deficient for a space about one-tenth of an 
inch broad, and in the interval between each ring in this situation 
is a small transverse narrow ridge, in the centre of which, and occu- 
pying its \vhole breadth, is the orifice of the respiratory apparatus, 
a narrow oval ; they are first visible in the interval bet\veen the 14th 
and 15th ring, and terminate bet\veen the 17th and ISth frora the 
tail, being most developed at half the length of the animal, or rather 
a little nearer the tail. The artery runs along the whole back of the 
worm, sending ofF lateral branches at the position of the septa, and 
at the place where the respiratory orifices open externally it forms 
the inferior boundary of a little quadrangular space, shut up on all 
sides by cellular membrane, so as to present the appearance of a 
little sac hke a reticule, with a rectangular bottom ; the sides of this 
space are formed as follows : the musele becomes deficient there, 
taking a new attachment, and having a new origin beyond the orifice, 
the profile being arched rather abruptly, and thus we have an ante- 
rior and posterior wall ; the lateral are formed by the muscular bun- 
dles of either side, and the shape mušt necessarily be more or less 
ąuadrangular, in fact nearly square : the membrane forming the im- 
mediate walls of the sac is so fine and so loose that I faded in aU 
attempts to trace its form inside, but I satisfied myself of there being 
a distinct cavity, by introducing from the outside a small blunted 
wire, with which I gently pressed the sides ; it seemed hovvever not 
so extensive anteriorly, posteriorly, and at the angles, as I should 
have supposed from the form of the more solid supports outside. 

" The ręst of the anatomy of this animal I mušt leave until I can 
procure more specimens and have more leisure. 

" When I first got the Megascolex I was sure I had obtained an 
animal which \vould break dovvn the old division of Abranches seti- 
geres and A. sans soies, for the bristles are so minute that I did not 
in the first instance perceive them. As to its being a true Lumbricus 
there could be no doubt. I was mucli gratified when I discovered 
that the sepai-ation of the tribes, founded on a character which in- 



91 

dicates their reepective terrestrial and aąUatic habits, was correot, 

and gavę due credit to ita proposer." 

" Monograph of the genus Myadora, a small group of Acephaloue 
MoUueks of the family Myaria," by Loveli Reeve, Esą. 

Genus Myadora, Gray. 

Testą trigono-ovata, inaguivalvis, valvd sinistrd plūs mtnusve con- 

cavd, dextrd pland, rarb concaviusculd ; incEcuilateralis, latere 

postico rotundato, antico leviter flemioso, coarctato, inferne ple- 

rumque truncato, dejn-essione plano-concavd sub umbones. Cardo : 

dentibus in valvd dextrd duobus lateralibus, elongatis, rtidibus, ab 

umbone divergentibiis, quorumposticus planus, subobsoletus ; in valvd 

sinistrd projecturis sulcatis duabus lateralibus, dentes recipientibus. 

Ligamentum internum infoved trigond centrali inter dentes inser- 

tum, appendice testaced concavd stepe interne protectum. Valvce 

intus margaritacete, pallii impressione musculari antice sinuatd. 

The genus Myadora, introduced by Mr. Gray in his account of the 

• Shells of Molluscous Animals/ in the ' Synopsis of the Contents of 

the British Museum,' is one that cannot fail to be appreciated ; 

nothing indeed can more fuUy demonstrate the necessity for a new 

generic allotment of certain species, than the cireumstance of their 

having been transported at different tlmes from one genus to another 

by the šame author*. 

The Myadora partake of the characters of Anatina and Pandora, 
and as they have been refeired at times to both of those genera, it 
is important to describe with some minuteness the difFerences which 
entitle them to generic distinction. In Anatina the hinge is com- 
posed of two hollow spoon-shaped processes, containing the liga- 
ment, protected in some species by a moveable testaceous clavicle, 
which crosses the dorsal axis of the shell on the posterior side, as in 
the Anatina truncata, for example, a species now commonly obtained 
with the accessory hinge-piece complete. 

In Pandora, \vhich is too flat and compressed a shell to admit any 
structure likę the spoon-shaped processes of Anatina, the ligament 
is lodged in a cicatrix, protected on the posterior side by a single 
centrai oblong tooth in the right valve only ; the clavicle is dispensed 
with, but the loss is in a degree supplied l)y a thickening and folding 
over of the dorsal margin. 

In Myadora, which being a thioker ehell requires a hinge of more 

• " In an Appendix to a Catalogue of Shells collected in the Australian 
and Polynesian group, by Mr. S. Stutchbuvy," says Sowerby, in his account 
of the genus Pandora, ' Species Conchylioruni,' Part 1, " I have described, 
under the name oi Pandora brevis, a shell {Myadora brevis, nobis) \vhich I am 
no\v convinced is rathev an Anatina, inasmuch as its flat valve is destitute 
of the bhint tooth which characterizes Ihe Pandora ; it differs also from 
them in having a sinus in the muscular impression of the mantle, and in 
being possessed of a small testaceous appendage attached to the ligament." 
Tliis shell it \viU be seen bowever bas not the spoon-shaped processes of 
Anatina. 



92 

solid structure, the peculiarities above noted in Anatina and Pandora, 
the clavicle of the former, the folded margin of the latter, are united 
in the following modified condition. The dorsal margin of the right 
valve of Myadora becomes Consolidated into a tooth-like ledge or 
projection, diverging from, on each side, the umbo, fitting into grooved 
projections of similar construction in the left valve ; and by the di- 
verging of these tooth-lilce projections a compact triangular cavity 
is obtained for the insertion of the ligament, which in some species 
is Avalled in, as it were, internally, not laterally as in Anatina, by a 
moveable testaceous clavicle forming an angle with the diverging 
ledges. 

The clavicles of Anatina and Myadora, it may be observed, are 
very diiFerently situated with respect to the ligament, the one being 
a side appendage, extending across the dorsal axis of the shell ; the 
other an internal appendage, jDarallel as it were to the dorsal cixis. 

Of the following ten species, •vvhich I pro})ose to refer to this genus, 
the grand type, Myadora slriata, is an inliabitant of Port Nicholson, 
New Zealand, and the remainder are for the most part coUected by 
Mr. Cuming in the Philippine Islands. 

1. Myadora crassa. Anatina crassa, Stutchbury, Zool. Journ. 
vol. v. p. 100 ; Tab. Supp. xliii. f. 5 and 6. 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1. f. 1. 

Hab. ? 

This short rounded species is the only one at present known in 
■vvhich the right valve is concave. 

2. Myadora trigona, Myad. testd trigond, valde jįlano-depressd, 
■usque marginėm concenlrice striatd, striis prominentibus, quasi 
carinulatis, prope marginėm anticam undatis ; umbonibus acuiis- 
sime mucronato-elcvatis. 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1. f. 2. 
Hab. Catanauan, province of Tayabas, island of Luzon. 
Four odd valves only of this interesting little species were collected 
by Mr. Cuming at the above-mentioned locality. 

3. Myadora planą. Myad. testd trigono-oblongu, aniicesubtrun- 
catd, planissimd, concentrice striatd, striis subdistantibus, valvcc 
sinistrce prominentioribus . 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1. f. 3. « and b. 

Hab. Baclayon, island of Bohol, Philippines (found in sandy mud 
at the depth of seventeen fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This species is chiefly distinguished from its congeners, the Mya- 
dora tincta and trigona, by its more oblong shape, 

4. Myadora ovata. Myad. testd ovatd, subtriangulari, valvd 
sinistrd ventricoso-concavd, dextrd leviter convej;d, concentrice 
striatd, striis eleuatis, prope margijiem anticam subobsolelis, valvcc 
dextrce numerosis, confertis, sinistrce prominentibus , subdistantibus, 
umbonibus depresso-incurvis. 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1. f. 4. 



93 

Hab. San Nicolas, island of Zebu, Philippines (found in sandy 
mud at the depth of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This species exhibits a greater disparity in the sculpture of the 
valves than any other, the strize of the right valve being very fine and 
close-set, whilst those of the left are almost keel-like and compara- 
tively distant. 

5. Myadora tincta. Myad. testd trigond, antick suhtruncatd, 
usque marginėm concentrich striatd, striis elevatis, prominentibus ; 
fuscescente tinctd. 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1. f. 5. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found in coral sand at the depth 
of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

The Myadora tincta scarcely diiFers from the Myadora planą, ex- 
cept in being of a less oblong and more triang\ilar form. 

6. Myadora striata, Gray, MSS. British Museum; Pandora 
striata, Deshayes. 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1. f. 6. a, b, and c. 
Hab. Port Nicholson, New Zealand ; Swainson. 
This is the grand type of the genus, and of much larger size than 
any other species. 

7. Myadora brevis. Anatina brevis, Stutchbury, Zool. Journ. 
* vol. v. p. 99 ; Tab. Supp. xliii. f. 1 and 2. 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1. f. 7, 

This is a very interesting form, and the striae of the left valve are 
peculiarly ■wrinkled. 

8 Myadora oblonga. Myad. testd trigono-oblonga, antice latis^ 
sime trmcatd, concentrice striatd, striis elevatis, regularibus.prope 
marginėm anticam angulatis. 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1 . f . 8. 
Hab. Island of Mindoro, Philippines ; Cuming. 
ITie anterior side of this species is the most broadly truncated of 
any. 

9 Myadora CURVATA. Myad. testd curvato-oblongd.valvd dextrd 
convexiusculd, antice subindistincie flemoso-costatd, concentrice. 
striatd, striis elevatis, angustis, regularibus. 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1. f. 9. 

Hab. Island of Corrigidor, Philippines ; Cuming. 

This species differs also in form rather than in variety of sculpture. 

10 Myadora Pandor^formis. Anatina Pandorąformis, Stutch- 
bury, Zool. Journ. vol. v. p. 99 ; Tab. Supp. xlm. f. 3 and 4. 

Conch. Iconica, Myadora, pi. 1. f. 10. 

The Myadora striata, brevis, and Pandoraformis a.re the only spe- 
cies of the genus at present known to have the clavicle. 

The Secretary called the attention of the Meeting to a specimen 
of the Two-toed Sloth, Bradypus diductylus, which was now m the 
Gardens, and reąuested Mr. BaU, Secretary to the Royal Zoological 



94 

Society of Ireland. to communicate such particulars connected -vvith 
the habits and manners of this curious animal as had fallen under 
his observation. 

Mr. Bali regretted tbat it was out of his power to statė the exact 
locality from vhioh the animal had been obtained ; however, he had 
reason to believe that it was brought from Demerara. 

Its general food was sea-biscuit and water; of fruit it partook 
sparingly, but he had observed it pick the young buds of the haw- 
thom flowers and eat them \vith great avidity. 

While in the Zoological Gardens at Dublin its favourite position 
■was Avhere it \vas supported partly by the branch to uhich it clung, 
and partly by an adjoining branch on -vvhich its back could ręst. 

In lapping \vater, the great length to which its tongue was pro- 
truded was very remarkable, thereby sboviing its affinity to the other 
Edentata of South America. 



I 



95 



June 11, 1844. 

George GuUiver, Esą., in the Chair, 

Letters \vere read from William Willshire, Esq., Corr. Mem., ac- 
companying a specimen of the Aoudad, Ovis Tragelaphus, from Moga- 
dore, which he presented to the Society ; and from the Rev, R. T. 
Lowe, Corr. Mem., presenting specimens of Fish from Jamaica. 

Also a communication from H. Bourchier,Esq., Corr. Mem., Malta, 
relating to two Ostriches presented to the Society by Colonel War- 
rington. 

" On the Blood-corpuscles of the Two-toed Sloth, Bradypus didaC' 
tylus, Linn.," by George Gulliver, F.R.S. 

From an observation which I have lately made, it results that the 
Two-toed Sloth is one of the very few animals that has blood-discs 
considerably larger than those of Man. 

The following measurements of the blood-discs of the Sloth are 
given in vulgar fractions of an English inch : — 
1-3200^ 



Common sizes. 



1-3000 
1-2888 
1-2823 
1-2769 
1-2664 
l-2583_ 

1-2286 1^''*^^"^'' 



1-2865 Average. 

M. Mandl* discovered that the blood-corpuscles of the Elephant 
are the largest at present known belonging to the Mammalia, and I 
subseąuently found that those of the Capybara -vvere, as far as we 
then knew, next in size, as noticed in my Appendix to Gerber's 
Anatomy, pages 5, 8, and 50. 

But it now appears that the blood-corpuscles of the Sloth are 
larger than those of the Capybara, and, among mammiferous animals, 
second only in magnitude to the corpuseles of the Elephant. 

For the sake of comparison, some of my measurements of the 
average size of the largest blood-discs of Mammalia are here set 
down in the order of the magnitude of the discs, and in vulgar frac- 
tions of an English inch. 

* Anatomie Microscopiąue, Paris 1838, Prem. Liv. p. 17. M. Mandl's 
observation refers to the blood-corpuscles of the African elephant ; it was 
those of the Asiatic species that I examined. 

No. CXXXVI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



96 

Elephas Indicus, Cuv 1-2745 

Bradypus didactylus, Linn 1-2865 

BaUna Boops, Auct 1-3099 

Hydrocharus Capybara, Erxl 1-3216 

Phoca vitulina, Linn 1-3281 

Dasypus villosus, Desm 1-3315 

Myopotamus Coypus, Desm, 1-3355 

Pithecus Satyrus, GeofF. 1-3383 

Dasypus sex-cinctus, Auct 1-3457 

Numerous other measuremėnts are appended to the English ver- 
sion of Gerber's Anatomy. 

It has been said that the blood-corpuscles are larger in omnivorous 
than in herbivorous and carnivorous animals. To the facts \vhich I 
have elsewhere * sho\vn to be at variance -^'ith this opinion, it may be 
added that the oviparous Vertebrata, ^hatever may be the nature of 
their food, have larger blood-corpuscles than Mammalia, and that 
the size of the blood-corpuscles of many carnivorous birds exceeds 
that of the corpuscles of several of the omnivorous species. 

Finally, the Two-toed Sloth, which is a pūrely vegetable feeder, 
has, excepting the Elephant, the largest blood-corpuscles hitherto 
observed in any mammiferous animal. 

" Mr. Hinds' resumed description of nevv Shells, from the cabinets 
of Sir E. Belcher and H. Cuming, Esq." 

RiNGicuLA, Deshayes. 

RiNGictJLA GRANDiNOSA. RiH. tcstd ovatd, rctusd, l(Bvigat(l, politd ; 
anfractibus rotmidatis, ultimo magno, subquadrato, rotundato ; 
columelld siiperne valde callosd, denticulatd. Axis 1§ lin. 

Hab. Jiais, islanu of Negros ; in six fathoms, coarse sand : Caga- 
yan, island of Mindanao ; in twenty-five fathoms, sandy mud : Cat- 
balonga, island of Samar ; in ten to thirty fathoms, mud : Sorsogon, 
island of Luzon : — all in the Philippines. 

Cab. Cuming. 

These little shells resemble each other very closely, and it is only 
by close attention to minute characters and the proportion and 
form of the lašt \vhorl that they can be satisfactorily discriminated. 
The present species is perfectly smooth, and the lašt ■vvliorl is large, 
of a squarish form, and full and rounded. The upper portion of the 
aperture is strongly denticulated. 

RiNGicuLA PROPiNQUANS. Riji. testd ovūtd, retusd, striatd, nitidd ,• 
anfractibus rotundatis, ultimo magno valdi rotundato, concinne 
striato. Axis lį lin. 
Hab. Sual, Philippines ; in five to seven fathoms, sandy mud. 
Cab. Cuming. 

Here the lašt w'horl is not so sąuare in shape, but vcry fiiU and 
rounded, and is neatly striated in a very regular manner, and the 
spire is short. Till the light is thrown properly on them, these strise 

* Apį)endix to Gerber's Anatomy, p. 4-5. 



97 

are not very evideut, but once discovered they will be found con- 
stant. 

RiNGicuLA CAEON. Rtu. tcstd ovūtd, ūcuminatd, striatd, nitidd; 
an/ractibus rotundatis, ultimo ^ubtransverso, rotundato, distanter 
striato ; spird exsertd ; aperturd subabbreviatd ; labro corrugato. 
Axis If lin. 
Hab. Straits of Malacca ; in seventeen fathoms, mud. 
Cab. Belcher. 

The greatest breadth of the lašt whorl is probably in the trans^'erse 
direction, and it is grooved vvith strise placed at regular distances 
from each other. The spire also is proportionately lengthened. 

RiNGicuLA ExsERTA. Rin. testd ovatd, acuminatd, Itevigatd, politd 4 
anfractibus rotundatis, l<Evigatis ; spird elongatd į Jąbro pone valdi 
incrassato. Axis 1| lin. , ; 

Hab. Camiguing ; in forty fathoms, sandy mud : Sorsogon, island 
of Luzon ; in sis fathoms, coarse sand ; — both in the Philippines. 
Cab. Cuming. 

Compared with R. grandinosa, the lašt whorl is small, but agrees 
in being quite smooth and round ; the spire is elongated, as in R. 
caron, and the labrum is even rather mere reflected than is usual. 

RiNGicuLA AūSTRALis. RiH. tcstd ovotd, ocuminatd, Icevigatd, po- 
litd; anfractibus rotundatis, penultimo sensim minore ; spird elon- 
gatd, infrd suturam fascid subalbidd cinctd. Axis 1^ fin. 

Hab. Port Lincoln, Australia. 

Cab. Metcalfe. 

The only specimen before me has not attained its fiill adult age. 
In its characters it is rather intermediate ; the spire is not so promi- 
nently produced, and the penultimate whorl is more than usually 
developed, so as to be more intermediate in size between the otliers. 
AU these species are of one uniform glassy semiopake colour, in 
some individuals being more glassy, in others more opake. 

NEiERA, Gray. 

Nedera lyrata. N. testd suborbiculari, tenui.fragili, diaphand, 
liris transversis sulcatd, antice rotundatd ; rostra retusissimo ; 
margine ventrali convexd. Long. 4į ; lat. 2 ; alt. 3^ lin. 
Hab. Basay, island of Samar, Philippines ; in from five to seven 
fathoms, sandy mud. 
Cab. Cuming. 

This species is to Necera esactly what Mactra elegans is among 
that group, the sculpture and oatline of the shells being so very 
similar. This is of course comparatively a very miniature shell. 

NsiERA TENŪIS. N. testd ovali, fragili, diaphand, striis concentricis 
incrementis rugosd, antice rotundatd, postice retusi rostratd ; mar- 
gine ventrali antice subemarginatd. Long. 4į ; lat. 2 ; alt. 3^ lin. 

Hab. Bais, island of Negros, Philippines ; in seven fathoms, coral 
sand. 

Cab. Cuming. 



98 

Less ventricose than is usual with the species of this group, poste- 
riorly gradually attenuated into a short blunt beak, and on the ven- 
tral margin slightly emarginate. 

Ne^ra cochlearis. n. tesid majusculd, ohlongd, albidd, striatd, 
prope umbones elevatiusculd, antice rotundatd, postice attenuate 
nasutd, liris angustis, versvs umbones respectantibus ; margine 
ventrali valde rotundato, postice emarginato, Long. II5; alt. 8 
lin. 
Hab. Bais, islaiid of Negros, Philippines ; in seven fathoms, coral 
sand. 

Cab. Cuming. 

The description is dra\vu up from a single valve, but this is so 
large, and the characters so marked, as to render its future identity 
comparatively easy. 



99 



June 25, 1844. 
William Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Ciiair. 

" Description of some new species of Birds brought by Mr. L. 
Fraser from Westem Africa," by H. E. Strickland, Esq., M.A. 

Mr. Fraser has placed in my hands for examination and description 
a portion of the ornithological collection made by him during the 
Niger expedition, and I now present the names and characters of the 
new species. Mr. Fraser's researches in Western Africa have made 
us acquainted vvith several new and interesting species of birds, and 
as he was only able to bring home very few, and in some cases only 
one specimen of each species, it would be very desirable that full 
descriptions, illustrated by ligures, of these ornithological rarities 
should be made public, especially as it may be long before the pesti- 
lential shores of Western Africa are again explored by naturalists. 

HlRUNDINID.*;, CyrSELINiE, 

Cypselus parvus, Licht., Verz. Doubl. p. 58. 

A specimen of this bird was brought by Mr. Fraser from Acra ; it 
is probably the smallest species of the genus, the totai length being 
only 6 inches, wing 4|- inches, medial rectrices 1| inch, external 
3į inches. Plumage uniform mouse-colour, chin -vvhitish. 
Acanthylis bicolor (Gray) ; Chtetura bicolor. Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 7. 

A specimen of this elegant little species was obtained iu May 1842 
at Fernando Po, where it was very common. 

TūRDID^, MaLURINJE. 

Prinia olivacea, Strickl. P. suprd. viridi-olivacea, remigibus 

fuscis, olivaceo limbatis, caudu cuneatd, rectricibus duobus inter- 

mediis fuscis , lateralibus albis, extiis fusco marginatis, extimo toto 

albo ; mento corporeque toto iiiferno albido, pallide jiavo lavato. 

Rostrum pedesque fuscescentes . 

The aspect of this bird is that of a Phylloscopus, but the beak is 

longer, more depressed at the base, the culmen carinated, the vpings 

short and rounded, the first quill subspurious, the fourth longest ; 

tail much graduated, rectrices narrow ; tarsi moderately long, acro- 

tarsia scutate, toes slender, the outer longer than the inner. These 

characters induce me to class the bird provisionally in the genus 

Prinia. 

Totai length 4i inches ; beak to gape 6 lines, to front b\ lines, 
breadth 2 lines, height 1 \ line ; vi'ing 1| inch ; medial rectrices 1 inch 
10 lines, external 1 inch'l line ; tarsus 7^ lines, middle toe 5^ lines, 
hind ditto 5 lines. 

/^aį. Fernando Po; June 1842. 



100 

Prinia icterica, Stiickl. P . supri jlavo-oUvacea, loris, superciliis, 
genis, margine alarum, tibiis, caud(Bque tectricibus infernis Iceti 
favis, mento, guld, pectore et abdomine albidis, pallide isabellino 
lavatis, hypochondriis flavo-olivaceis, rostro nigro, pedibus rubris. 

This bird appears to belong to the šame group as the lašt, but the 
beak is rather more depressed, the tail shorter and less cuneate, and 
the tarsi rather longer. In all other respects their structures corre- 
spond. They both have short rictal bristles and the nostrils are 
large, oblong, and situated in a large membranous depression of the 
beak. Possibly they may hereafter form a distinct genus of Mahi- 
rincB, distinguished chiefly by the depressed form of the beak. 

Totai length 3| inches ; beak to gape 7į lines, to front 6 lines, 
breadth 2į lines, height 1^ line ; -^ing 1 inch 11 lines ; medial rec- 
trices 1;^ inch, external I inch ; tarsus 95 lines, middle toe 6į lines, 
hind ditto 65 lines. 

Hab. Fernando Po ; June. 

Mr. Fraser adds : " Irides light hazel ; note tmeet, ttoeet, tweet, hop- 
ping about the topmost branches of a small tree likę a wren." In a 
sketch of this bird by Mr. Fraser the tail is erect, as in Troglodytes. 

TūRDINiE. 

CossYPHA PDENSis, Strickl. C. corpore suprli fuUginoso-fusco, 

remigibus fvscis, omnibus (la ei 2a exceptis) basin verstis mfo- 

ferrugineis, sed scapis fuscis ; rectricibus fuscis, tribns externis 

ntrinąue albo terminatis (qui color in rectricis extima pagonio 

externo oblique versus basin producitur), corpore toto inferno fer- 

rugineo, guld obscnriore. Rostrum atrum, pedes flavescentes. 

Seems to be a typical Cossypha, allied to C. reclamator (Vieill.), 

with ■which it agrees in all essential characters. The specimen above 

described is a malė, and was procured at Clarence, Fernando Po. 

Totai length 7| inches; beak to gape 10 lines, to front 7 lines, 
breadth 4 lines, height 2\ lines ; wing 4 inches 2 lines ; medial rec- 
trices 3i inches, external 3 inches 4 lines ; tarsus I inch, middle toe 
and claw i inch, hind ditto 8 lines, lateral toes equal. 

Mr. Fraser adds that this bird " feeds on the ground ; when sitting 
quiet in a naked bush it is \vith difficulty to be discovered. Irides 
hazel." 

Pycnonotik-e. 

Andropadus latirostris, Strickl. A. corpore miprd. olivaceo, re- 
migibus fuscis, extiis viridi-oUvascente, intiis albido, marginatis, 
rectricibus f usco-brunneis, olivaceo limbatis ; corpore subtus olivas- 
cente, lateribus menti, alce tectricibus infernis, et abdomine medio 
stramineis. Rostrum corneum, marginibus pallidis, pedes ungues- 
que pallescentes. Rostrum depressum, tomiorum dentibus obli- 
quis 6 vel 7 utrinque ; iltis maxillc£ distinctis, mandibulcB subob- 
soletis. 
In this species the beak is considerably depressed and formed likę 
that of a Muscicapa ; the teeth of the upper mandible are distinct and 
reo-ular, but disappear about the middle of the beak. The lo\ver 



101 

mandible is also furnished \vith five or six serrations, but very low 
and indistinct. I^he wing is much rounded, the fifth quill being 
longest and the ręst graduated. The colour and texture of plumage 
are much likę that of the East Indian Pycnonotus flavirictus, Strickl. 
(Ann. Nat. Hist., June 1844.) 

Totai length 6| inches; beak to gape 11 lines, to front 7 lines ; 
breadth 4 lines, height 2į lines ; \ving 3į inches ; medial rectrices 
3 inches ; external 2^ inches ; tarsus f inch, middle toe and claw 8 
lines, hind ditto 6 lines. 

The above description is taken from a specimen marked " female." 
In two other specimens in which the sex is not indicated the dimen- 
sions and plumage are the šame, but the yellow streak on each side 
of the chin is wanting, and the lower mandible wants the serrations, 
and exhibits only a small subterminal notch. These are probably 
younger individuals. 

Hab. Fernando Po ; June. 

Andropadus gracilirostris, Strickl. A. corpore toto suprd. oli- 

vaceo, remigibus primariis fuscis, extiis olivascente, intūs pallide 

ochraceo limbatis, corpore subtūs pallide olivaceo-cinerascente, 

mento guldque albidis, abdomine medio crissogne pallide fluvescen- 

tibus, alarum tectricibus infernis pallide ochraceis. Rostrum 

pedesgue corneo-fusci ; rostrum longiusculum, turdinum, dentibus 

maxilla duobus, mandibulie nullis. 

This species differs from the former one in several points of struc- 

ture ; the beak is considerably narrower at the base and more slender, 

the upper mandible has onl)^ two dentations, with a faint trace of a 

third, and the lower mandible exhibits only a slight subterminal 

emargination. The wings also difFer, being more pointed ; the first 

quill is subspurious, and the second, third and fourth nearly equal, 

the third longest. These two species, however, agree in the struc- 

ture of the tail and feet, and in the texture and cJmost the colour of 

the plumage, the rump-feathers being dense, long and downy, as in 

the true Pycnonoti. The specimen before me is a malė ; it exhibits 

two or three slender nuchal bristles, likę those of Pycnonotus and 

Criniger, which are not traceable in A. latirostris. 

Totai length 7 inches ; beak to gape 10 lines, to front 7 lines, 
breadth 3 lines, height 2\ lines ; wing 3^ inches ; medial rectrices 
3 inches 1 line, external 2 inches 1 1 lines ; tarsus d\ lines, middle 
toe and cla\v 9 lines, hind ditto 6 lines. 

Hab. Fernando Po ; June. " Irides white ; a pretty songster." 

MuSCICAPIDiE, MuSCICAPINjE. 

MūscicAPA Fraseri, Strickl. M. capite, dorso alisgue fuscis, f er- 
rugineo tinctis, remigibus fuscis, primariis extus basin versus ob- 
scure ferrugineis, omnibus, la et 2a exceptis, pogoniis internis ad 
basin pallide rufis, uropygio, caudce tectricibus, corporegue toto 
inferno rufo-ferrugineis, guld palUdiore, rectricibus fuscis , 6 in- 
termediis strictissimi, lateralibus large, rufo terminatis, extern6 
f ere omninb rufo. Rostrum latum, nigrum, pedcs pallide bnnnei. 



102 

The rufous colouring of tlie plumnge remiiuls us of Tchitrea, Less. 
{Mnscipeta, Auct.), but the beak is much shorter and raore trian- 
gular than in that genus. In its general structure and proportions 
this bird appears to approach the restricted genus Mascicapa more 
closely than any othcr group. The form of the beak is almost ex- 
actly that of the Muscicapa latirostris, Sw., of India, and the legs 
are much shorter than is usual in terrestrial birds. Notwithstanding 
these characters, Mr. Fraser's notes statė that this bird " feeds on the 
ground ; has the motions and plump appearance of a robin." He 
adds that the irides are hazel, and that it is a beautiful songster. 

The beak is strong, depressed, very broad, the sides straight when 
viewedfrom above, and the base furnished with bristles of moderate 
length. The first quill is subspurious, 1 inch long ; the second is half 
an inch shorter than the third ; the fourth is the longest. Tarsi 
short, acrotarsia and paratarsia entire ; outer toe slightly longer than 
the inner one, its first phalanx attached to the middle toe ; claws 
curved, comjiressed, sharp ; tail rounded. The malė and female are 
alike, except that in the specimen before me of the female the narrow 
rufous tip of the medial rectrices is \vanting, and the dimensions are 
rather less than in the malė. 

Totai length 7į inches ; beak to gape 9 lines, to front 6 lines, 
height 2į lines, breadth at gajie 6 lines ; Mung 3 inches 1 lines ; 
medial rectrices Z\ inches, external 3 inches 1 line ; tarsus 10 lines, 
middle toe and claw 9 lines, hind ditto 7 lines. 

Hab. Fernando Po. 

I dedicate this species to Mr. Louis Fraser, naturalist to the Niger 
expedition, who succeeded in bringing home many interesting addi- 
tions to zoological science, notvvithstanding the difficulties and dan- 
gers by which he \vas surrounded. 

Laniid^, Laniin^. 

Tephrodornis ocreatus, Strickl. T. capite suprci genisąue fusco- 
atris, dorso toto alisque obscure fusco-plumbeis , reinigibus rectri- 
cibusque fusco-atrls, extus plutnbeo Umbatis, corpore toto infemo 
albo, gutturis pectorisgue plumis cinej-co st riete marginai is, alarum 
tectricibus infernis cinereis albo marginatis. Rostrum pedesgue 
atri, acrotarsiis integris. 
This bird approaches siifficiently near to the Indian genus Tephro- 
dornis to be classed vvith it, the only important structural difFerences 
being that the acrotarsia are entire and that the tail is slightly rounded. 
The beak resembles that of T. Indica (Gray), but is a trifle shorter; 
the nostrils are concealed by incumbent bristly feathers ; the fourth, 
fifth and sixth ąuills are nearly eąual, the first three graduated, and 
the outer toe longer than the inner. 

Totai length 6| inches ; beak to gape 1 1 lines, to front 7 lines, 
breadth 3 lines, height 2^ lines ; ■wing 3 inches 7 lines ; medial rec- 
trices 3 inclies, external 2 inches 8 lines ; tarsus 10 lines, middle toe 
9 lines, hind ditto 7 lines. 

Hab. Fernando Po ; June. " Irides hazel, legs blue." 



103 

Mr. Gould laid upon the table a number of Skins of Animals and 
Birds, being part of a large collection which Mr. Gilbert had lately 
forvvarded to him from Australia. Mr. Gould characterized the fol- 
lowing species : — 

MAMMALIA. 

Macropus gracilis. m. infra incanescens et saturate fuscus ; 
colli lateribus rufescenti-fusco lavatis ; genis, mento et guldful- 
vescente-albis, vellere molli, ad basin cinereo, exmde fusco, dein 
albo, apice nigro ; j)ilis longis nigris crebre interspersis. 

feet in. 
Length frora tip of nose to the tip of the tail . . 2 6 

of tail 1 1 

of tarsi and toes, including nails .... O 5 

of arm and hand, including nails .... O 3į 

of face from tip of nose to base of ear. . O 3^ 

of ear O 2į 

Face and all the upper suriace of the body grizzled grey and dark 
brown, the grizzled appearance produced by each hair being greyish 
\vhite near its tip ; sides of the neck and the outer side of the limbs 
washed with reddish brown ; margin of the anterior edge and the 
base of the posterior edge of the ear buffy ■n'hite ; line from the 
angle of the mouth dark brown ; line along the side of the face, chin 
and throat buffy tvhite ; under surface bufFy grey ; tail clothed with 
short grizzled hairs, similar to the upper surface of the bodj', and 
with a line of black ou the upper side at the apex for about one-third 
of its length ; the fur, which is somewhat soft to the touch, is grey 
at the base, then brown, to uhich succeeds white, the points of the 
haii-s being black ; there are also numerous long black hairs dispersed 
over the surface of the body ; feet grizzled grey and rufous. 

This is a very elegantly formed little animal, and is intermediate 
iu size between Macropus lunatus and Macropus frcenatus . 

Hypsiprtmnus platyops. h . facie magnopere latd ; hdc, corpo- 
riscue lateribus, fuscescente-cinereis ; dorso rufescenti-fusco ; facie, 
partibusgue superioribus pilis longis, et flavido-albis inter vėlius 
crtbre adspersis ; corpore inferiore fulvescente-cinereo. 

feet in. 
Length from tip of the nose to the extremity of the tail . . 1 7 

of tail O 7 

of tarsi and toes, including nails O 24 

of arm and hand, including the nails O 2| 

of face from tip of nose to base of ear O 3 

of ear O 0| 

Face extremely broad, and, with the sides of the body, brownish 
grey ; back reddish brown ; the W'hole of the face and upper surface 
beset with numerous long yellowish white hairs, ofFering a strong 
contrast to the darker colouring of the fur ; all the under surface and 
limbs buffy grey ; tail brown above, paler beneath. 
' Mor-da,' aborigines of Western Australia. 
The above is the description of a female received from Swan River. 



104 

Perameles arenaria. p. vellere rigido et cinerascente-fusco, 
pilis longis nigris intermixto, his fasciam lateralcmvix distinctam, 
notamgue instar ephippii ad dorsum medium efficientihus ; auribus 
ferrvgineis ad basin, in medio saturate/uscis, ad apicem cineras- 
cente-fuscis ; corpore inferiore fulvescente-albo. 

inches. 
Length from tip of nose to extremity of tail .... 14į 

of tail 4į 

from tip of nose to base of ear 3^ 

of hind-leg, tarsi and toes 2|- 

of fore-leg 2|: 

of ear If 

The fur is harsh to the touch and of a greyish brown hue, inter- 
spersed with numerous long black hairs, which form a broad indi- 
stinct band down the flanks, immediately before the hind-legs, and a 
kind of saddle-like mark on the centre of the back ; ears rather length- 
ened and of three colours — rūsty red near the base, then dark bro\vn, 
and the apex of a light greyish brovvTi ; sides of the muzzle and all 
the under surface buffy white ; line along the upper surface of the 
tail dark brown, the remainder buffy white ; outside of the fore-legs 
dark brownish grey ; feet and claws buffy white. 

Hapalotis longicaudata. h. superne pallide arenaced, pilis 
longis, nigris, ad caput et dorsum cum vellere intermixtis ; rostri 
lateribus, et abdomine albis ; caudd pilis brevibus nigris ad basin 
indutd, apicem versils nigris et elongatis ; apice extremo albo vel- 
lere niolli, adpresso et juxta cutem plumbeo. 

inches. 
Length from tip of nose to extremity of tail .... 16 

of tail 9 

■ — from tip of nose to base of ear 1^ 

of hind-leg, tarsi and toes 2 

of fore-leg If 

of ear 0§ 

AU the upper surface and the outside of the limbs pale sandy, in- 
terspersed on the head and over the back with numerous fine black 
hairs, which, becominglonger on the lower part of the back and rump, 
give that part a dark or brown hue ; ears naked and of a dark brown ; 
sides of the muzzle, all the under surface and the inner surface of 
the limbs white ; tail clothed with short dark brown hairs at the base, 
with lengthened black hairs tipped ■with white on the apical half of 
its length, the extreme tip being white ; tarsi white ; whiskers very 
long, fine, and black ; the fur is close, very soft, and of a dark slaty 
grey at the base, both on the upper and under surface. 

This species is considerably smaller than Hapalotis albipes, but has 
a much longer tail and longer hind-legs in proportion to the size of 
the body. 

'Kor-tung' and ' Goota-was,' aborigines of Moore's River, Western 
Australia. 

Phascogale calvuus. Phasc. cinerea ; subtiis pedibusęue albis, 



105 

indistinctissivie flavo-tinctis ; caudd corpore loiigiore, dlmidio ba- 
sali pilis brevibus, rufis, apicali pilis longis nigris obsitd ; auribus 
magnis ad basin pilis flavescentibus obsitis. 

iiicii. liii. 
Length from tip of nose to extremity of tail ..10 6 

of tail 5 6 

from tip of nose to base of ear 1 3 

of t£irsi and toes O 11 

of ear O 7į 

This beautiful species was procured in the interior of Western 
Australia. 

It is nearly allied to P. penicillata, but is of smaller size and has 
the tai] less bushy ; the portion covered with short hair is extended 
from the base nearly to the middle of the tail, and is remarkable for 
its brilliant rusty-red colour ; on the apical half of the tail the hairs 
are long, being on an average about half an inch in length ; all the 
under side is black, very nearly to the root. The fur is soft and 
moderately long, and its general colour is ashy grey externally, but 
grey next the skin ; the under parts of the body are white, tinted 
with cream-colour, and this last-mentioned tint is very distinct on 
the sides of the body ; the eye is encircled by a narrow black line, 
and there is a blackish patch in front of the eye. The ears are large 
and very sparingly clothed for the most part with very minute dusky 
hairs, but at the base, both externaUy and internally, are some long- 
ish yellow hairs. 

Phapcogale CBASsicAunATA. Phūsc. suprtl cinerea flavo-tincta ; 
corpore subths, pedibusgue albis ; auribus mediocris, externe maculd 
nigrd ornatis ; caudd brevi crassd. 

inch. lin. 
Length from tip of nose to extremity of tail . . 5 7 

of tail 2 1 

of ear O 5į 

tarsi and toes O 7 

Hab. "VVestem Australia. 

This species is about the size of the common mouse, and is not 
unlike the Mus sylvaticus in its colouring ; above grey with a veash 
of yellow, and on the sides of the body distinctly tinted with yellow ; 
under parts and feet pure white ; tail much svrollen, especially in the 
middle, and clothed throughout with very minute pale hairs ; ears 
clothed with pale hairs, but with a largish black spot externally ; 
eyes encircled with black hairs ; fur moderately long and soft. 

AVĖS. 

Ieracidea occidentalis. ler. vertice et corpore superiore ferru- 
gineo-fuscis ; singulis plumis strigd centrali nigrd angusti notatis ; 
cauddfusco multi-fasciūtd ; corpore subtūs albo plumis lined fuscd 
angustd notatis. 

Crown of the head, back and scapularies rūsty brown, ■mth a nar- 
ro\v stripe of black down the centre j rump deep rūsty brown, crossed 



106 

by broad bands of dark brown, the tip of each feather bufFy vvhite ; 
wings very dark brown ; the inner webs of the primaries with a senes 
of large spots, assuming the form of bars, of a deep rūsty brown near 
the shaft and fading into bufFy white on the margiu ; wing-coverts 
tipped with rūsty red ; spurious wing \vith a row of rūsty red spots 
on either side of the shaft ; tail dark brown, crossed by numerous 
broad irregular bars of rūsty red, and tipped with pale buff; ear- 
coverts and a stripe running down from the angle of the lower man- 
dible dark brown ; chin, aU the under surface, and a broad band 
which nearly encircles the neck, white, \vith a fine line of dark brown 
dovvn the centre ; thighs deep rust-red, each feather with a line of 
black down the centre and tipped with bufiy white ; cere very light 
greenish flesh-colour ; irides wood-brown ; space round the eye pale 
yellow, becoming brighter near the eye ; base of the upper mandible, 
the under mandible and gape, very light horn-colour; tip of the 
upper mandible black. 

Totai length, 16 inches; bill, l^; wing, 12^ , tail, 7f ; tarsi, 2į. 

Hab. Western Australia. 



.^GOTHELES LEUcoGASTER. yS. quoad colorenti JE. Nov. Hollan- 
diae consimilis, at grandior, rostro longiore, et abdomine albo. 

Head black ; crown, lunar-shaped mark at the back of the head, and 
a collar surrounding the neck, black, freckled Avith grey in the centre 
of each feather ; back freckled black and white ; •wings brown, crossed 
bj'^ numerous bands of lighter brown, freckled •with dark brown ; pri- 
maries margined extemally with bufF, interrupted ^vith blotchings of 
dark brovvn ; tail dark brown, crossed by numerous broad irregular 
bands of reddish bufF, freckled -vvith dark bro-wn ; ear-coverts straw- 
white ; chin, abdomen and under tail-coverts ■vvhite ; breast, sides of 
the neck, and a narrow collar surrounding the back of the neck, 
■vvhite, crossed by numerous narrow freckled bars of black ; irides 
dark brown ; upper mandible dark olive-brown, lower white, with ą 
black tip ; legs pale yellow, claws black. 

Totai length, 91 inches ; bill, 1 ; ■vving, 5|; tail, 5 ; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. Port Essington. 

Malurus PULCHERRiMus. Mūl. Mas : vertice, et fascid dorsali 
splendide violaceo-cceruleis ; orbitis et plumis auricularibus ex 
(Brugine cceruleis ; gula indico-caruled, nigro subtiis indistincte 
marginatd; plumis scapularibus castaneis ; loris, nuchd, et dorso 
imo holoserico-nigris . Foem. : fusca, subths pallidior, orbitis ru- 
bidefuscis. 
Crown of the head and a broad band across the centre of the back 
rich glossy violet-blue ; space surrounding the eye and the ear-coverts 
verditer-blue ; throat intense indigo-blue, bounded below by an in- 
distinct band of black ; lores, collar surrounding the back of the neck, 
and the lo-wer part of the back, deep velvety black ; scapularies chest- 
nut ; ■vvings bro^vvn ; tail dull greenish blue, indistinctly barred ■vvith a 
darker tint and slightly tipped with white ; abdomen and under tail- 
coverts vvhite ; bill and feet black ; irides dark bro^vvn. 



107 

Female duU brown, paler beneath ; tail-feathers likę those of the 
malė, but less bright ; bill and space round the eye reddish brown. 

Remarks. — Very similar in its markings and general contour to 
M. Lamberti ; it may however be always distinguished from that 
species by its larger size and by the deep indigo-blue colour of the 
throat and chest, which parts are black in M. Lamberti, 

Totai length, 5į inches ; bill, -^^ ; ■wing, 2 ; tail, 3^ ; tarsi, |^. 

Hab. Western Australia. 

Pachycephala Gilbertu. Pach. Mas : colore saturati olivaceo- 

fusco ; capite plumbeo ; loris nigris ; gula ferrugined ; humeris 

subtus, abdomine medio, crissoque arenaceis. Foem. differt, loris 

non nigris, neąue guld ferrugined. 

The plumage dark greyish olive-brown ; the head dark slate-grey, 

and the breast of a lighter grey ; the lores black ; throat rust-red ; 

under surface of the shoulder, centre'orthe abdomen and under tail- 

coverts sandy buff ; irides light brown ; bill and feet black. The 

female is similar in colour, but is destitute of the black on the lores 

and the red on the throat. 

Totai length, 6 J inches ; bill, \^ ; ^ving, 3| ; tail, 3| ; tarsi, 1. 
Hab. Westem Australia. 



109 



July 9th. 1844. 
"VVilliam Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Yarrell laid upon the table three specimens of the Rana escu- 
lenta, of clifFerent stages of growth, from Foulmire, Cambridgeshire, 
presented to the Society by F. Bond, Esq. 

" Descriptions of a number of new species of Shells belonging to 
the genus Cytherea," by Sylvanus Hanley, Esq. 

Cytherea varians. c. testd ovato-cordatd, incBguilaterali, snbven- 
tricosd, tenuiusculd, albd, maculis et lineis angulatim flexuosis cas- 
taneis variegatd, concentrice {et antici jjreEsertim) sulcato-striatd ; 
lunuld magnd, cordatd, lined impressd circumscriptd, albd, maculd 
castaned aut livido-purpurascente basi ornatd ; pube caslaneo vemt- 
latd ; superficie internd omnirib albidd ; margine integro ; cardine 
ut in C. Iseta. Long. 1 ; lat. \Ao poli. 
Index Tęst. Sup. 1. 15. f. 33. 
Hab. Brazil. 

Easily distinguished from Iceta and oblicuafa by its lunule, and 
from pellucida (to which in colouring and general contour it approxi- 
mates) by its close and irregular groove-like strise. 

Cytherea obliquata. C. testd ovato-cordatd (interdum oblongo- 
cordatd), tumidd aut ventricosd, solidiusculd, sublcBvigatd, albidd, 
lineis angularibus minutissimis brunneis aspersd; margine liga- 
mentali convexiusculo, subdeclivi ; ventrali subarcuato ; lunuld 
magnd,indistinctd,colorum experte; natibus valdi obliguis, candidis; 
ligainento angusto ; extremitate posticd obtusd ; superficie internd 
albd aut albido-rosed ; margine integro. Long. 1*75 ; lat. 2*50 poli. 
Index Tęst. Sup. t. 15. f. 24. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming, Hanley, &c. 

A species which for a long tirae has been confounded with Iceta, 
whose dentition, lunule and general shape it possesses. It is how- 
ever a broader shell, \vith the beaks still more obliąue, and its surface 
invariably speckled \vith minute scattered linear zigzags, which are 
more closely congregated near the swollen umbones. 

Cytherea plebeia. C. testd suborbiculari, subguadratd, valde 
incEguilaterali, solidd, compressiusculd, sgualide albidd, f ulvo varie- 
gatd (intus lividd), concentrice et cotifertissime sulcatd ; margine 
ligamentali convexo et subdeclivi ; postico dorsali paultiliim subre- 
tuso et valde declivi ; ventrali arcuato ; umbonibus haud compla- 
natis et minime striis divaricatis instructis ; lunuld lanceolatd, 
albd; margi?ie interno subcrenulato. Long. 1 ; lat. 120 poli. 

Index Tęst. Sup. t. 15. f. 37. 

Hab. Catbalonga, Philippines. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

This species is allied to the type of its subgenus, the Circe scripta, 
but the compressed umbones of that shell at once distinguish it. 

Nos. CXXXVII. CXXXV1II. & CXXXIX.— Proc. of Zool. Soc. 



110 

Minute ta\vny zigzags adom the Avhitish ground of tlie anterior sur- 
face, whilst the fulvous hue predominates posteriorly. 

Cytherea Philippinarum. c. testd cordatd, incequilateraU, ven- 
tricosd, crassiusctild, pallide lividd, radiis et lineis angulntim 
fiexuosis saturatioribus variegatd, concentrice costellatd ; costellis 
convexis, confertis ; interstitiis lavigatis ; lunuld hrevi, cordiformi, 
albd; rimd livido purpurascente ; margine ventrali iniegro, arcuato ; 
superficie internd albidd, macvld lividd sub umbonibus notatd. 
Long. 0-80; lat. 1 poli. 
Index Tęst. Sup. t. 15. f. 3B. 
Hab. Philippines. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

Veiy distinctly characterized by its crowded naiTO\v ribs. The 
dentition is that of its subgenus Chione, and the short white lunule, 
equally ■with the narrow ligament, is bordered with livid purple. 

Cytherea Diemenensis. C. testd oblongo-cordatd, convexd, nitidi- 
usculd, concentrice et obsolete sulcatd, carneo-fulvd ; radiis angustis 
hinuldgue lanceolatd, colore tinctis saturatiore ; pube albd, strigis 
flexxiosis litterutd ; sitperficie internd albidd, radio fusco-purpureo 
obliquo, sub ttmbonibus ornatd; margine integro. Long. 0"80 ; 
lat. 1-20 poli. 
Hab. Van Diemen's Land. Mus. Metcalfe. 
Easily to be distinguished from those allied to it in form by its 
internal vay. The hinge is that of the section Chione. 

Cytherea cok. C. testd cordato-trigond, intus extusque albd, con- 
vexiusculd, undique concentrice striatd ; striis exilibus, regitlaribus, 
confertissimis ; latere postico majore, subcuneiformi ; margine 
ligamentali valde declivi, convexiusculo ; ventrali subarcuato ; nati- 
bus acutis; lunuld oblongd, impressd; margine interno integro. 
Long. 0-80; lat. 1 poli. 

IndexTest. Sup. t. 15. f. 7. 

Hab. Africa. Mus. Metcalfe. 

Not unlike the Venus va7-iabilis of Sowerby in shape and general 
appearance. The epidermis is of that \vhite velvety texture which 
we meet M'ith in argentea. 

Cytherea Hindsii. C. testd trigond, ventricosd, solidiusculd, la- 
vigatd, nitidd, subaquilaterali, albidd, brunneo nebulosd, utrinque 
obtusd ; latere antico paululiim majore ; natibvs incurvatis, pallidis ; 
lunuld mugnd, subinconspicud, omnino pallidd ; pube fusco stri- 
gatd; sujierficie internd albidd; margine integro. Long. 1 ; lat. 
1 poli. 

Index Tęst. Sup. t. 15. f. 35. 

Hab. Guayaquil. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

This and the succeeding species belong to the subgenus Trigona, 
and are easily distinguished from the Mactroides of Born and Chem- 
nitz by the abseuce of a purple stain upon the umbones. 

" Descriptions of ne\v species of Tritons, collected chiefly by H. 
Cuming, Esq. in the Philippine Islands," by Loveli Reeve, Esq. 

Tritojt gallinago. Trit. testd abbreviato-clavceformi, varicibus 



111 

duobus, rotundis, solidis ; spird breviusculd, acuminatd ; an/racti- 
bus superni angnlatis, tuberciilorum serie unicd ad angulum armatis, 
tuberculis peculiariter plano-vellicatis, acutis, anfractds ultimi 
valde irregularibus ; anfractibus infra costatis, costis crenulatis, 
sub tuberculis Jiexuose nodulosis, costarum interstitiis elevato- 
striatis ; albd, varicibus aurantio-ftisco vivide tinctis ; columelld 
rugoso-pUcatu, apertura fauce albd, labro irittis fortiter denticit- 
lato ; canali subelongato, ascendente. 
Concli. Icon., Triton, pi. 2. f. 5. 

Hab. Cagayan, province of Misamis, island of Mindanao, Philip- 
pines (found in sandy mud at the depth of twenty fathoms) ; Cuming. 
The ribs of this delicate species are noduled, and more strongly 
developed on tlie varices than on the body of the shell ; and the cen- 
trai dorsal tubercle of the lašt whorl is unusually prominent, -vvith all 
the appearance of a double tubercle. The canal is much shorter 
than that of most of the club-shaped Tritons, and is particularly 
curved or bent upwards. 

Triton Ranelloides. Trit. testo, Ranella/ormi, varicibus decetn 
nodiferis ; spird elevatd ; anfractibus, superficie totd subtilissimi 
reticulatd, superiie depressis, infra nodis grandibus biseriatim, an- 
fractu ultimo triseriatim, cinctis, nodis inferioribus minoribus; 
luteo-albidd, fuscescente varid, tccniis subtilissimis fuscescente 
albogue ariiculatis, lineis fuscis fortioribus inter nodos, cinctd ; 
columelld maculd pmpured albirugosd superne tinctd ; aperturcs 
fauce albd, labro intus leviter denticulato ; canali brevissimo. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 3. f. 10. 

Hab. Matnog, province of Albay, island of Luzon, Philippines 
(found on the reefs) ; Cuming. 

Partaking as this shell does in almost equal proportion of the 
characters of both Triton and Ranella, it has been a matter of some 
difficulty to decide to which of the t\vo genera it might ■with the 
greater propriety be referred . 

Triton exilis. Trit. testd clavčefornū, varice unico parvo ; spira 
brevinsculd ; anfractibus superne angnlatis, inferne coarctatis, 
transversim subirregulariter costatis, costis liris parvis longitudi- 
nalibus decussatis, tuberculatis, tuberculis grandibus, prominenti- 
bus,subcompressis ; albd,aurantio-fusco sparsim tinctd; columelld 
plicatd, plicis superioribus valde majoribus, operlurčs fauce albd, 
labro intus rugoso-denliculato ; canali longissimo, superne peculi- 
ariter contorto. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 4. f. 11. 

Hab. San Nicolas, island of Zebu, Philippines (found in sandy mud 
at the depth of ten fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This highly interesting species has been crroneously published by 
Mr. Sowerby in his ' Genera of Shells,' and by myself in my ' Con- 
chologia Systematica,' vol. ii. plate 243. fig. 3, for the Triton clavator, 
and demonstrates how necessary is the examination of an entire 
genus by comparison for the proper discrimination of the species. 
No question as to the specific difference of these two shells could 



112 

hovvever be urged, for they vary materially both in form and detail 
of sculpture. The Triton clavator is comparatlvely fuU and ventri- 
cose, with the upper ribs only moderately tubercled ; the Triton ex- 
Uis is small, peculiarly contracted round the lo^er part, with the 
tubercles very prominently developed entirely across the whorls : in 
the former species there is a varix on the penultimate whorl as ■well 
as upon the lašt -^'horl ; in the latter species, as in the Triton cana- 
liferus, there is no varix upon the penultimate whorl ; lastly, the 
mouth of the former species is either yellowish or yellowish scarlet, 
\vhilst that of the latter exhibits not the slightest indication of colour, 
and the stains of orange-brown with which it is marked externally 
are of a character not to be misunderstood. 

Triton Pfeifferianus. Trit. testd fiisiformi, varicibus septem 
promiiientibus, acutangularibus ; sjnrd elatd ; anfractibus subirre- 
gulariter convolutis, convexis, superni plano-depressis, leviter 
canaliculatis, transversim costulatis, costulis irregularibus, nunc 
angustis, niinc latioribus, striis elevatis longitudinalibus noduloso- 
decussatis, anfractuum parte mediand nodosd, nodis distantihus, 
longitudinaliter subplicatis ; fuscescente, fiisco pallide varia ; colu- 
melld rugulosd, labro intiis ritgoso-denticulato ; canali siibelongato . 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 4. f. 14. 
Reeve, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1844. 

Hab. ? 

This species may probably be recogtiised as one of not uncommon 
occurrence, though not hitherto described ; its leading features are 
the rude manner in which one -vvhorl is deposited on the other, the 
prominent sharp-angled structure of the varices, and the delicate 
granulated sculpture of the ribs where they are crossed by the raised 
strise ; and its general appearance is altogether peculiar. 

I take the liberty of dedicating this characteristic species to Dr. 
Pfeiffer of Cassel, Germany, on account of the diligence that gentle- 
man has exercised in arranging the synonyms of the genera Triton 
and Ranella in his " Memoir of the genus Tritonimn," Revue Zoolo- 
gique de la Sociėtė Cuvierienne. 

Triton Sauline. Trit. testd elongato-conicd, tubceformi, paululum 

contortd, basim verstis subangulato-attenuatd, varicibus novem 

decemve plano-depressis ; spird acuminatd ; anfractibus subangu- 

latis, nodorum prominentium seriebus diiabus infra angulum arma- 

tis, subtilissime liratis, liris apiccm versus minutissiinc crenulatis ; 

albido ant lutescente, rubido-fusco variegatd et maculatd ; epider- 

mide temti ; columelld Icevi, obsolete j)licatd, plicd albd unicd su- 

pernemunitd; labro intus denticiUato ; aperturd angulato-ovatd, 

fauce C(crulescente-albd. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 5. f. 17. 

Hab. Matnog, island of Luzon, Philippines ; Cuming. 

I was about to figure a somewhat discoloured specimen of this 

shell, collected by Mr. Cuming at the above-mentioned locality, \vhen 

a smaller but very richly painted example presented itself for com- 

parison from the collection of Miss Saul. It is unąuestiouably di- 



113 

stinct from any of the trumpet-shaped species, though curiously in- 
termediate between the Triton variegatus and mistralis. I now de- 
dicate it with great pleasure to a much-esteemed collector, ■vi'hose 
cabinet bears interesting testimony of her exce]lent discrimination of 
species. 

Triton Sinensis. Trit. testd dongato-clavaformi, varicihus duobus 
rotundis ; spird suhelatd ; anfractibus costis duplicibus subdistan- 
tibus undique cinctis, strid unicd elevatd interveniente, costis supe- 
ris leviter nodosis, costis interstitiisque subdlissime crenulatis ; 
albidd, lutescente tinctd, varicibus inter costas lutescentibus ; colu- 
melld muUirugosd; labro denticulato ; aperturce fmice albd; canali 
elongato, subcontorto. 
Coiich. Icon., Triton, pi. 6. f. 18. 
Hab, China. 

This shell is not uncoramon in coUections, though it appears to 
have been singularly neglected by naturalists. lt presents a most 
remarkable modification of the Trito7i canaliferus : the entire sculpture 
of the two species — such as, for example, the double rib, the inter- 
vening raised line, the t\vo only varices, the profusely \vrinkled colu- 
melia, the long slightly tvvisted canal, &c — is the šame in both ; but 
the canaUculated structure of the suturės, which forms so very im- 
portant a specific character in the Triton canaliferus, is wanting. 
The Triton Sinensis might therefore be recognised as an example of 
the Triton canaliferus with the spire pushed out as it were ; or one 
in which the whorls have not been subject to that peculiar depression 
•vvhich forms so deep and characteristic a channel round the suture. 

Tbiton grandimaculatūs. Trit. testd ovato-turritd, crassd, in- 
ferne coarctatd, varicibus tribus ; spird subobtusd ; anfractibus 
superne angulatis, transversim exiliter striatis et liratis, liris su- 
peris tuberculato-nodosis ; fuscescente-fulvd, varicibus et columellm 
parte superiori maculis grandibus nigerrimo-fuscis ornatis ; colu- 
melld Icevi vel obsolete plicatd ; labro intus dentato, dentibus niger- 
rimo-fuscis ; aperturcE fauce albd ; canali breviusculo, subascen- 
dente. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 6. f. 20. 

Hab. Matnog, province of Albay, island of Luzon (found on the 
reefs) ; Cuming. 

This shell appears at first sight to be nothing more than a casual 
variety of the Triton totorium ; it \vill be found, ho\vever, upon ex- 
amination to differ materially. The large tuberculated humps of the 
Triton lotorium are here represented by regular series of small rounded 
knobs, -vvhich impart a kind of cancellated structure to the earlier 
■whorls which is very characteristic ; the lower part of the shell is not 
distorted, and the varices, especially at the back, are vividly painted 
■with large distinct brown blotches. 

Triton sarcostoma. Trit. testd suhabbreviato-clavaformi, varici- 
bus duobus, rotundis, solidiusculis ; spird brevi, apice stibdepresso ; 
anfractibus superni angulatis, transversim costatis, costis noduloso- 



114 

crenatis, costarum interstitiis subtiliter crenato-lirutis, costis su- 
pei'is tuberculatis , tnherculis grandibus, prominentibus, subcom- 
pressis ; spadiceo-fuscescente, costis inter tubercula albimaculatis ; 
columelld superni et inferne leviter corrugutu, labro iiitus fortitcr 
rugoso-deriticulato ; columelld labroque carneo ei'unie tinctis. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 7. f. 21. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the reefs) ; Cuming. 
This shell has somewhat the aspect of the Triton cynocephahs ; it 
diflFers in being much less ventricose, and in having very prominent 
tubercles round the upper part of the whorls. The mouth is stained 
with a pale flesh-tint \vithout any indication of dark colour on the 
columella. 

Triton aquatili.«. Trit. testd fusiformi-turritd, varicibus septem 
octove rotundis, prominentibus ; spira elatd ; anfractibus convexis, 
transversim costatis, costis duplicibus, subdistantibus, liris undatis 
tuberculiferis longitudinaliter decussatis ; pallide rufescente-fuscd, 
fusco maculatd et variegatd ; columelld et apertura fauce carneo- 
tinctis, albirugosis, labro intus albidenticulato ; canali brevi, ascen- 
dente. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 7. f. 24. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the reefs at low water) ; 
Cuming. 

The longitudinal waved ridges •which adom the surface of this 
interesting species have, in the fine specimen before me, a beautiful 
ripple-like appearance which is very characteristic. The columella 
and interior are covered with enamel of a bright uniform flesh-tint, 
and the A-arices are very round and prominent. I have seen several 
exaraples of this species in difFerent stages of grow'th, all exhibiting 
the above peculiarities ■vvith remarkable specific distinctness. 

Tritox trilineatus. Trit. testd clavato-fusiformi, varicibus tri- 
bus ; spira breviusculd ; anfractibus superni angulatis, ad angulum 
compresso-tuberculatis, transversim pluno-liratis, liris subtilissime 
crenulatis, interstitiis lincis tribus elevatis sculptis ; albidd, fusco 
variegatd, varicibus fusco-maculatis ; columelld lutescente-albd, 
costatd ; canali subelongato, leviter ascendente ; labrofortiter den- 
ticulato-costato ; apertur<e fauce albd. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 10. f. 31. 
Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

This is a strongly marked species, with the denticulated sculpture 
of the lip extending into the aperture after the manner of ribs ; and 
the body of the shell is crossed by flattened ridges, between each of 
■vvhich are three very characteristic raised lines. 

Tbiton įgrotus. Trit. testd subpyriformi, varicibus validis duo- 
bus ; spird acutd ; anfractibus superne angulatis, transversim cos- 
tatis, liris minutis tribus vel guatuor inter costas decurrentibus, 
costis superis tuberculatis, tuberculis inferne evanidis ; albidd, 
fuscescente maculatd ; columelld plicat d ; canali subelongato, sub- 
ascendente ; aperturce fauce albd ; labro intus dcnticulato. 



115 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 12. f. 42. 

Hab. China. 

Care mušt be taken not to confound this shell with the Triton tri' 
lineatus, in which the dorsal tubercies are raore strongly developed, 
and which has no varix on the back of the penultimate whorl. 

Tkiton encausticus. Trit. testd pyriformi, varice unico depres- 
siusculo ; spira rotundato-depressd ; anfractibus transversim cos- 
tatis, tuherculorum seriebiis phirimis longitudinalibus armatis, 
in/erioribus minoribus ; albidd.fusco varie tinctd ; columelld lavi, 
crassissime encausticd, aurantio-lutescente ,■ canali elongato, ascen- 
dente ; labro aurantio-lutescente, intus denticulafo. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 12. f. 43. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Phillppines (found on the reefs) ; Cuming. 

The enamelled character of the mouth of this shell is sorae\vhat 
likę that of the Triton tuberosus ; the form is that of the Triton re- 
tusus. 

Triton ridens. Trit. testd elongato-ovatd, subfusiformi, solidius- 
culd, distortd, varicibus quinque seocve subindistinctis ; spira acu- 
minatd ; anfractibus liris angustis elevatis prominentibus distantibus 
eleganter clathratis, liris transversis duplicatis; ccerulescente-albd, 
epidermide sericd indutd; columelld fortiter rugosd, aurantio 
tinctd; canali breviusculo, vix ascendente ; aperturd parvd, coarc- 
tatd ; labro intus fortiter dentato, albo, aurantio marginato. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 12. f. 46. 
' Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 
Although this species exhibits little more than a modification of the 
characters of the Triton cancellimis , the difFerence is of good specific 
importance. Tiie cancellated sculpture is wider and more prominent, 
■vvhilst the ridges are more sharply noduled in crossing over each 
other. The wrinkles and denticulations which surround the aper- 
ture are much more strongly developed, and the orange-stained co- 
louring of the enamelled disc is peculiarly characteristic. 

Triton Thersites. Trit. testd subfusiformi, varicibus quatuor ; 
spird exsertd ; anfractibus transversim granoso-liratis, angulatis, 
ad angulum tuberculatis, tubercuUs validis, valde prominentibus, 
anfractuum totd superficie subtilissime granulosd ; columelld albd, 
subexcavatd, levitev rugosd, callositate superne armatd ; canali 
longiusculo, subascendente ; labro intus leviter denticulato. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 13. f. 48. 

Hab. ? 

Severai sliells have been named after the rude enemy of Achilles 
as slgnificant of their deformity. The Triton under consideration, 
though it has quite a hump-backed appearance from the prominence 
of the dorsal tubercies, is ho\vever beautifully granulated, the granu- 
lated ridges being especially neatly sculptured in passing over the 
tubercies and varices. 

Triton moritinctus. Trit. testd ovato-oblongd, ventricosd, varice 
unico elevato ; spird depressd ; anfractibus supernh plano-angulatis. 



116 

transversim crenulato-costatis, ad angulum fortiter tuberculatis, 
tubercuUs acutis, inferne evanidis, transversm subtiliter sulcatis ; 
rubidd, varicibus albimaculatis ; epidermide subsetosa ; columelld 
rufo-aurantid, maculd grandį, nigricante-purpured, albirugosd, 
tinctd ; canali subelongato, subcontorto ; aperiura fauce rufo- 
aurantid ; labro hitus fortiter dentato. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 13. f. 49. 
Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

This shell, which is not uncommon in coUections, approximates 
very closely to the Triton cynocephalus ; it is however specifically di- 
stinct. The whorls of the Triton moritinctus are very strongly tu- 
bercled, the tubercles being disposed in waved longitudinal rows, 
■vvhilst in the Triton cynocephalus the tubercles have more the appear- 
ance of regular nodules. 

Triton exaratus. Trit. testd subtrigonofusiformi, varicibus 
duobus; spird elevato-turritd ; anfractibus superne planissimo- 
angulatis, ad angulum subnodosis, transversim liratis, liris com- 
pressis, duplicatis, crenulatis, interstitiis excavato-sulcatis ; albidd, 
fuscescente ccsruleogue varie tinctd; columelld albd, subrugosd ; 
canali longiusculo ; apertvrd rotundd ; labro intus dentato. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 13. f. 50. a and b. 
Var. ft. Testd nigricante-fuscd, albibalteatd. 
Hab. North coast of New Holland. 

This is a very characteristic species, ^Yith the transverse ridges 
standing out in bold relief, and the upper part of the -vvhorls pecu- 
liarly flat and indented at the suturės. 

Triton ficoides. Trit. testd trigono-ficiformi, varicibus guingue ; 
spird brevi, obtusd; anfractibus dorsim tumidiusculis, transversim 
liratis, liris nodosis, super varices duplicatis ; columelld nodosd et 
rugosd, inferne luteo-sanguineo tinctd ; canali brevi ; labro intus 
fortiter dentato. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 13. f. 51. 
Hab. Africa. 

M. Kiener should have been sure of this shell being the Ranella 
caudata of Say, before he ventured to question the generic appropri- 
ation of that species. It is quite another thing, and I much doubt 
if a shell of such bright and vivid colour M'ere ever found within the 
latitude of New York. The Ranella caudata belongs to a small group 
of RanellcB, of which the R. Muriciformis is the type. 

Triton acuminatus. Trit. testd subfusiformi, varice nulio ; spird 
acutissime acuminatd ; anfractibus nurnerosis, transversim elevato- 
striatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis subobliguis, crebriusculis ; 
columelld subtilissime rugosd; canali breviusculo, ascendente ; 
aperturd parvd, rotundd ; labro intus denticulato. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 14. f. 54. 
Hab. China. 

The Triton acuminatus is another very aberrant form, though be- 
longing to that interesting section of the genus of which the Triton 
niveus is the type. 



117 

Tbiton gracilis. Trit. testd gracili-fusiformi, varicibus tribus ; 
spira subelatd; anfractibus tuberculato-nodosis, liris parvis subti- 
liter decussatis ; lutescente-albd, velfuscd, albibalteatd, epidermide 
tenui subsetosd indutd; columelld fortiter rugosd, albd ; canali 
subdongato, ascendente ; aperturcE fauce albd; labro intus peculi- 
ariter rugoso-denticulato. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 15. f. 58. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

A delicate little species, in ■n'hich the outer lip is peculiarly fully 
wrinkled within. 

Tkiton elongatiis. Trit. testd elongato-fusiformi, varice unico 
subindistincto ; spira acuminatd ; anfractibus superne leviter angu- 
latis, transversim liratis et striatis, liris striisgue granuloso- 
crenatis, aąuidistąnter 7iodulosis ; cinered, liris livido-purpureis ; 
columelld excavatd, rugosd, callositate superne arniatd ; canali 
elongato, subcontorto ; labro intus dentato, dentibus binis. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 15. f. 59. 
Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

This shell approxiniates very closely to the Triton vespaceus ; so 
closely indeed, that I may be thought rather venturous to describe 
it as a new species. The differences however are as foUoAvs : the 
canal is much more elongated, the whorls are not tubercled, and the 
beaded ridges are of a peculiar livid-purple colour. 

Triton gemmatus. Trit. testd elongato-oblongd, varicibus guatuor- 
vel guingue ; spird subobtusd ; anfractibus liris, pulcherrime gem- 
matis, cingulatis, interstitiis striis elevatis lo7igitudinalibus et trans- 
versis eximie clathratis ; aurantio-lutescente ; columelld rugosd, 
callositate superne arniatd ; canali breviusculo ; labro intus dentato, 
dentibus binis. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 15. f. 60. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low water) ; 
Cuming. 

Var. /3. Testd albd, varicibus duobus ad sex ; liris subnodosis. 
Hab. Island of Annaa (Chain island), South Pacific Ocean, and 
island of Buriąs, Philippines (found under stones in both localities at 
low \vater) ; Cuming. 

The sculpture of this shell is very similar to that of the Triton 
rubecula ; the beaded ridges are however wider apart, and on the 
varices have three smaller ridges between them. 

Triton obscurus. Trit. testd elongato-turritd, varicibus unde- 
cim ; spird acuminatd ; anfractibus transversim granulosis, longi- 
tudinaliter subobsolete sitlcatis, suleis creberrimis ; fuscescente, 
fusco pallide balteatd, maculis fuscis guadratis perpaucis seriatim 
pictd, varicibus fusco maculatis ; columelld Itevi, crassissime en- 
causticd ; canali brevissimo, labro intus denticulato. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 16. f. 63. 

Hab. East. Indies ; Lieut. Babb. 

This shell may have been probably confounded with the Triton 



118 

maculosus ; it difFers however in not being transversely grooved, in 
having a difFerent arrangement of the varices, and in other minor 
particulars. 

Tritox crispus. Trit. testd ovatd, subfusiformi, varicibus duobus 
vel tribiis ; spira breviusculd ; anfractibus liris crispis prominen- 
tibus, subdistantibus, dectissatis, liris ad decussationem nodulosis, 
interstitiis striis crispis elevatis subtilissime cancellatis ; cinereo- 
ccErulescente, varicibus lirisįue albidis ; columelld excavatd, rugosd, 
callositate superrie armatd ; canali breviusculo ; labro intus forliter 
denticulato. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 17. f. 68. 

Hab. ? 

Quite distinct from any hitherto described species. 

Triton eburneus. Trit. testd ovato-oblongd, varicibus tribus vel 

ąuatuor remotiusculis ; spird brevi ; anfractibus liris j)arvis ob' 

tusis creberrimi decussatis ; intus extusque albd ; columelld exca- 

vatd, inferne subrugosd ; canali brevissimo ; labro intus denticulato. 

Conch. Icon., Triton. pi. 17. f. 69. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low 
Avater) ; Cuming. 

This shell has somewhat the fonn of the Triton Quoyi, an inter- 
esting little New HoUand species, -vvhich M. Kiener thought to be 
the recent analogue of Lamarck's fossil Triton viperinum. 

Tkiton verrucosūs. Trit. testd subpyramidali-oblongd, varicibus 
ąuatuor vel quinque ; spird mediocri ; anfractibus superne impressis, 
transversim striatis et liratis, liris longitudinalibus prominentiori- 
bus decussatis, ad decussationem nodosis ; aurantio-fuscescente, 
anfractuum parte inferiori fusco inter nodos articulatd; columelld 
excavatd, vix rugosd; canali brevissimo. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 17. f. 71. 

Hab. ? 

Care mušt be taken not to confound this shell with the leseer New 
HoUand species, Triton Quoyi. 

Triton tortuosus. Trit. testd oblongo-turritd, subangustd, vari- 
cibus octo obligue invicem subsequentibus ; spird tortuosd ; anfrac- 
tibus granulis parvis subtiliter reticulatis ; lutescente, maculis 
fuscis grandibus, longitudinaliter undatis, eleganter pictd ; colu- 
melld excavatd, subgranulosd ; canali brevissimo, recurvo. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 17. f. 74. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (found under stones at low 
■water) ; Cuming. 

This interesting species approximates very closely to the Triton 
distortus ; it differs in being of a more deUcate and slender form, in 
the o-ranules being less prominent, and in the peculiar waved style 
of the painting. 

Triton sculptilis. Trit. testd oblongo-turritd, varice nulio ; spird 
exsertd ; anfractibus longitudinaliter costellatis, costellis angustis. 



119 

into'stitiis striis elevatis cancellatis, anfractAs ultimi parte infe- 
riori conopeo carin<eformi prominente peculiariter ornatd ; albidd, 
suturis fuscis ; colmnelld lavi ; canali brevissimo. 
Conch. Icon.. Triton, pi. 18. f. 76. 

Hab. Island of Capul, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

In addition to the above account of this beautiful species, it may 
be noticed that the transverse strijie are brown upon the ribs and 
■whitc in the interstices ; the suturės are broAvn in conseąuence of the 
■vvhorls being encircled with a bro^^•n line just at the point where one 
whorl lodges in its spirai grovvth upon the other, over the basai 
canopy, as if to mark out the exact plan of convolution. 

Triton eximius. Trit. testd oblongo-turritd, varice nulio ; spird 
acuminatd; anfractlbus costellis minutis eximil cancellatis, longi- 
tudiiialibus majoribus, valde remotioribus ; albd,fuscescente obscure 
fasciatd ; canali brevissimo. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 18. f. 77. 

Hab. Lord Hood's Island, Pacific Ocean (on the reefs), and island 
of Capul, Philippines (under stones at low \vater) ; Cuming. 
A neatly cancellated, almost colourless, shell. 
Triton egregius. Trit. testd elongato-ovatd, varice nulio ; sjjird 
acutd; anfractibus longitudinaliter costatis, striis elevatis truns- 
versis cancellatis; albd, costis medio albis, supra et inf ra fuscis; 
canali brevi, recurvo. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 18. f. 78. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Phihppines (found under stones at lo\v 
-vvater) ; Cuming. 

The style or arrangement of the sculpture not much unlike the 
preceding species ; the shell is ho\vever larger, more globose, and 
has a very pretty appearance, arising frora the dark brown upper and 
lo\ver portions of the ribs being crossed by white strise. 

Triton siphonatus. Trit. testd fusiformi-turritd, varicibus novem, 
subindistinctis ; spird acuminatd ; anfractibus creberrime reticu- 
latis, ultimo antice ąuasi siphonato ; roseo- aut caruleo-albidd, 
aurantio-fusco sparsim maculatd ; lamind columellari tenui, leevi ; 
aperturd elongato-ovatd ; labro subtilissime denticulato. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 18. f. 81. 

Hab. ? 

Chiefly distinguished by its anterior extension. 

Triton decapitatūs. Trit. testd elongato-turritd, varice nulio; 
spird decollatd ; anfractibus longitudinaliter concentrice costellatis, 
costellis angusiis, numerosis, confertis, transversim striatis ; lutes- 
cente, fusco subindistincte maculatd; costellis aurantio-fuscis, 
lined lutescente antice interruptis, anfractu ultimo lineis lutescen- 
tibus duabus; canali brevissimo. 

Conch. Icon., JViton, pi. 18. f. 85. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 



120 

Care mušt be taken not to confound this species ■with the Triton 
truncatus, in which the ribs are larger and wider apart, and the colour 
not interrupted. 

Tkiton digitale. Trit. testd oblongd, vnrice nulio ; spird acumi- 
natd; anfractibus seriatim granulosis, granulis numerosis, confertis, 
obtusis ; albidd, fuscescente sjjarsitn jmnctatd ; canali brevissimo. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 19. f. 86. 

Hab. Island of Capul, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming, 

The sculpture of the shell is much likę the granular surface of a 
thimble. 

Triton concinnus. Trit. testd oblongd, tenuiculd, varice nulio ; 
spird subacuminatd ; anfractibus longitudinaliter concentrice cos- 
tellatis, transversim creherrime striatis ; lutescentc, aurantio- 
fuscescente peculiariter pictd, apice roseo-purpureo ; canali bre- 
vissimo. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 19. f. 87. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

The bright orange-brown painting is peculiarly festooned, as it 
were, round the upper part of the -vvhorl nex.t the suture. 

Teiton angulatus. Trit. testd oblongd, turritd, varice ?iullo ; 

spird acuminatd; anfractibus superne angulatis, longitudinaliter 

costellatis, transversim striatis, striis prominentibus , confertis ; 

luted, aut lutescente-albd, rubido-fusco alboque sparsim punctatd į 

canali brevissimo. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 19. f. 88. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low 
■water) ; Cuming. 

Chiefly distinguished by the angular structure of the -^vhorls next 
the suture. 

Tkiton lativaricosus. Trit. testd oblongd, solidd, subcompressd, 
varicibus tribus vel guatuor lutis ; spird subobtusd; anfractibus 
longitudinaliter concentrice costellatis, costellis solidis, subdistan- 
tibus, transversim creberrimt striatis ; canali brevissimo. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 19. f. 90. 

The varices of this shell are unusually broad, and the ribs are 
■wider apart on the back of the whorls than on the side. 

Triton tessellatus. Trit. testd clongatd, varice nulio ; spird 
acuminatd, acutd ; anfractibus striis longitudinalibus et ti-ansversis 
subtilissime reticulatis ; albidd, maculis grandibus rubido-fuscis 
subirregulariter tessellatd; canali brevi, subrecurvo. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 19. f. 91. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (found under stones at low 
■vvater) ; Cuming. 

This shell may be easily recognised by its rude tessellated spots. 

Triton bacillum. Trit. testu elongato-clavceformi, solidd, vartei- 



121 

bus duobus ; spird elongatd, subretusd ; anfractibus obtuso-granu- 
losis ; ccerulescente-albd ; canali brevissimo, recurvo ; aperturd 
breviusculd. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 19. f. 94. 

Hab. ? 

This is the only species of Triton I have noticed with a single 
varix on each side. 

Triton carduus. Trit. testą globosd, ventricosd, varice nulio; 
spird brevi, acutissimd ; anfractibus longitudinaliter costatis, trans- 
versim striatis, striis valde elevatis, costas super submuricato- 
nodosis ; albidd, fuscescente varid; colitmelld excavatd ; canali 
brevi. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 19. f. 95. 

Hab. ? 

A rather thin shell, of very sharply cancellated sculpture. 

TRITo^f PAGODUS. Trit. testd pyramidali-ovatd ; spira acuminato- 
turritd, varice nulio ; anfractibus subventricosis, superne angulatis, 
transversim creberrime elevato-lineatis, longitudinaliter costatis, 
costis compressiitsculis, subdislantibus ; albidd, rubido-castaneo 
multifasciatd ; canali brevi, valde recurvo ; aperturd rotundd ; labro 
intus elevato-striato. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. *20. f. 97. 

Hab. Bay of Montija, West Columbia ; Cuming. 

This species partakes more of the character of Nassa tlian the pre- 
ceding ; it might be referred indeed to that genus with almost as 
much propriety as to Triton. 

Triton pictus. Tr-it. testd oblongo-ovatd ; spird subacuminatd, 
varice nulio ; longittidinaliter creberrime costatd, transversirn ele- 
vato-striatd ; rubido-fusco alboque tessellatd; canali brevi; aper- 
turd parvd, f auce albd. 
Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 20. f. 97. 

Hab. Gallapagos Islands (found under stones at low \vater) ; Cu- 
ming. 

An interesting species tessellated with white and very rich dark 
bro\vn, in which the latter colour greatly preponderates, 

Triton decipiens. Trit. testd elongato-ovatd, subfusiformi, dis- 

tortd, varicibus quinque serve indistinctis ; anfractibus liris an- 

gustis elevatis clathratis ; albido-lutescente, epidermide sericd 

indutd ; cohimelld profutide excavatu, rugosd, subobsolete umbili- 

catd, callositaiibus plurimis superne armatd, rufo-aurantid ,- labro 

plano-concavo, rufo-aurantio radiato, intus fortiter rugoso-dentato. 

Conch. Icon., Triton, pi. 20. f. 102. 

Hab. Island of Mindanao, Philippines ; Cuming. 

I have long hesitated to consider this shell any other than a variety 

of the Triton cancellinus : the diflerences, though slight, seem how'- 

ever to remain constant. It is uniformly of smaller size, the trans- 

verse ridges are not duplicate, and the colour and wrinkled denticu- 



122 

lations of the coluraella and outer lip are of a peculiar and distinct 
character. 

A fine specimen of the Wiry-haired Wolf or Deer-hound was ex- 
hibited to the Meeting by George Dodd, Esq., M.P. 



1 



July 23, 1844. 
No business was transacted. 



123 



August 13, 1844. 
Professor Owen, V.P., in the Chair. 

The follow'ing notes from Sir Robert Heron, on the Jerboas in his 
collection, were read : — 

" June 14th, 1844. — The Jerboas vrere received into this mena- 
gerie in June 1843. They are in a box fuU of cotton : the box is in 
a room five and a half feet by four and a half, floored with \vood, and 
warmed by a flue "vvhich has always been heated at night ; the room 
opens into a pen secured with wire, nine and a half feet by eight and 
a half. They have been oflered many kinds of food, but eat only 
■vvheat and lettuce ; they have never been seen to drink, but from the 
water diminishing and their parting \vith a considerable ąuantity of 
urine, \ve have no doubt of the fact. On the 14th of May lašt they 
produced two young ones ; on the 12th inst. these young ones are 
still bHnd and unable to walk, also nearly naked, but they are grown 
and appear to be healthy : it is intended to make a pit in their abode 
about two feet sąuare, fiUed with earth, where they may burrow. 

" June 29. — It was not till their fifth week that tlie young Jer- 
boas appeared to have the use either of their eyes or limbs ; they 
had still little fur, but \vere a good deal grown. Now, being forty-six 
days old, they are about three-quarters grown, are well-clothed and 
active ; they have been seen to eat corn, and are apparently quite 
established. A second box has been put into their chamber, and lašt 
night all four had removed into it. They have never been seen to 
drink, but it is thought they do so, as the \vater is sometiraes di- 
minished. 

" July 20. The young Jerboas are now exactly likę the old ones." 

The following extract was read from a communication from the 
Right Honourable the President of the Society : — 

"1 have eight young Oroonoko gosliugs ; they are well-grown 
birds and nearlv resemble the adults. I have also eight Tctrao Um- 
bellus and two young Tetrao Cupido, and every prospect of hatching 
the Stanley Cranes. The young Eland Antelope and the young 
Common Zebrą are going on charmingly ; both the mothers have 
again taken the malė, and my young Antilope scripta, not yet twelve 
months herself, has done the šame." 

" Descriptions of new species of Arca, chiefly coUected by H. Cu'- 
ming, Esq. in the Philippine Islands," by Loveli Reeve, Esq. 

Arca obtusa. Arca testd ohlongd, ModioUformi, lateribus oltuso- 
rotundatis, margine ventrali bysso paululhm Mante ; alba, epider- 
mide nigricante subsguatnosd partini iiidutd ; radiatim striatd, striis 

No. CXXXVIII.— Proceedings op thk Zoological Society. 



124 

elevatis ; umbonibus depressiusculis, approximatis ; ligamenti ared 
parvd, angustd, profunde declivi. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 12. f. 77. 

Hab. Coast of Japan (found under stones) ; Dr. Siebald. 
Very likę a Modiola in shape, but not the recent analogue of the 
fossil A. Modiolaformis of Deshayes. 

Arca cunealis. Arca testd elongatO'Oblongd, lateribus superri^ 
angulatis, antico brevi, rotundato, postico eJongato, ungulato, carind 
ab unibone ad marginėm deciirrente, margine ventrali by^so Mante ; 
pallidefiiscd, epidermide molli lamellatd indiiftd ; radiatim striatd, 
striis elevatis, fortiter granulosis, ared posticd subindistincti nigri- 
costatd; umbonibus siibapproximatis , ligamenti ared latiusculd, 
concavd, suleis Ugamentariis anticis posticiscue, subdistantibus. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 13. f. 87. 

Hab. Zanzibar (found under stones at low water) ; Thorn. 
The sculpture of this species corresponds precisely to that of the 
Arca mutabilis ; the form of the shell is more depressly elongated, the 
anterior side is shorter, and there are ligamentary grooves on the 
posterior part of the cardinal area as well as on the anterior. 

Arca tenella. Arca testd subcylindraceo-oblongd, Modiolteformi, 
tenui, siibpellucidd, lateribus obtuso-rotundatis, margine ventrali 
vix hiante ; pallide fuscescente, epidermide molli leviter indutd ; 
radiatim subtilissime striatd, striis granulosis ; umbonibus obtusis, 
antice incurvis ; ligamenti ared antice latiusculd, postici lanceolato- 
acuminatd. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 14. f. 91. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

A delicate light bro\vn shell, beautifuUy striated, ■vvith a soft scat- 
tered epidermis. 

Arca setigera. Arca testd siibguadrato-oblongd, lateribus rotun- 
datis, postico latiore, inurgine ventrali bysso vix hiante ; rubido- 
fuscd, epidermide fuscd setigerd indutd ; radiatim subtilissime 
striatd, striis elevatis, granulosis; umbonibus siibapproximatis, 
antice adjectis ; ligamenti ared angustd, declivi. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 14. f. 94. 

Hab. Zanzibar (found under stones at low water) ; Thorn. 
This species approaches very closely to Arca lacerata ; it appears, 
however, to be of an uniform smaller size, the posterior side is less 
expanded, and the bristles are set in single rows. 

Arca virescens. Arca testd elongatd, lateribus rotundatis, postico 
leviter angulato, antico subattenuato ; viridescente, epidermide 
. tenui, ad aream posticam setosd, indutd ; striis elevatis radiatd ; 
ligamenti ared angustissimd, umbonibus approximatis. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 15. f. 97. 

Hab. Catbalonga, island of Samar, Philippines (found under stones 
at low \vater) ; Cuming. 



125 

A delicate greenish species, in •which the epidermis lies on the 
posterior area in rows of fine bristles. 

Arca fasciata. Arca testd oblongd, tenui, compressd, laterihus 
rotundatis, superne attenuatis ; albidd./asciis cinereo-purjmrascen- 
tibus indistinctis concentrice tinctd ; epidermide tenui, postice se- 
tosd, induta ; radiatim striatd, striis elevatis, irregularibus. striis 
transversis subtilissimis fiinbriato-decussatis ; Ugamenti ared an- 
gustd, profunde declivi ; intus purpurascente. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 15. f. 99. 

Hab. ? 

This is a remarkably flattened shell, banded and stained with red- 
dish and ashy purple botli inside and outside. 

Arca lima. Arca testd elongato-ovatd, lateribus superne angulatis, 
antico infra rotundato, postico angiilato-rotiindato, subextenso ; 
fuscescente, fusco tinctd, postice fusco maculatd, epidermide tenui 
subtilissinie setosd indutd, radiatim liratd, liris angustis, numero- 
sis, confertis, granosis, perpaucis medianis dupUcatis ; lateraliter 
costatd, costis rudibus, sttbdistantibus, crenato-nodosis ; Ugamenti 
ared angustd. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 15. f. 101. 

Hab. Islands of Buriąs and Corregidor, Philippines (found under 
stones at lovv -vv'ater) ; Cuming. 

The sculpture of this shell is very similar to that of the Arca bul- 
lata ; it is, however, of much finer character, although the shell is 
more elongated and altogether larger. 

Arca ocellata. Arca testd elongato-quadratd, lateribus superne 
angulatis, latere antico brevissimo, infra rotundato, postico elon- 
gato, infra acuminato, margine ventrali bysso latissime Mante; 
albidd, epidermide tenui, subsetosd, indutd ; radiatim striatd, striis 
subtilissime crenulatis ; umbonibus remotis ; Ugamenti ared latis- 
simd, rhombo ligamentario pecuUariter ocellato. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 15. f. 102. 

Hab. Singapore (found in sandy mud at the depth of seven fa- 
thoms) ; Cuming. 

This interesting little species exhibits a character which is quite 
peculiar to the species. The dark ligamentary space between the 
umbones is marked with a pair of oblique \vhite oval spots, one on 
each valve. 

Arca Donaciformis. Arca testd sub-Donaciformi, medio leviter 
coarctatd, latere antico brevissimo, truncato, postico elongato, sub- 
acuminato ; albidd, epidermide vix nulld, striis transversis et lon- 
gitudinalibus elevatis fimbriato-decussatd ,• Ugamenti ared antice 
latiusctild, postice acuminatd ; ligamento brevi, ad posticam aree 
partem solum adjuncto. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 16. f. 104. 

Hab. Mozambiąue Channel (found imbedded in madrepore) ; 
Hankey. 

The ligament and ligamentary area of this species present exactly 



126 

the šame peculiar stnicture as those of the Arca ptisilla (Byssoarca 
pusiUu, Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833) ; the shell is, however, alto- 
gether larger, more acuminated posteriorly, and the sculpture is of 
a smaller pattem. 

Arca tenebrica. Arca testu, ohlongo-ovatd , laterihus angulato- 
rotundatis ; fuscd, epidermide teniii indutd ; rndiatim striatd, striis 
elevatis, numerosis, confertis ; umbonibus albidis, approrimatis, 
antice adjectis ; ligamenti ared angustd, postice Janceolato-acumi- 
natd. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 16. f. 105. 

Hab. Basey, island of Samar, Philippines (found under stones at 
low ■tt'ater) ; Cuming. 

The umbones in this species are very anteriorly situated. 

Arca bullata. Arca testd ovato-guadratd, planiusculo-compressd, 
lateribus superne angulatis, antico infra rotundato, postico angii- 
lato-extenso ; fuscescente, epidermide tenui, subsetosd, setis in liris 
longitudinalibus adjectis, indutd ; radiatim costatd, costis nodosis, 
costis lateralibus grandibus, distantibus, crenato-nodosis ; ligamenti 
ared angustd, elongatd, declivi. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 16. f. 107. 

Hab. ? 

The nodules of the radiating ribs are arranged in longitudinal rows 
■svith so much regularity, that the sheU has all the appearance of 
being cancellated, the effect of which is increased by the bristles of 
the epidermis being deposited only between the nodules. 

Arca volucris. Arca testd subęuadratd, gibbosd, naviculari, late- 
ribus superne angulatis, antico infra rotundato, postico angulato, 
carind acutd ab umbone ad marginėm decurrente ,■ albidd, fusco 
sparsim iinctd ; striis elevatis longitudinalibus et transversis decus- 
satd, ared posticali costatd, costis latiusculis, crenatis ; umboiiibus 
mucronatis, incurvatis ; ligamenti ared latissimd, nigro unimaculatd. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 16. f. 109. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (found under stones at low 
•vvater) ; Cuming. 

This species belongs to that division of the genus of Tvhich the 
Arca No(e is the tj'pe, and is nearest allied to the Arca imbricata. 

Arca ccelata. Arca testd ovato-guadratd, subcompressd, latere 
antico brevissimo, rotundato, postico angulato, margine ventrali 
bysso hiante ; albd ; radiatim costatd, costis liris angustis elevatis 
eleganter clathratis, interstitiis profunde excavatis, costis medianis 
ditplicatis, lateralibus confertim nodulosis ; umbonibus antice ad- 
jectis ; ligamenti ared angustd, profunde declivi. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 16. f. 110. 

Hab. ? 

The sculpture of this shell is of the most exquisite description, 
and reminds one forcibly of the delicate embossed carA'ing of the 
Chinese. 



127 

Akca cometa. Arca testd elongatd, latere antico brevissimo, at' 
tenuato, rotundato, postico longissimo, plano-angulato ; albidd ; 
radiatim striatd, striis elevatis, posticis latioribus, prominentibus, 
dislantioribus, subsquamosis ; umbonibus antice adjectis ; ligamenti 
ared angustd. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 16. f. 111. 

Hūb. Sorsogon, island of Luzon, Philippines ; Cuming. 

The posterior strise acąuire almost the importance of ribs. 

Arca oliva,cea. Arca testd ovato-guadratd, tenuiculu, subagui' 
laterali, lateribus rotvndatis ; albidd, epidermide olivaceo-fuscd 
teniii corned indutd ; subtilisshne radiatim striatd, striis numerosis, 
confertis ; ligamenti ared mediocri, umbonibus subcentralibus. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 1 G. f. 113. 

Hab. San Nicolas, island of Zebu (found in sandy mud at the deptli 
of four fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This shell is not much unlike the Arca lactea in general appear- 
ance ; it will be found, however, on examination to be a much thinner 
and more delicate shell, ■vvhilst the umbones are sharper and more 
closely approximated. 

Arca minuta. Arca testd orbiculari-ovatd, subacuivalvi, lateribus 
superne angulatis, infra rotundatis ; albidd, subpellucidd, epider- 
mide tenui molli indutd; radiatim striatd ; ligamenti ared latius- 
culd, ligamento parvo, centrali. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 17. f. 112. 

Hab. Philippine Islands (found in coarse sand at the depth of six 
fathoms) ; Cuming. 

A very minute species, which cannot be referred to any hitherto 
described. 

Arca navicella. Arca testd ąuadrato- elongatd, subcompressd, 
lateribus superne angulatis, antico infra rotundato, postico angu- 
lato, carind ub umbone ad marginėm decurrente ; radiatim striatd; 
albidd, f usco postice sparsim strigatd ; ligamenti ared elongatd. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 17. f. 114. 

Hab. Calapan, island of Mindoro, Philippines (found in coarse sand 
at the depth of ten fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This is a little species of the Arca Nocc or navifonn group. 

Arca lateralis. Arca testd obUqu> trapeziformi, lateribus superne 
angulatis, antico brevissimo, postico latissitno, obligue expanso ; 
radiatim costatd, costis numerosis, angiistis, crenatis, epidermide 
subpilosd indutd; ligamenti ared parvd. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 17. f. 115. 
Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

The peculiarly obliąue growth of this species renders it extremely 
interesting. The posterior side of the shell is radiated w'ith lines of 
fine dark hair rising from between the crenulations of about everr 
third rib. 

Arca symmetrica. Arca testd subguadratd, gibbosd, lateribus 



128 

superrie acuti angulatis, antico infra rotundato, postico angulato ; 
viridescente ; striis longitudinalibus et radiantibus crenulato-decus- 
satd ; Ugamenti ared latiusculd, Ugamento iiarvo, centrali. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 17. f. 117. 

Hab. Philippine Islands, bay of Manila ; Singapore (found under 
stones at low water) ; Cuming. 

The ligament of this species occupies only a very small diamond- 
shaped space between the umbones. 

Arca sculptilis. Arca testu oblongo-quadratd, lateribus superne 
angulatis, infra obtuso-rolundatis ; albd; striis longitudinalibus et 
radiantibus elevatis suhtilissime clathratd ; Ugamenti ared latius- 
culd. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 17. f. 118. 

Hab. Baclayon, island of Bohol, Philippines (found in sandy mud 
at the depth of seventeen fathonis) ; Cuming. 

The engraved sculpture of this shell is of a more prominent cha- 
racter than that of the preceding species. 

Arca Zebuensis. Arca testd subguadratd, gibbosd, lateribus su- 
perne angulatis, infra oblique rotundatis ; fuscescente, epidermide 
violli indutd ; radialini sublilissime striatd ; Ugamenti ared latius- 
culd, Ugamento parvo, centrali. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 17. f. 120. 

Hab. Island of Zebu, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

The ligament, as in the Arca symmetrica, occupies merely a small 
diamond-shaped space bet\veen the umbones. 

Arca striata. Arca testd subguadrato-oblongd , lateribus obtuse 
rotundatis ; fuscescente, epidermide molli indutd ; radiatim striatd, 
striis elevatis, confertis, posticis distantioribus ; Ugamenti ared 
latiusculd, dcclivi. 
Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 17. f. 121. 

Hab. } 

This shell approaches very nearly to the Arca lactea, but it is yet 
distinct ; the posterior side is longer, it is a more compressed shell, 
and the posterior strise are more widely spread. 

Arca pulchella. Arca testd ovatd, gibbosd, lateribus superne 
attenttatis, antico brevissimo ; albd ; laminis longitudinalibus pro- 
minent ibus, pulcherrime fmbriatis, ornatd ; Ugamenti ared antice 
latiusculd ; umbonibus anticis. 

Conch. Icon. Arca, pi. 17. f. 122. 

Hab. Algeria. 

This species is \vell distinguished from any yet described by the 
very beautifully fimbriated longitudinal laminre. 

"Description of the Felis Melanura," by R. Bali, Esq., Secretary 
to the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland. 

" Felis melanura, n. s. ? — Size larger than the Margay, but propor- 
tionately slighter ; on the fore-toes are longitudinal black stripes, on 



129 

the hind-toes spots. Three irregular narrow stripes of white on the 
sides, connected by anastomosing branches, divide the coloured part 
into island-like irregular spaces, which are black on the edges, 
shading into fulvous in the centre ; these island-like spaces are spotted 
with black. The tail nearly touches the ground, is pointed and 
black, save at the under part near the anus, where it is marked with 
a little white, and shows as it were an imperfect attempt at annula- 
tiou. The back is black, with a bright fulvous fleur-de-lis sort of 
marking on the neck ; a narrow band of fulvous crosses below the 
čcapulae, from which run at right angles down the back to the rump 
two indistinct stripes of the šame colour, about half an inch apart ; 
the inside of the ears is fulvous, the outside black, with a white spot 
on each ; the belly white, beautifully but irregularly spotted •svith 
black ; a very distinct black band crosses the chest ; a \vhite spot on 
the lower eyelid and another longer on the upper ; the cheeks are ful- 
vous, striped with black ; the forehead is fulvous, omamented with 
black, two stripes of which run up the forehead from the eyes, parallel 
to each other ; they are connected together above : immediatel}'^ over 
the e}'es are four longitudinal spots ; above these may be traced three 
more irregular, and over these three, two, the three sets of spots 
being as it were ranged in ranks. The fulvous colour is chiefly con- 
fined to the fore-part of the animal. It was presented to the Royal 
Zoological Society of Ireland in the beginning of 1843 by Payraaster 
J. M'Creagh, of the 32nd Regiment. The foregoing description 
was taken in January 1844, and the animal was presented to the 
London Zoological Societj' in May 1844: when first obtained its 
colouring wa3 very indistinct and confused ; since the description 
■\vas written some trifling change has taken place, particularly in the 
extension of the white on the tail, which makes the name not quite 
80 applicable as it was." 

Mr. Prichard read his paper " On the Crania of the Laplanders 
and Finlanders, with observations on the differences they presented 
from other European races." 

" Little has hitherto been done to elucidate the physical characters 
of the Ugrian or Ugorian races, under which term late \vriters have 
comprised the Finns and Lappes, the Magyars or Hungarians, and 
Severai nations of Siberia*. 

" This is owing to the fact that but few specimens of the škulis of 
these nations exist in any of the collections in Europe, and fe\v and 
by no means perfect descriptions of them have been published. 
Blumenbach has given in his ' Decades Craniorum' a representation 
of the skuU of a Lappe, and he describes it as approaching altogether 
to the Mongolian variety. Dr. Hueck gives an account of the ap- 
pearance and general physical characters of the Esthonian Finns, 
and sums up his observations by pointing out some very considerahle 
differences which he finds between them and the Mongolian form ; 
in fact he says that he can discover nothing common to the IMongo- 

* Der Usrische Volkstainm von F. H. MUUer. 



130 

lian and Esthonian skuUs, except a certain sąuareness of figure, which 
is not constant. 

" From these statements we should be led to suppose that there is 
a great difference betvveen the škulis of the Finns and Lappes, and we 
should be inclined to adopt the opinion maintalned by Lehrberg, 
that they are two separate and distinct races, his argument being 
founded upon the moral as well as the physical diversities between 
thęm*. 

" On the other hand, the history of the people, and especially the 
great similarity of their languages, go far to prove a near relationship 
between the Finnish and Lappish nations ; nor is a greater or less 
degree of civilization to be looked upon as a proof of diversity of 
origin, although it may be the cause of all the moral, and possibly 
of the physical differences also, vhich exist bet\veen the Finns and 
Lappes. 

" From this uncertainty it becomes much more important to ascer- 
tain, by the examination of their škulis, what the physical character- 
istics of each nation are, and whether they exhibit any points of 
resemblance which may confirm the supposition that there is affinity 
between them, or whether, on the contrarj% a sufficient degree of 
dissimilarity can be made out, from an accurate examination, to en- 
title us to set them do'\\'n as separate races, and to class them with 
difFerent grand divisions of the human species ; whether, in short, 
these dilFerences, if any such are found, are more than can be ac- 
counted for by the diversity of climate and modes of life ^hich are 
well known long to have existed between them. 

'•' The examination of these skuUs for the purpose of furnishing an 
accurate description of their appearance is interesting in another 
point of view. In Scandinavia and in Denmark there are numerous 
tumuli •vvhich contain osteological remains of former inhabitants, and 
it is a disputed point Avhether they are the remains of a Finnish ab- 
original stock or of Cimbrian or some unkno\vn race, since they differ 
from the old German remains. Now if \ve could establish a correct 
notion of the Finnish description of skuU, we should have no diffi- 
culty in deciding whether the remains before mentioned belonged to 
this stock. 

" Having four specimens of these skuUs, t\vo of Finns and two of 
Laplanders, vvhich my father has received through the kindness of 
Dr. Ilmoni and Mr. Daniel Wheeler, of Bristol, I have an opportunity 
of examining their peculiarities and of comjiaring them -vvith each 
other and with the skuUs of other Europeans, Chinese, American 
Indian, and the Esquimaux, the latter of which is a most remarkable 
specimen of the pyramidal and broad-faced skull. 

" Upon taking a general view of these skuUs, there are no remark- 
able features which strilce us so forcibly as those which -vve see in the 
conformation of the Esquimaux. In fact, the only point -svorthy of 

* Lehrberg, iiber die AVohnsitte der Jemen, ein Beitrag zur Geschichte 
Neu-Finnlands, in Untersuchuugen zur Erlatiterung der alteii Geschichte 
Russlands. 



131 

notice here, before we commence the particular description, is a de- 
gree of general breadth in the face superior to that which is seen in 
the European generally, ■u'hich gives to the whole an appearance of 
sąuareness when the lower ja\v is attached, and causes the actual 
shortness of the face, uhich is remarkable in these škulis, to become 
still more apparent. The general resemblance between the Finnish 
škulis and those of the Lappes is as strong as between four average 
European crania, even belonging to the sarae nation, and altogether 
their contour decidedly approaches what Blumenbach calls the Mon- 
golian form of skull, the head appearing, as it has been noticed by 
an ocular observer, ' of the shape of a pent-house.' 

" It will be found, ho\vever, that it is more especially in a close 
and minute examination that difFerences are seen to exist between 
the Lappes and Finns, on the one hand, and the European škulis on 
the other. 

" Viewed from above and behind, there is a slight difference obser- 
vable between the Finu and the Lappe : the posterior part of the Lajjpe 
is larger than the anterior, \vhile the form of the Finn is more regu- 
lar and rounded ; that is, the line betvveen the parietal protuberances 
exceeds the transverse diameter of the forehead more in the Lappe 
than in the Finn. I find, however, that there is equal difference 
in this respect bet\veen t\vo European škulis even of the šame nation. 
Again, from the šame point of view the škulis of the Lappes present 
a centrai eminence or ridge, upon looking at the outline of the fore- 
head (being the line of junction of the two halves of the frontai bone), 
\vhich is much less marked, in fact scarcely discemible in the Finn, 
and altogether absent in the European, being on the contrary very 
strikingly prominent in the Esquimaux. Examined anteriorly, how- 
ever, a general view of these škulis gives us exactly opposite results ; 
for the sagittal suture, \vhich is now the median line, and the con- 
tinuation backwards of the frontai suture of early life, upon looking 
at the outline or horizon of the skull, is seen to project decidedly 
more in the Finn than in the Lappe ; in both more than in other 
Europeans. Hence we may fairly lay down, that the škulis of the 
Finns and Lappes have (as far only as the vault of the cranium, ex- 
clusive of any effect produced by the \vidth of the face, allows us to 
conclude,) more tendency to the pyraraidal form than the European, 
but less than the Esquimaux. 

" Examining these skuUs anteriorly, taking into consideration the 
face, the triangular form is very evident, partly in conseąuence of 
the fact above mentioned respecting the vault of the cranium, and 
partly in conseąuence of the great ^vidth between the external sur- 
faces of the malar bones, \vhich in actual measurement in the two 
Lappes and the two Finns exceeds the length of the šame diameter 
in other Europeans by atleast half an inch, and in one case by nearly 
an inch, being equal to the šame diameter in the Esquimaux ; in the 
latter, however, which exhibits the pyramidal shape in a remarkable 
degree, the form is owing as much to the shape of the forehead as 
to the lateral projection of the anterior roots of the zygoraatic pro- 
cesses. This \vidth across the face is, as has been correctly observed 



132 

by Dr. Hueck, not o\ving to the increased breadth or altered shape 
in the malar bone, so much as to the altered width and direction of 
the malar process of the superior maxillary bone. 

"The outline of the extemal surface of this bone, viewed from a 
jjoint exactly in front of the skull ; that is to say, the line which 
runs from the furthest molar tooth that is visible irom this point to 
the suture connecting the malar and superior maxillar)^ bones, is, in 
the generality of European crania, either vertical, or sometimes even 
inclined inwards and upwards in the first part of its course, after- 
wards tuming outwards to form the commencement of the zygoma. 
In the Esquimaux this line runs obliąuely upwards and outwards, at 
an angle of 45° from its commencement ; and in the škulis of the 
Finns and Lappes it is intermediate to the two directions, being 
however still inclined outwards. This obliquity is also decidedly 
more marked in the Finns than in the Lappes. 

" Upon this the anterior vie\v, more of the lateral aspect of the 
lovver JH%v is seen than is ordinarily observed, in conseąuence partly 
of the greater distance bet\veen the condyles, which will be again 
noticed in the examination of the base of the skull, and partly from 
the fact that the angles project more in a lateral direction, the entire 
bone being apparently more developed than in other Europeans. 

" With respect to some more minute points regarding these škulis, 
the superciliary ridges are well-marked, the ossa naši, and the ascend- 
ing processes of the superior maxillary bones present a flatter and 
broader anterior surface than the European, and the cavities and fora- 
mina are ^vell-marked. [In all these four škulis the supraorbital 
opening for the frontai nene and artery is a complete foramen upon 
the left side, and merely a notch upon the right.] 

" In conseąuence of the greater ■\vidth of the superior maxillary 
bone, the shape of the circumference of the orbit is not so round as in 
the generahty of European škulis, where the external inferior angle 
is the lowest, but it is sąuare, with the angles rounded ; and for the 
šame reason the space for the antrum is increased, while the depth 
of the infraorbital or canine fossa is very materially decreased : in 
one of the Finnish škulis this surface, from the inferior edge of the 
orbit to tlie alveolar processes, is almost plane. There is nothing 
remarkable in the nasal aperture. The shajie of the orbit differs 
materially from that of the Esquimaux, where it is almost round, and 
from that in the skull of an Indian of the Sioux tribe, where it much 
resembles the European. 

" The distance from the inferior edge of the nasal aperture, that is, 
from the anterior nasal spine to the margin of the alveolar process, 
is in every specimen of these skuUs of the Finns and Lappes decidedly 
less than in any other European \vith 'vvhich I have compared them. 
The teeth are much ground. 

'' A lateral vie\v of these crania shows that the forehead is some- 
what more receding than in the generalitj- of Europeans, although the 
difFerence is not great, probably not more than is freąuently seen be- 
tvveen two specimens of the šame tribe. 

"The general shape of the head resembles that of the European 



133 

anteriorly, but the posterior part does not project so much. There is 
a marked difference between the posterior projection of the Finas 
and Lappes and that of the Esquimaux, the latter being much more 
prominent. 

" The line which represents the outline of the ossa naši, &c., /. e. the 
profilc of the face of the skuU, presents much less marked irregulari- 
ties than the European in geueral. Thus although, as I have before 
observed, the superciliary ridges are weil-marked, the frontai bone 
does not overhang the ossa naši, as in the latter, where a decided 
angle is formed. In the Esquimaux the line from the forehead to 
the nose is nearly straight, and in the skuUs of an Indian of the Sioux 
tribe and a Chitamache Indian the curve is very regular and open. 
The junction of the nose and forehead in the Lappes and Finns is 
therefore more angular than either of the three last-mentioned crania, 
but much less so than the European. 

" Upon this the side view another remarkable fact is observed. The 
occipital bone being not so much developed downwards as in other 
Europeans (we observed just now that it had less posterior projection 
also), and the posterior edge of the lo\ver jaw, from the condyle to 
the angle, being longer than in the latter, upon placing the skull 
upon a table or any plane horizontai surface, the inferior maxilla 
merely touches it by its angle, not resting upon the base of the jaw, 
as w'e observe in the English, Irish, ancient Irish (cast), Sioux, 
Italian and Mulatto škulis. The only ones which have this character 
in common with the Lappes and Finns are the Negro and the skull 
of a Hindu. 

"The angle of the lovver jaw is certainly more obtuse, seen upon 
comparing škulis in which the molar teeth remain perfect. In the 
form and direction of the coronoid process there seems to be no great 
difiFerence. 

"The temporal fossse are well-marked, and in one of the Finnish 
skuUs the anterior inferior angles of the parietal bones are connected 
to the great ^ings of the sphenoid by means of an os wormianum 
upon either side. This is not unfrequently the case in other crania. 

" The general shortness of the face which has been observed to exist 
in these škulis, is more plainly seen by viewing them from the side, 
when we find that the inferior edge of the malar bone is very little 
higher than the edge of the alveolar process. This is owing not so 
much to the want of development downwards of these processes, 
although I have already noticed the shortness of the space between 
the nose and the mouth, but to the great breadth (from above down- 
■vvards) of the malar bone, measured from its free inferior border to 
its junction with the extemal orbitai process of the frontai bone ; 
and it is a remarkable fact, that this measurement, in all the speci- 
mens of the škulis of Finns and Lappes, considerably exceeds that 
of any of the other specimens of European nations, and is equal to 
that of the Esquimaux and American skuUs. The breadth of this 
surface of the malar bone in one Finn much exceeds that of any 
which I have had an opportunity of measuring. 

" Thus the shortness of the face i» more apparent upon the lateral 



134 

view of the cranium, in conseąuence of the additional width of the 
malar bone. 

" The general shape of the basis cranii presents nothingvery stri- 
king, -vvith the exception of the zygomatic arches. The foramen 
magnum is of a more oval form than usual, and there appears to be 
scarcely as great a development of the occipital bone. This agrees 
■with what we observed when considering the lateral aspect of these 
škulis, and ■with what has previously been noticed by Dr. Hueck re- 
specting the space for the cerebellum, which, upon an examination 
of the interior of the cranium, is said to be small, in conseąuence of 
the sUght concavity of the inferior occipital fossa. The condyles of 
the occipital bone are remarkably large, being, in three out of four 
of these škulis, an inch in the long axis, and in one of them (the Finn) 
longer. They are not unusually broad. This is not the case in any 
other European cranium which I have examined, but is seen in the 
Hindu, Chitamache Indian, and to a certain extent in the Esquimaux. 
There mušt doubtless have been a much greater freedom of motion 
backwards and forwards in these joints than is usually the case. 

" The zygomatic arches, which are best seen at the base, are much 
more curved than in the other Europeans, slightly less so than in 
the Esquimaux ; and the anterior projection of the alveolar processes 
beyond the anterior termination of the zygoma is also intermediate 
between the European and the Esquimaux. 

" The glenoid cavities are flatter, more -vvidely separated, and not 
so well-defined as in the European generally, and a difference corre- 
sponding to this is seen in the lower jaw, -n'here the condyles, besides 
being more widely separated from one another, are also more rounded 
in form, allowing of a greater degree of lateral motion. In corre- 
spondence \vith this fact we also find that the pterygoid processes of 
the sphenoid bone, especially the external platės, are \videned and 
enlarged, extending farther outwards, afFording a greater space for 
the attachment of the pterygoid museles, ■vv'hose duty it is to perform 
the lateral or grinding motion in mastication. I mentioned above 
the corresponding fact of the teeth being much wom down. 

'• The ridges for the attachment of the museles on the palate bone 
are well-marked, and viewed from below it is seen that the alveolar 
processes do not project so much from the horizontai part of the 
palate ; that is, that the entire hard palate presents a general curve 
throughout, instead of being at first plane ■vvith a sudden bend, or 
almost an angle, which is seen at the point where the alveolar pro- 
cesses are given ofF in the generality of European skuUs. 

" These skuUs of the Finns and Lappes are very solid and heavy. 

" Although this description of the Finnish skuUs corresponds in 
very many respects vvith that given by Dr. Hueck, yet the examination 
leads us to an exactly opposite conclusion, viz. that there are very 
many points in common betvveen the Finn and the races characterized 
by the pyramidal-shaped skull, and the conclusion vvith regard to the 
Lappe corresponds to that which was published by Professor Blu- 
menbach. We are hence able to lay down, that there is no important 
difference between the skuUs of the Finns and Lappes, but that, on 



135 

the contrary, there is a very great resemblance between them ; that 
altoo-ether they are more nearly allied to the Hyperborean forin than 
to the European ; and that if any difference does exist between them, 
it is that the Finns approach more nearly to this conformation of 
skull than the Lappes." 

Mr. Gould exhibited a specimen of an Australian Bird, which he 
described as follows : — 

PoDicEPS AusTRALis. P. guoūd colorem, P. cristato consimilis. at 
cristd collari in medio latiiis et saturatiūs castaned, et ad apicem 

IdtiiiS TltOVCt* 

Crown of the head and occipital tufts black ; friU black at the outer 
edge and chestnut in the centre, gradually passing into buflfy white 
on the face ; upper surface and wings dark brown ; scapulanes and 
secondaries pure white ; all the under surface silvery white, stained 
with brown and chestnut on the flanks ; irides red ; biU dark horn- 
colour ; upper surface of the tarsi and toes dark olive-green ; under 
surface pale yeUow. 

Totai length, 24 inches; bill, 2|; wing, 1\ ; tarsi, 2^. 

Hah. Australia and Van Diemen's Land. 

EmarA.— Nearly allied to P. cristatus, but differs in bemg some- 
\vhat larger in size, and in having the frill fuller and of a blacker hue 
than in that species. 



136 



August 27, 1844. 

Richard C. Griffith, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Fraser read a description of a ne\v species of Crowned Pigeon 
from Ne\v Guinea, now in the Gardens of the Society. In honour 
of Her Most Gracious Majesty, the Patroness of the Society, he pro- 
posed the name of 

LoPHYRUS ViCTORiA*. L. ptUose saturafe cceruleo-grised ; singulis 
plumis crista apice barbato caruleo, albo marginato ; pectore cas- 
taneo ; tectricibus alarum majoribus cinereo-cceruleis, castaneo 
marginatis. 

The general colour of this species is an intense blue-grey, becoming 
lighter on the head ; the chest is deep chestnut ; the larger -vving- 
coverts are light blue-grey, tipped Avith dark chestnut; the head is 
surmounted with a crest, each feather of which is of a similar con- 
struction as that of Columbus coronatus, but spreading into a spatu- 
late form at the extremities, of a blue colour, bordered with \vhite ; 
there is also a dark mark passing through the eye ; irides vermilion. 

In size it is somewhat larger than C. coronatus. 

Hab. New Guinea. 

This lovely species is closely allied to C. coronatus, but difFers from 
that bird in having terminai points to the crest-feathers, in the darker 
colouring, in having chestnut on the breast instead of the back and 
shoulders, and in having the larger \ving-coverts pale blue-grey, ter- 
minated vith chestnut, in the place of •vvhite, tipped with chestnut. 

" Description of new species of Ranella," by Loveli Reeve, Esq. 

Ranella albivaricosa. Ran. testu oblongo-ovatu, depressiusculd, 
varicibus tubercuUs subspiiiosis prominentibus armatis ; anfractibits 
leviter angulatis, tubercuUs subspinosis in/ra angulum biseriatim 
armatis, transversitn elevato-striatis, inferne liratis, striis liriscue 
leviter undulatis, subtilissime granulatis ; albd, rufescente-fusco 
tinctd, varicibus niveis ; aperturd oblongo-ovali, utringue canali- 
culald, fauce pallide purpurascente ; labro dentato et sulcato. 

Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 1. f. 2. 

Murex runa, Linnaeus ; Martini, Conch.. vol. iv. pi. 183. f. 1270-71. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

How comes it to pass that this common and peculiarly character- 
istic species has escaped the notice of so many good discriminating 
conchologists \vho have written on the genus ? 

* " Lophijrus, VieilI. (1816); Goura, Steph. (1819); Megapelia, Kaup 
(183C) ; Plilophijrus, Swains. (1837)." G. R. Gray's • Genera of Birds.' 



137 

Ranella pustulosa. Rati. testd ovatd, subdepressd, ponderosd, 
castaned; anfractihus pustularum grandium seriebus duabus tri- 
busve Uvido-castaneis cingulatis ; varicibus granuloso-liratis ; colu' 
melld granuloso-rugosd, rugis albidis ; labro planissimi fimbriato, 
superne sinuato,fusco, radiatim albisulcato. 
Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 3. f. 11. 
Hab. Ascension Island. 

This shell appioximates so closely to the Ranella ccelata in the 
style and character of its sculpture, that a specimen or two of difFer- 
ent ages seem all that is necessary to exhibit a complete specific 
connection bet\veen them ; it has ho\vever been demonstrated by the 
researches of two gentlemen of perhaps the greatest practical expe- 
rience, Mr. Cuming and Mr. Hinds, that no species of shell common 
to the western coast of South America has ever been discovered on 
the coast of Africa. 

Ranella ponderosa. Ran. testd acuminato-ovatd, crassd, pon- 
derosd, varicibus valde prominentibus ; anfractibus superne leviter 
angulatis, granulorum seriebus ci?igulatis, alternis graiiulis gran- 
dibus, bipartitis ; rubido-fuscd , lutescente ; columelld granulatd et 
rugosd ; canali brevi, subrecvrvo ; labro plano-incrassato, granu- 
loto, superni sinuato. 
Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 3. f. 14. 

Hab. ? 

The sculpture of this shell approaches very nearly to that of the 
Ranella ceelata ; it only reąuires however a slight examination of the 
specimens before me in diiferent stages of grovvth, to see that they 
are specifically distinct. 

Ranella nobilis. Ran. testd oblongo-ovatd, depressd, crassius- 
culd ; spird acuminatd, varicibus angustis, radiatim stellatis ; an- 
fractibus granuloso-liratis, prmcipue super varices, i?i niedio tuber- 
culatis, anfractu ultimo tuberculorutn seriebus duabus armato ; 
albidd , fuscescente subtiliter maculosd; columelld f ortiter rugosd ; 
aperturd oblongd, utrinque canaliculatd, fauce albd; labro f ortiter 
rugoso. 
Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 4. f. 16. 

Hab. > 

The form of this noble species is somewliat intermediate between 
that of the Ranella pulchra, or " Finned Frog," and the ordinary type 
of the genus, the varices exhibiting an indication of that peculiar 
star-like radiation common to the former, -whilst the aperture is of 
an oblong canaliculated form, with the wrinkled lip and columella 
of the latter. The sculpture most resembles that of the Ranella f o- 
liata. 

Ranella coriacea. Ran. testd oblongo-ovatd, depressiusculd, 
spird subobtusd, varicibus rotundatis ; anfractibus undique creber- 
rime granulatis, transversim costatis,costis latis, interdum subobso- 
letis ,irregulariter tumido-nodosis ; aurantio-fuscescente ; columelld 
sparsim rugosd; ajyerturd ovatd, utrinque leviter sinuatd ; labro 
intus radiatim denticulato. 



138 

Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 6. f. 26. 

Hab. ? 

This interesting species, -vvhich Mr. Cuming possesses in different 
stages of growth, is the shell figured by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, jun., in 
the ' Conchological lUustrations ' as a variety of his Ranella scrobi- 
culator (Triton scrobiculator, Lamarck and others) ; I think, how- 
ever, •vvith M. Deshayes, that it is " une coquille qui me parait tou- 
jours diffhente ; j'en ai vu plusieurs exemplaires et plusieurs figures, 
et j'ai observ^ des differences specifiques constantes. Cette soi-disant 
variui a plutot les caracteres des Ranelles que le Scrobiculator propre- 
vient dit, et c'est sans doute ce qui explique pourquoi un certain nomhre 
de conchyliologues veulent que le Scrobiculator soit une Ranelle. Pour 
nous, qui en avons vu l'animal, c'est un Triton." Note in new edition 
of Lamarck's Anim. sans vert., vol. ix. p. 626. 

Ranella livida. Ran. testd ovato-turritd, spird acuminatd ; an- 
fractibus superne depressis, ad suturam gramilatis, infra lavibus, 
transversim noduloso-liratis, in medio tuberculorvm seriebus duabus 
compressis armatis ; lividd, fuscescente varid; columelld subtiliter 
i'ugosd ; apertvrd ovatd, utrinque sinuatu; labro denticulato. 

Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 6. f. 28. 

Ranella granifera, Kiener (not of Lamarck). 

Hab. Island of Annaa, Pacific Ocean (found on the coral reefs) ; 
Cuming. 

I do not see how M. Kiener can identify this tuberculated shell 
■with Lamarck's description of Ranella granifera. 

Ranella plicata. Ran. testd oblongd, sub-Muriciformi ; anfrac- 
tibus rotundatis, scabris, longitudinaliter plicatis, in medio nodu- 
losis ; livido-olivaced, zona albidd in medio cinctd ; columelld Icevi, 
canali longiusculo. 

Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 7. f. 33. 

Hab. ? 

The plicated growth of this shell is developed Avith the neatest 
regularity from the apex to the margin. 

Ranella venustula. Ran. testd ovatd, crassiusculd, varicibvs 
valde obliquis ; anfractibus transversim costatis, gramilatis et 
punctatis, superne angulatis, prope suturam corrugatis, ad angu- 
lumfortiter tuberculatis ; columelld excavatd, nigricante-purpured, 
albigranulosd ; aperturd rotundd, utrinque canaliculatd, fauce 
roseo-purpured ; labro incrassato, nigro-purpureo. 

Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 7. f. 37. 

Hab. ? 

This species is remarkably characterized by its rich dark purple 
columella granulated vvith ^vhite. 

Ranella siphonata. Ran. testd ovatd, crassiusculd, varicibus 
perspicue canaliculatis ; anfractibus transversim rude costatis et 
tuberculatis, undique granulatis et punctatis, prope suturam cor- 
rugatis ; hteold ; columelld vix rugosd, roseo-purptirascente ; aper- 



139 

turu rotundd, fauce roseo-pitrpurascente, utrinque canaliculatd, 

vanali supero valde elato-siphonato. 
Var. /3. Testd ulbd aut luteold, nigro-cčerulescente fasciatd et punc- 

tatd ; columelld albd, aperttircs fauce albd. 
Concli. Icon., Ranella, pi. 7. f. 38. 
Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

I take tliis shell to be quite distinct from the dark variety of the 
Ranella bufonia to which it is allied. 

Ranella tuberosissima. Ran. testd ovatd, varicibus perspicui 
canaliculatis ; anfractibtis transvershn rude costatis, doi'suu tube- 
rosissiinis, vndique granulatis et punctatis, jjrope suturam corru- 
gatis ; albidd, nigro-ceerulescente jMHCtatd ; columelld Icevi, croced ; 
aperturd rotundd, vivide croced, utrinąue canaliculatd; canali 
supero elato-siphonato, superne intus nigricante tincto ; labrofor- 
titer dentato. 

Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 7. f. 39. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

An extraoidinary humped shell with a yellow moutli. 

Ranella triquetra. Ran. testd elongato-Muriciformi, varicihis 
superne mucronatis ; anfractibus angulatis, ad angulum tubercu- 
latis, supra Itevibus, infra obsolete Ui-atis ; livido-olivaced ; colu- 
melld l<evi ; canali longiusculo ; aperturd parvd ; labro vix denticu- 
lato. 

Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 7. f. 41. 

Hab. San Diego, Califomia; Nuttall. 

Quite distinct in my opinion from the R. Muriciformis, which is a 
flat pinnated shell. 

Ranella hastula. Ran. testd parvuld, sublanceolatd, depressd, 
ancipiti ; anfractibus fransversim granoso-striatis, lamellis elevatis 
indistincte diadematis ; castaneo-fuscd ; columella Icevi; canali 
brevi, recurvo ; aperturd parvd. 

Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 8. f. 42. 

Hab. ? 

This little dark granulated shell, though less pyramidal, is of simi- 
lar structure to the Ranella anceps. 

Ranella rosea. Ran. testd pyramidali-ovatd, varicibus subobli- 
guis ; anfractibus superne leviter angulatis, fransversim striatis, 
undiąue seriatim tuberculato-nodulosis, nodulis ad angulum bipar- 
titis ; vivide coccineo-rosed, nodulis luteis ; canali breviter recurvo, 
aperturd parvd. 

Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 8. f. 46. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines ; Cuming. 

This pretty little species exhibits a very agreeable contrast of co- 
lour, namely, yellow nodules upon a bright scarlet-rose ground. 

Ranella cuspidata. Ran. testd acuminato-ovatd, crassiusculd, 
solidu, varicibus obliquis ; anfractibus transversim noduloso-liratis, 
tuberculis duobus obtusis inter varices ornatis ; albidd, luteO' 



140 

aurantio plūs minusve tinctd ; columelld leevi ; canali hreviusculo, 
reatrvo ; aperturd pai~vd, ovato-rotundatd. 
Conch. Icon., Ranella, pi. 8. f. 48. 

Hah. Islands of Capul and Ticao, Philippines ; Cuming. 
This shell has somewliat the forra and general character of the 
Ranella bitubercularis , thougli it is of more solid growth and of a pe- 
culiar orange-yellow colour. 

" A continuation of a paper by Sylvanus Hanley, Esq., on new 
species of the genus Tellina, chlefly coUected by Hugh Cuming, Esq. 
in the Philippine Islands and Central America" : — 

Tellina Rodon. Tel. testd ohlongd, ienuissimd, compressiusculd , 
l(Bvi, nitidissimd, rosed,pellucidd, valde inceąuilaterali, ntrincue ro- 
tundatd ; margine ventrali convexiusculo ; dorsali anfice vix declivi 
et convexiusculo, postice subdeclivi ; latere postico brevi, subatte- 
nuato ; fiexurd obsoletd; dente laterali approxiviato, antico. Long. 
0-38; lat. 0-83 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming. 

Allied to coccinea, but more elongated and glossy. 

Tellina lux. Tel. testd sitbovali, tenui, pellucidd, compressd, 
nitidd, am'antid, sublčEvigatd, incequUateraU ; margine ventrali con- 
vexiusailo ; dorsali utringue subdeclivi, antice convexiusculo, pos- 
tice brevi et incurvato ; latere postico breviore obtusissitne biangu- 
lato ; extreniitate anticd obtuse rotundatd ; flexurd nulld ; dente 
laterali antico, approximato, distincto. Long. 0-55 ; lat. O' 80 poli. 

Hab. Philippines. Mus. Hanley. 

Two specimens of this rare shell, which possesses the general ap- 
pearance of T. psammotella, were selected by me from a large number 
of T. Philippinarum. 

Tellina hilaris. Tel. testd oblongo-cuneiformi, tenui, compres- 
siusculd, inaguilaterali, nitidd, leevi, rosed, albo biradiatd ; radiis 
latis, subrnediis ; margine ventrali convexiusculo ; dorsali anticft 
declivi, postice subrecto et valde declivi ; extremitate lateris antici 
longioris rotundatd ; cxtremitate posticd brevi, cuneiformi ; flex- 
urd obsoletd ; dente laterali unico, parvo, subapproximato. Long. 
0-37 ; lat. 0-62 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming. 

Possessing the general coutour of T. tenera, but more elongated 
and wedge-shaped. The colouring is rich and peculiar, being deep 
rose-colour, adorned \vith two broad \vhite rays, one leaning forvvards 
and the other with a posterior inclination. I suspect it comes to us 
from the Philippine Islands. 

Tellina juvenilis. Tel. testd ovato-subtrigond, tenui, pellucidd, 
nitidd, compressiusculd, rubro-aurantid, lavigatd, incEcuilaterali ; 
margine ventrali convexo aut convexiusculo ; dorsali antice sub- 
recto declivi, postice convexo et valde declivi ; latere antico longiore, 
subattenuato, rotundato ; postico brevi et obtuse subeuneiformi ; 



141 

vostd umbonali et įlexurd subobsoletis ; dente laleruli jjano, an- 

tico. Long. 0-45 ; lat. O' 60 poli. 
Hab. Philippines. 
Closely resembling the Mediterraneau variety of T. tenuis. 

Tellina vestalis. Tel. testd oblongo-angustd, tenuissimd, conve.v- 
iusculd, nitidd, Icevi, intus extusque nived, ineeguilaterali ; margine 
ventrali subrecto, paululum convexiusculo ; dorsali antice minime 
declivi et paululum convexiusculo, postice prope Ugamenttmi exca- 
vato, deinde declivi ; extremitate lateris antici longioris rotundatd ; 
extremitate posticd subeinarginatd, subattenuatd, obtuse biungulatd ; 
flexurd obsoletd ; dente laterali antico, approximato. Long. O' 60 ; 
lat. 1-13 poli. 

Hab. Isle of Negros ; in coral sand, at seven fathoms ; isle of Lu- 
zon ; in sandy mud, at six fathoms. 

Closely allied to the Tellinides truncatulus of Sowerby. 

Tellina vernalis. Tel. testd subovali, tenuissimd, compressius- 
culd, pellucidd, Icevi, nitidissimd, albido-rosed, valde inceguilaierali, 
utringue rotundatd ; margine ventrali convexiusculo ; dorsali utrin- 
que paululum convexiusculo, postice declivi, antice vix minime de- 
clivi ; latere antico producto , postico brevi ; flexurd obsolcin ; dente 
laterali minimo, antico, siibapproximato . Long. 0"40; lat. O" 63 
poli. 

Hab. Singapore ; soft sandy mud, at seven fathoms. 

The outline is some\vhat similar to T. lux, and both the texture 
and colouring are most delicate. 

Tellina spectabilis. Tel. testd ovato-trapeziformi,subtenui,ven- 
tricosd, maxime inesguilaterali, impolitd, intus extusque albidd, 
concentrice striatd ; striis rugosis, elevntis, tenuibus; margine ven- 
trali paululum convexo ; dorsali antice convexo et declivi, postice 
recto aut subincurvato et maxime declivi ; extremitate taleris antici 
longioris obtusd ; extremitate posticd truncato-cuneiformi, obtush 
biangulatd ; costd umbonali et flexurd conspicuis ; ligamento 
magno, haud prominente ; dentibus primariis minintis, lateralihus 
nullis. Long. 2-15 ; lat. 2-75 poli. 

Hab. Bay of Manila and island of Siąuijor; on coral sand, at lo\v 
Avater. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

Allied to the ephippium of Spengler, but easily distinguished by 
the extreme disparity of its sides. 

Tellina grandis. Tel. testd ovali, subtrigond, solidd, convexd, 
subi7i(equivalvi, Icevi, subimpolitd , intus extusque albidd, antice ro- 
tundatd ; margine ventrali convexiusculo ; dorsali utringue declivi, 
postice recto aut subrecto, antice vix convexiusculo ; extremitats 
lateris antici brevioris obtusd ; flexurd costdgue umbonali subobso- 
letis ; ligamento magno ; dentibus lateralibus nullis. Long. 2"40 ; 
lat. 3-30 poli. 

Hab. Tumbez, Peru. 

A large species, which assumes the appearance of a Lutraria. An 



142 

extremely thin greenish ashy epidermis is pereeptible near the lovver 
margin. 

Tellina Bruguieri. Tel. testd rotundato-trigond, solidd, subcegui- 
laterali, convextl, impoUtd, intus extusque alhidd, sublcBvigatd, 
antice obtusa, poslice rotitndatd ; margine ventrali convexo aut 
subarcuato ; dorsali postice elevatiore, valde declivi et paululum 
convexo, antice arcuato et declivi; natibus prominentibus, antice 
incumbottibus ; flcxurd costdque umbonali obsoletis; ligamento 
infosso ; lunula parvd ; dentibus primariis maximis, lateralibus 
nullis. Long. l'oO; lat. 1"80 poli. 
Hab. Ilo-Ilo, isle of Panhay ; hard sand. 

This species is evidently represented at plate 231. figure 2. of the 
' Encyclopedie Mėthodiąue,' but as no name accompanies the deline- 
ation, I have assigned to it its present one, in honour of the illustrious 
author of the letter-press to that work. 

Tellina gubernaculūm. Tel. testd subovatd, subintecuivalvi, 

tenui, compressiiisculd, Icevi, extus intusgue albidd, valde inceqm- 

laterali ; margine ventrali conveiiusculo, antice sursum acclinante ; 

dorsali, antice magis minusve convexo et declivi, postice recto brevi, 

et subito declivi; extremitate lateris antici longioris attenuato 

rotundatd; extremitate posticd brevissimd, truncato-cuneiformi ; 

fiexura costdcue umbonali obsoletis ; ligamento infosso ; dentibus 

primariis parvis, lateralibus nullis. Long. 1"45 ; lat. l'90poll. 

Hab. Real Liejos, Central America ; in sandy mud, seven fathoms, 

Closely allied to the truncata of Jonas, but that species is much 

thicker and its shorter extremity simply wedge-shaped. 

Tellina formosa. Tel. testd obovatd, convexiusaild, valde incB- 
guilaterali, albidd, radiis interruptis roseis, striisgue minutis con- 
fertis obliguis, undigue ornatd ; margine ventrali convexo ; dorsali 
utringue convexiusculo, antice subdeclivi, postice valde declivi; 
extremitate lateris antici producti rotundatd, postici brevissimi 
obtusissime angulatd ; fiexurd subobsoletd ; dentibus lateralibus 
nullis. Long. 0'43 ; lat. 0-55 poli. 
Hab. Daleguete, Zebu ; sandy mud at ten fathoms. 
The absence of lateral teeth, the general shape, the brilliant colour- 
ing and minute obliąue striae, unite in rendering this unique shell 
easily distinguishable from any species of this genus. 

Tellina Sol. Tel. testd oblongo-ellipticd, solidiusculd, compressd, 
nitida, rubro-aurantid, alterd in valvuld concentrice substriatd, 
alterd sublcevigatd ; margine ventrali convexo, postice sursum ac- 
clinante ; dorsali utringue subdeclivi, conveiiusculo ; latere antico 
longiore, ad extremitatem rotundato ; eatremitate posticd in juni- 
oribus subacuminatd, in adultis obtuse angulatd ; natibus planulatis ; 
ligamento infosso ; dente laterali unico, antico, distincto. Long. 
2-40; lat. 4-25 poli. 

Hab. r- } Mus. Cuming, Metcalfe. 

This truly magnificent shell unites the aspect of the acuta of Wood 
to the brilliant hues of T.foliacea. The concentric striae are ex- 



\ 



143 

tremely fine and regular, but become stronger and more decided 
towards the lower margin, where obsolete radiating lines are likewise 
perceptible. The smoother valve of Mr. Cuming's superb specimen 
is rayed with paler streaks, but this is not the case in the few other 
specimens I have ever beheld of this gorgeous species. The apex is 
colourless and not rosy as in acuta. 

,j4''Tellina virgo. Tel. testd ovato-oblongd, teniiissimd, planulatd, 
jj^'"'' nitidissimd, nived, pellucidd, striis obliįuis flexuosis subremotis in 

valvuld uirdgue ornatd ; margine ventrali convexiusculo ; dorsali 
antico magis minusve declivi, convexo ; latere postico breviore, sub- 
cuneiformi ; flexurd costdque umbonali obsoletis ; ligatnento satis 
prominente ; dente laterali antico, parvo, subapproximato . Long. 
0-55 ; lat. 0-92 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming. 

Allied to the Iris of Say, but much larger. The remote obliąue 
striie entirely cease before arriving at the hinder extremity. It is 
the most pellucid and glassy-looking bivalve I am acquainted with. 

Tellina imbellis. Tel. testd ellipticd, incBquivalvi, solidiusculd, 
extus intusque albidd, nitidd, valde incEąuilaterali ; alterd valvuld 
IcEvi, complanatd; alterd convexd et lineis concentricis elevatis, 
postice slriatd ; margine ventrali convexo ; dorsali antico convex- 
iusculo et paululhn declivi; extremitate lateris antici longioris 
rotundatd ; extremitate posticd obtusi angulatd ; ligamento promi- 
nente ; flexurd nulld ; dente laterali antico, minimo, approximato. 
Long. 0-90; lat. 1-50 poli. 

Hab. ? 

Closely resembiing a Psammobia, the. minute lateral tccth being 
scarcely visible. 

Tellina Valtonis. Tel. testd ovato-oblongd, fragili, complanatd, 
subinteguilaterali, nitidissimd, pellucidd, rosed, radiis geminis albi- 
dis postice ornatd, lineisgue minutis concentrice substriatd ; mar- 
gine ventrali convexiusculo ; dorsali antico subdeclivi, convexo ; 
extremitate posticd paululilm breviore, vix rotundato-angulatd ; 
flexurd, costdgue umbonali, obsoletis ; dente laterali antico, parvo, 
subapproximato. Long. 0*53 ; lat. O" 72 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. MetcaJfe. 

I have named this shell in honour of W. Walton, Esq., whose rich 
coUection has proved of great service to rae in my investigation of 
the very numerous species of this beautiful genus. It difFers from 
exilis by the absence of regular subobliąue striulse and by the hinder 
extremity not being decidedly wedge-shaped. 

Tellina frigida. Tel. testd ovali, solidiusculd, convexd, incegui- 
laterali, nitidd, albidd {intus candidd), Icevigatd, utringue rotun- 
datd; margine ventrali convexo ; dorsali antico, subdeclivi, convexo ; 
latere postico plane breviore ; natibus inconspicuis ; Jlexurd, cos- 
tdgue umbonali, obsoletis ; dentibus primariis minimis, lateralibus 
nullis. Long. 0-70; lat. 1 poli. 

Hab. Kamtschatka. Mus. Petit, Hanley. 

I am indebted to M. Petit de la Saussaye for the possessionof this 



144 

rare species. It is closely allied to the edentula of Sowerby, but 
the beaks are more prominent in that species, and its posterior ter- 
mination more angular. 

Teli.ina elongata. Tel. testd oblongo-angustd, subtenui, subven- 
tricosd, intiis extusque albd, lavigatd, valde inacuilaterali, antice 
rotundatd ; margine ventrali medio subretuso, antice sursum accli- 
nante ; dorsali antice convexiusculo et vix paiilulum dedivi.postice 
prodncto, recto aut subretuso satisque declivi ; latere postico brevi, 
truncato-acumuiato hiante ; ligamento subinfosso ; fiexurd sub- 
obsoletd ; dentibus lateralibus nullis. Long. 1'12 ; lat. 2"20poll. 

Hab. Chiquiqui, West Columbia ; in sand at three fathoms. 

The extremely narro\v shape, and the peculiarity of its upper and 
lower edges being almost parallel, separate it from the raajority of 
its section ; it is however closely allied to the sacceeding species. 

Tellina ASSiMiLis. Tel. testd T. elongatse simillimd, sed magis 
ventricosd, et extremitate j)Osticd contortd, subrostratd. Long. 
0-45 ; lat. 0-95 poli. 

Hab. Isle of Luzon ; in sandy mud, six fathoms. 

Tellixa inornata. Tel. testd ovato-oblongd, subtenui, subventri- 
cosd, impolitd, sub(BquilateraU, sordide albidd, epidermide tenui et 
cinered indutd, Uevigatd ; marginis ventralis parte medid rectd aut 
subretusd; dorsalis parte anticd convexiusculd et paululum declivi, 
parte posticd subdeclivi ; extremitate anticd rotundatd, posticd 
attenuito-rotundatd ;fexurd, costdąue umbonali, obsoletis ; dentibus 
lateralibus nullis. Long. 0-82 ; lat. 1-30. 

Hab. Conception, Chili ; soft mud, six fathoms. 

A fossil-like shell, which is devoid of striking characteristics, and 
much resembles an elongated Edentula. 

Tellina cygnus. Tel. testd ovatd aut ovato-oblongd, solidiusculd, 
subaguilaterali, convexd, extus nitidd, intusgue candidd, concentrice 
substriatd ; margine ventrali convexiusculo ; dorsali antice sub- 
recto et paululum declivi, postice recto et valde declivi ; extremi- 
tate anticd rotundatoobtusd, posticd cuneiformi, subrostratd; 
flexurd ventrali distinctd ; ligamento infosso ; superficie internd 
submargaritaced ; dentibus lateralibus nullis. Long. 0"40 ; lat. 
0-63 poli. 

Hub. Bias, isle of Negros ; coral sand, seven fathoms. 

Closely resembling corbuloides in shape, but narro\ver, possessing 
distinct concentric strire, and devoid of lateral teeth. 

Tellina Dombei. Tel. testd obovatd, incequilateraU, solidd aut 
solidiusculd, convexd aut subventricosd, impolitd, leevigatd, albidd, 
natibus roseo tinctis ; margine ventrali subrecto ; dorsali antice 
subdeclivi et convexo, postice subrecto satisque declivi ; extremitate 
anticd rotundatd, posticd brevi, subangulatd ; ligamento infosso; 
costd umbonali et flemird distinctis ; disco interno aurantio-roseo ; 
dentibus lateralibus nullis. Long. T 60; lat. 2 poli. 

Hab. Panama ; twelve fathoms, sandy mud. 

Allied to the umbonella of Lamarck, but with the fold and flexure 
more distinctly marked. 



145 



September 10, 1844. 

William Horton Lloj-d, Esq., in the Chair. 

A communication was read from George Gulliver, Esq., F.R.S. 
&c., containing additional measurements of the Blood-corpuscles of 
Mammalia and Birds. No. 3.* 

The measurements, as in all my former ones of the blood-corpuscles, 
refer exclusively, unless othervvise mentioned, to the red particles or 
discs. The diameters, as usual, are given in vulgar fractions of an 
English inch; and as the numerator is always 1, it is left out, the 
denominators only being printed. Other particulars are explained 
at the head of my former Communications. 

R».te\{Mellivora Capensis,F .Cuv.). 
4000 
3572 
3600 

5333 
3200 

3824 
Blood from a prick of the nose 
of a female, half-grown. 

Fin-back Whale (Baleena Boops). 
3200 
3000 

4570 
2666 

3099 

I do not know that the blood- 
discs of any -vvhale have been 
before measured. They are, likę 
those of the porpoise, of the com- 
mon circular form. Those of the 
■tt-hale are but slightly larger than 
the human blood-corpuscles, and 
decidedly smaller than those of 
the elephant and sloth. 

The measurements were made 



from some rather imperfect spe- 
cimens of the dried corpuscles, for 
■which I am indebted to that ex- 
cellent anatomist Mr. J. Quekett. 

Gayal {Bos Sylhetanus, F. Cuv.). 
4570 
4000 
6000 
3200 

4222 
Blood from a vein of the ear. 

Aoudad(0/;žs Tragelaphus.Desm.). 
6665 
6400 
6000 

8000 
5333 

6355 
Blood from a prick of the lip 
and from a vein of the ear of a 
fine adult malė. The corpuscles 
are smaller than those of the 
mouflon and of the common sheep, 
being most nearly allied in mi- 
nuteness to the corpuscles of the 



* No. 2 will be found in the Proc. Zool. Soc, Feb. 13th, 1844; and 
No. 1 in the šame Proceedings, Dec. 13th, 1842. 

No. CXXXIX. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



146 



Billardier's Kangaroo (Habnatu- 

rus Billardieri, Gould). 

4000 

3200 

4800 
3000 

3623 
Blood from a prick of the nose 
of a malė. 



goat. The present measurements 
having been made from good sam- 
ples of fresh blood, are probably 
better than my former measure- 
ments (Lond. and Edin. Phil. Mag. 
Jan. 1841, p. 31) of the corpus- 
cles obtained from the heart of an 
Aoudad fifteen hours after death, 
■vvhen the discs may have been 
somewhat swollen. 

Malabar Sąuirrel (Sciurus maxi- g^^.^^^ Kangaroo (Macropus ocy- 
mus, Schreb.). dromus, Gould). 

4000 
3555 
3200 
5333 
2900 

3442 

3^^^ . , Blood from a prick of the nose 

Blood from a prick of the nose. ^j ^ female. 

Two-toed Sloth {Bradypus didac- 
tylus, Linn.). 
Average 2865, being the largest 
corpuscles, next to those of the 
elephant, yet known among mam- 
mals; measurements detailed in 
the Proceedings of the Zool. Soc, 
June llth, 1844. Blood from a 
prick of the nose and from the 
lip. 

Hairy Armadillo CDasypus villo- 

sus, Desm.). 

3330 

3200 

4572 
2666 

3315 
Blood from a prick of the foot 
of a malė. 



Trumpeter 
L.D. 


(Psoph 
Linn.). 


a crej 
S.D. 


2000 




3555 


1777 




3200 


2286 




4800 


1600 




2900 



1883 3488 

Blood from a vein of the pinion. 

Crested Lap\ving (Vanellus cris- 
tatus, Temm.). 
L.D. S.D. 

1895 3200 

2400 4572 

1714 2666 

1964 3310 

Blood from a vein of the pinion. 



Continuation of a paper on the new species of the genus Tellina. 
by Sylvanus Hanley, Esq. : — 

Tellina miles. Tel. testd T. cuspidi affini. sed oblongd, rostratd. 
et magis compressd ; margine antico dorsali vix paululum decliyi ; 
ventrali conveio ; valvuld alterd lineis elevatis concentricis undigue 
• striatd. Long. OSO ; lat. IBS poli. 



147 

Hah. ? Mus. Metcalfe. 

A beautiful shell, which rerainds one slightly of the rosea of 
Spengler, and closely resembles a produced and flattened specimen 
of Tellina cuspis. 

Tellina Lilium. Tel. testd ovato-oblongd, tenuiuscvld, subven- 
iricosd, extus intusęue albd, concentrice substriatd ; striis supra 
costam umbonalem elevatis ; margine ventrali subrecto ; dorsali 
antice subrecio pattlulumęue decHvi ; latere antico producto, inferni 
ad extremitatem obliąue rotundato ; latere postico, brevi, cunei- 
formi; dentibus lateralibus nuUis. Long. OoO; lat. O'SO poli. 
Hdb. Isle of Buriąs, sandy mud, low water; and isle of. Negros, 
coral sand, seven fathoms : Cuming. 

One of the many species which are destitute of any striking cha- 
racteristics. 

Tellina plebeia. Tel. testd subovatd, convexd, Iccvigatd, inttis 
extnsque albidd, umbonibus hyalinis et rubro-aurantiis ; margine 
ventrali convexo aut subarcuato ; dorsali, antice prope nates recto 
etpaululum declivi, postice recto satisqtie declivi ; latere antico lon- 
giore, rotundato ; extremitate posticd obtuse angulatd ,• ligamento 
infosso ; dentibus lateralibus nullis. Long. l'lo ; lat. 1"70 poli. 

Hab. Real Liejos, Central America; sandy mud, seven fathoms. 

Very closely sJIied to the umbonella of Lamarck. 

Tellina Aurora. Tel. testd T. Psammotellse simillimd, convexiore 
autem, et umbonibus rubro-aurantiis ; ligamento infosso ; dentibus 
lateralibus nullis. Long. 0*75 ; lat. r23 poli. 

Hab. Panama ; soft sandy mud, ten fathoms : Cuming. 

Both this and the succeeding species are not unlike Chemnitz's 
figure of T. oblonga, but the description by no means accords. 

Tellina lucerna. Tel. testd oblongd, subventricosd, lavigatd, 
albidd, umbonibus aurantiis, antice longiore et rotundatd, postice 
obtuse cuneiformi; margine ventrali subrecto ; dorsali, antice pau- 
liilum et postice satis declivi, utringue subrecto ; ligamento subin- 
fosso ; disco interno aurantio ; dentibus lateralibus nullis. Long. 
0-90; lat. 1-42 poli. 
Hab. Isle of Negros and Isle of Misamis ; sandy mud, low water : 
Isle of Panay, hard sand : Cuming, 

Tellina scalpellum. Tel. testd oblongd, tenuissimd, compressd, 
nitidissimd, valde inaguilaterali, rosed, pellucidd, svblcevigatd ; 
margine ventrali subrecto ; dorsali antico paululum declivi et sub- 
recto ; latere postico brevi et obtuse subcuneiformi ; extremitate 
anticd rotundatd; ligamento parvo, prominulo ; dentibus laterali- 
bus nullis. Long. 0"25 ; lat. OoO poli. 

Hab. Isle of Zebu ; sandy mud, lo\v water : Cuming. 

More produced than in the majority of the smaller species, and of 
a peculiarly deep rose-colour. 

Tellina Diana. T. testd T. Galathese simillimd, subovatd autem, 



148 

punctisąue nullis ; margine dorsali etiam utrinque magis declivi, 
ventrali convexiore, et extremitate posticd magis obtusd. Long. 
1-05; lat. 1-50 poli. 
Hab. Java? Mus. Hanley, &c. 

Tellina ancilla. Tel. testd oblongo-elongatd, converiusculd, ni- 
tidissimd, candidd, concentrice substriatu, lineisgue obsoletis radi- 
antibus ornatd ; striolis supra costam umbonalem subobsoletam, 
remotioribus, distinctis, subimbricatis ; margine ventrali subrecto ; 
dorsali, antice subdeclivi et convexiusculo, postice subrecto et de- 
clivi ; lat ere antico prodiicto • postico obtuse cuneiformi ; dentibus 
lateralibus nullis. Long. 0'45 ; lat. 1 poli. 

Hab. Lord Hood's Island, on fine coral-sand: Cuming. 

Tellina Hiberna: Tel. testd oblongd, solidd, compressiusculd , 
valde in(Bquilaterali, subnitidd, candidd, lavigatd ; margine vetitrali 
subrecto ; dorsali antice convexiusciilo et paululum declivi, postici 
primiim convexo deinde subincu7-vato ; lalere antico producto ; pos- 
tico brevi, cuneiformi ; ligamento prominulo ; dente laterali antico 
magno, approximalo. Long. 0*45 ; lat. O" 75 poli. 

Hab. Panama and Bay of Guayaąuil ; six to eleven fathoms, in 
sandy mud : Cuming. 

Closely allied to T. polita. 

Tellina Deshayesii. Tel. testd T. Spengleri simillimd, sed al- 
bido-rosed, et lamellis subremotis concentrice ornatd ; margine 
etiam ventrali magis convexo. Long. O" 60; lat. 1*55 poli. 
Hab. Red Sea? Mus. Cuming, Deshayes. 

However closely resembling T. Spengleri, it is nevertheless with 
facility to be distinguished by its regular (and not oblique) concen- 
tric lamella;. jk 

Tellina tulipa. Tel. testd T. Donacinse simillimd, sed subagui- 
laterali, et margine dorsali rosei coloris exptrte. Long. 050 ; 
lat. 0-95 poli. 

Hab. } Mus. Cuming, Walton. 

Extremely likę T. Donacina, but almost equilateral, and devoid of 
the short vertical ray at the beaks and the rosy dorsal edges which 
are characteristic of that species. 

Tellina Pharaonis. Tel. testd T. rostratse simillimd, sed solidd, 
lineisque elevatis concentrice striatd ; umbonibus aurantio-roseis ; 
sinu postico distincto. Long. TŽO; lat. 3'20 poli. 
Hab. Red Sea. Mus. Metcalfe. 

This magnificent shell is one of the first fruits of the recent syste- 
matic investigation of the fauna of the Red Sea. 

Tellina si'inosa. Tel. testd ovatd, soUdiusculd, impolitd, i7i<cqui- 
laterali, convexiusculd, extus intusąue aluidd, striis minutis con- 
fertissimis elevatis, concentrice asperatd ; tnargine ventrali ar cuato, 
postice sursum acclinante ; dorsali postice elevatiore convexo et 
declivi, antice prope nates acutas subincurvato deinde siibrecto et 



149 

suhdeclivi ; latere postico brevi ; eitremitate anticd rotundatd ; 
posticd seriebus duabus vel tribus radiantibus spinarum serratd ; 
lunuld parva, distinctd ; ligamento infosso ; dente laterali antico 
subapprosimato, postico remoto. Long. O' 60 ; lat. O" 80 poli. 
Hab. Isle of Ticao, six fathoms. 

Mr. Cuming's uniąue specimen of this curious shell possesses cha- 
racters which cannot readily be confounded with any other species. 
It is to Gargadia, however, that it is most allied. 

Tbli-ina fimbriata. Tel. testd obovato-rotundatd, solidd, convesd, 
candidd, striis concentricis confertissimis lamellosis fimbriatis, et 
lineis radiantibus confertis, decussatd ; margine ventrali arcuato, 
postice sursum acclinante ; dorsali utringue convexiusculo, antice 
subdeclivi, postice valde declivi ; latere antico longiore, rotundato ; 
extremitate posticd brevi, angulatd; costd umbonali valde conspicud; 
ligamento infosso ; lunuld distinctd ; dentibus lateralibus subremo- 
tis, subaguidistantibus. Long. 1'25; lat. 1'42 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming. 

In sculpture not unlike T. decussata ; in form more akin to T. os- 
tracea. 

Tellina subtrtjncata. Tel. testd obovatd, valdi intBąuilaterali, 
albidd, striis lamellosis fimbriatis confertissime ornatd; margine 
ventrali antice arcuato, postice subrecto et sursum acclinante; 
dorsali utringue magis minusve convexo, antice declivi, postici 
maxime declivi ; extremitate anticd rotundatd ; latere postico bre- 
vissimo, subtruncato, angulato ; ligamento infosso ; dentibus late- 
ralibus subceguidistantibus. Long. G' 60; lat. O' 75 poli. 
Hab. Isle of Bohol ; on the reefs, low water. 
I had almost regarded the first specimen of this rare shell in Mr. 
Cuming's collection as a monstrosity, but the examination of another 
specimen in Sir Edward Belcher's cabinet has satisfied me that the 
seeraingly diseased and stunted appearance is characteristic and not 
accidental. 

Tellina perplexa. Tel. testd T. ostracese affinis, subovatd autem, 
striisgue ėjus concentricis, magis confertis et superne haud lamel- 
losis ; margine dorsali antico paululUm declivi. Long. 1'20; 
lat. 1-65 poli. 
Hab. Bay of Manila ; sandy mud, six fathoms : Cuming. 
Rather a solid shell, which is apparently closely allied to the lin- 
tea of Conrad ; but the curvature of the ligamental margin, as repre- 
sented in the figure of that shell, by no means agrees with its direc- 
tion in perplexa. 

" Descriptions of six new species of Voluta," by G. B. Sowerby, 
Esq. : — 

Voluta mammilla, Gray. Vol. testd ovato-oblongd, tenui, lutes- 
cente, apice mammillari, obtusissimo, subspirali ; anfractibus 
duobus, ultimo magno, ovali, maculis lineisgue castaneis picto ; 
aperturd magnd ; columelld plicis tribus. 



150 

Shell ovate-oblong, thin, brownish-yellow, with a mammillary, 
subspiral, very obtuse apex ; volutions two, the lašt of which is large, 
oval, marked with chestnut-coloured spots and zigzag lines ; aper- 
ture large ; columella with three folds. 

From New Holland ; a single specimen, which appears to be only 
a very young shell, is in the British Museum. This is a very re- 
markable species, forming the link that unites Cymba with Melo, the 
apex of this species being subspiral, while in Cymba the apex is 
amorphous. 

VoLUTA PiPERiTA. Vol. testd obovūtd, ventricosiusculd, crassius- 

culd, pallescente, quinquefasciatd, fasciis posticd mediand et an- 

ticd brunneo-puncticulatis, strigisųue fuscis irregularibus ornatis ; 

fasciis duabus intermediis pallidioribus, strigis nonnullis lividis, 

cum strigis fuscis, fasciarum alternarum continuis ; anfractibus 

quinque, tribus primis papiliam efformantibus, papilld Ičevi, postice 

subgranosd ; ultimo maximo, ovali ; aperturd elongatd, latiori, intus 

aurantiacd ; columelld plicis 4, validis, labioque columellari auran- 

tiacis. 

Shell obovate, rather ventricose and thickish ; of a pale colour, 

with five bands, the posterior, middle and anterior of which are dotted 

■vvith brown, and omamented with irregular fuscous streaks ; the t\vo 

intermediate bands are paler, with livid streaks, which are continuous 

•vvith the brown streaks of the alternating bands ; volutions five, of 

which the first three form the papillary apex, -vvhich is smooth, and 

slightly granose posteriorly ; the lašt volution very large, oval ; aper- 

ture elongated, rather wide, orange-coloured within ; columella with 

four distinct folds, orange-coloured as well as the columellar lip. 

A single specimen only is known, which is in Mr. Norris's collec- 
tion. 

VoLDTA NoKRisii. Vol. tcstd ovtttd, suboblongd, ventricosd, coro- 

natd, Icevi, cinereo-fulvd, maculis parvis niveis aliisque fuscis ad- 

spersd, fasciis duabus transversis fuscis, interruptis, hic illlc lineis 

interruptis, longitudinalibus notatis ; spird brevi, apice papillari, 

granoso ; anfractibus sex, ultimis duobus spinis brevibus acutis 

coronatis ; aperturd magnd, oblongd, intusfuscd; columelld qua- 

driplicatd, plicis duabus anticis validioribus. 

Shell ovate, rather oblong, ventricose, coronated, greyish brown, 

sprinkled with small snow-white and brown specks, with two trans- 

verse brown interrupted bands, here and there marked \vith inter- 

rupted longitudinal lines ; spire short, ■vvith a papillary granose apex ; 

volutions six, the lašt two crowned with short sharp spines ; aperture 

large, oblong, brown within ; columella with four folds, of which the 

t\vo anterior are prominent. 

Found on the reefs at low water, on Dupuch's Island, by J. C. 
Dring, Esq., R.N. In Mr. Cuming's coUection. Wagner has figured 
this species for V. nivosa. 

VoLUTA MEGASPiRA. Vol. tcstd fusifoTmi, turritd, tenuiusculd, 
tavi, rufescente-carneolatd, strigis maculisque castaneis notatd ; 



151 

spira anfractihus sex, subelongatis, medio ventricosiusculis, primis 
duobus apiceni papillarem efformantibus, 3''", 4'", 5'" et 6'° obtuse 
longitudinaliter costatis, ultimo magno, oblongo, antice attenuato ; 
aperturd oblongd, labio externo subreflexo ; columetld guinguepli- 
catd, plicis posticis obtusis, parvis. 
Shell fusiform, turrited, rather thin, smooth, of a reddish flesh- 
colour, marked with chestnut streaks and blotches ; volutions of the 
spire six, rather elongated and ventricose in the middle, the first 
two forming the papillary apex, the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th •with ob- 
tuse longitudinal ribs, the lašt large, oblong, attenuated anteriorlv ; 
aperture oblong, outer lip slightly reflected ; columella with five folds', 
the posterior of which are small and obtuse. 

I have only seen a single specimen, which is in Mr. Cuming's ex- 
traordinary collection ; it is probably the šame as Kiener's V. lyri- 
formis, but it is not the šame as Broderip's, which is identical with 
Swainson's Mitra lyriformis. Its papillary apex closely resembles 
that of V. fulminatą. 

VoLUTA GuiLDiNGii. Vol. tcstd obloTigd, crossd, fulvescente, line- 

olis saturatioribus aliisguc albis pictd ; spird acuminatd, apice ob- 

tuso ; anfractibus o ad 6, subventricosis, longitudinaliter costatis, 

interstitiis costarum transversim striatis, ultimo magno, Iceviga- 

tiusculo ; aperturd mediocri, labio externo extus incrassato, albi- 

cante, intus dente parvo insiructo ; columelld plicis quinque ad sex 

parvis, anticis duabus validioribus. 

Shell oblong, thick, fulvous, marked •vvith little white lines and 

others of a darker colour ; spire acuminated, vvith an obtuse apex ; 

volutions five to six, rather ventricose, longitudinally ribbed, inter- 

stices of the ribs with transverse strise, the lašt volution large, rather 

smooth ; aperture middle-sized, outer lip externally thickened, whitish, 

furnished with a small tooth internally ; columella \vith five or six 

small folds, of which the two anterior are more prominent. 

This is the smallest known species of Volute ; it was discovered 
at St. Vincent's by the late Rev. Lansdown Guilding. In Mr. Cu- 
ming's and Mr. Metcalfe's collections. 

VoLUTA Cyllkniformis. Vol. testdparvd, ovatd, crassd, Itevius- 
culd, albicante, maculis parvis flavicantibus sparsim ornatd ; spird 
subconicd, anfractibus sex, postice coarctatis, ad suturam gra- 
nosis, antice longitudinaliter costatis, ultimo magno, antice trans- 
versim striato ; canali parvo, reflexo ; aperturd oblongd, labio ex- 
terno extus incrassato, margine iriterno intus dente parvo instructo; 
labio columellari antice ruguloso, dentibus tribus parvulia munito. 
Shell small, ovate, thick, rather smooth, whitish, sprinkled with 
small yello\vish specks ; spire somewhat conical, \vith six volutions, 
which are contracted posteriorly, granose at the suturės and longi- 
tudinally ribbed anteriorly ; the lašt volution is large and anteriorly 
transversely striated ; canal small, slightly reflected ; aperture oblong, 
outer lip externally thickened, its internal edge furnished \nth a 
small tooth ; columellar lip rugulose anteriorly, furnished with three 
small teeth. 



152 



resembles a Cyllene. 



September 24, 1844. 
No business was transacted. 



153 



October 8, 1844. 
Richard C. Griffith, Esq., in the Chair. 

Extract of a letter from Dr. E. D. Dickson, Corr. Memb., dated 
Tripoli, 23rd of July, 1844 :— 

" I am at present engaged in collecting Bats for the Society, and 
■will endeavour to prepare a skeleton or two of the Cursorivs Isahel- 
linus and Otis Houbara. I raay also perhaps obtain the egg of these 
birds, since it has occasionally been met with by the natives. 

" There are no lions, deer, or wild boars in this part of Barbary, nor 
have I ever heard of the ■wild hunting-dog. The only species of 
dog indigenous in Tripoli is the Arab shepherd dog, of which I could 
easily send you specimens, if desirable. Tunis is the proper place 
for wild boars, where they are so plentiful that I am toid they consti- 
tute the chief sport of its European residents." 

Various Skins of Mammalia from Chile were laid before the Meet- 
ing, and Mr. "Waterhouse read some notas relating to them with 
which he had been favoured, in a letter from Mr. Tliomas Bridges, 
Corr. Memb., who had formed the coUection. 

" The specimens," Mr. Waterhouse observed, " contained two 
species of foxes, both of which were quite distinct from the Canis 
fulvipes from Chiloe. The one approaches most nearly to the Canis 
Magellanicus, and might possibly be a variety of that animal, differ- 
ing in having a more slender appearance ; but this ajises perhaps 
entirely from its fur being shorter, a difFerence \vhich would probably 
arise from dissimilarity of climate, the C. Magellanicus being from a 
colder, and humid part of South America. The Chile animal, in 
having a more slender appearance, approaches considerably to the 
Canis Azarm; from this however it may be distinguished by the 
absence of the black on the chin, in having the ears of a deeper and 
richer rust-colour, and there is the šame diiFerence observable in the 
colouring of the legs. The hind-legs want the black patch, which 
is situated considerably above the heel, and is very consjjicuous iu 
C. Azara. The tail is longer and of a brilliant rust-colour be- 
neath ; in C. Azarce it is pale in the šame part. This, according to 
Mr. Bridges, is the Culpeo of the natives, and is no doubt the animal 
so called by Molina. 

"The second species of fox of the collection Mr. Waterhouse re- 
gards as the Canis Azarcc. It is smaller, Mr. Bridges obser^'es, than 
the Culpeo, and less common and mischievous ; more shy in its man- 
ners, and, according to bis observations, confines itself more to the 
lower parts of the country, inhabiting the provinces of Valparaiso, 
Aconcagua, and Colchagua, where it is abundant. It is well kno\vn 
to the natives under the name of ' Chilla.' 

Nos. CXL. CXLI. &CXLII. — Proceedings of the Zool. Soc. 



154 

" Tlie following species of Rodents were also contained in the col- 
lection, viz. Myopotamiis coypus, Poephagomys ater, Octodon Cumingii, 
Mus Darivinii, Mus megalonyx (a new species, the characters of which 
Mr. Waterhouse pointed out), and the Mountain Viscacha (Lagotis 
Cuvieri, Bennett) . Severai specimens of this last-mentioned animal 
■were procured by Mr. Bridges on the Chile side of the Andes, and 
upon comparison they prove to be specifically identical ■vvith an indi- 
vidual formerly sent by the šame gentleman and which was found in 
the vicinity of Mendoza. The Viscacha, Mr. Bridges' notes statė, 
' confines itself to the elevated parts of the Andes, always inhabiting 
rugged and precipitous mountains where there are natūrai caves or 
immense stones rolled in confusion, amongst \vhich it makes its 
abode.' It has a very extended range, he having found it in Bolivia 
in south lat. 20° to 22°, whilst the specimens laid before the Meeting 
vvere from the province of Aconcagua, near ' Los ojos de Agua.' 
Mr. Bridges further remarks that it seldora leaves its abode during 
the daytime, but coraes out to feed upon the herbage either before 
sunrise or late in the evening. 

" Severai specimens of Didelphis elegans were also sent home by 
Mr. Bridges, •vvho statės that they were procured for him by the na- 
tives in the province of Aconcagua, where they were caught in traps 
baited with meat, and which were placed for that purpose in the 
vicinity of old hedges and vineyards. Mr. Bridges also calls atten- 
tion in bis letter to the differences observed in the sexes of this ani- 
mal, the female being considerably smaller than the malė, and re- 
markable for having the tail very thick and fleshy. It is known to 
the natives by the names ' Comadrejo' and ' Llaca.' " 

The following is Mr. Waterhouse's description of the new species 
of Mus (which he places in the section Hesperomys) contained in the 
collection : — 

Hesperomys megalonyx. Hesp. suprd, cinerascenti-fuscus, subtUs 
cinereo-alhus ; auribus mediocribus ; pedibus anticis unguibus mag- 
nis armatis ; caudd brevi, pilis minutis obsitd. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin .... 4 4 

. caudk 1 6 

auribus O 85 

tarsi digitorumque O 11^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 2^ 

Hab. Chile. 

This little mouse evidently belongs to the genus Hesperomys, but 
it difFers from any species hitherto described in having stronger fore- 
feet, and these furnished with long claws, exceeding the toes in 
length. The inner toe or thumb is furnished with a distinct pointed 
claw. ITie fur is very soft, and in the upper parts of the body nearly 
of a uniform grey-brown tint, though the hairs of the ordinary fur 
are annulated \vith pale brown ; at the base these hairs are of a deep 
slate-grey colour. The under parts of the body are grey-vvhite, but 
the hairs are deepish grey at the root, and on the chest there is a 
brownish mark. The chin is white ; the feet are pale brown, but the 



155 

hairs on the toes are dirty white. The tail is clothed with short 
brown hairs. The ears, which are rather small, are well-clothed with 
moderately long hairs, and these are variegated with pale brown and 
dusky ; they are much hidden by the long fur of the head. 

From Mr. Bridges' notes I leam that this little animal was found 
near the margiu of the Lake of Quintero. 

Mr. Waterhouse also characterized a new species of Octodon con- 
tained in a former collection sent home by Mr. Bridges : — 

Octodon Bridgesii. Qct. corpore suprct, flavescenti-fusco nigroque 
penicillato ; subtils flavescente ; pedibus albis ; auribus magnis 
postice emarginatis ; caudd, ąuoad longitudinem, corpits feri 
(Bquante, nigrd, subtils sordide albd, dimidio apkali pilis longis 
vestitd. 

unc. lin. unc. lln. 

Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin . . 8 O vel 8 6 

caudee 5 6 „ 5 8 

tarsi digitorumgue 1 6į „ 1 6f 

auris O 6į „ O 6|- 

Hab. Chile. 

The general hue of this animal is brownish, a tint produced by 
the admixture of brownish ochre and black : the hairs of the fur are 
deep slate-grey next the skin, and on the back black extemally, bu t 
most of them broadly annulated with deep ochre towards the point ; 
the last-mentioned colour prevails on the sides of the body, where 
numerous long interspersed white hairs are observable, as well as on 
the nimp, The under parts of the body are of a cream-yellow. The 
ears are rather large, deeply emarginated behind, and clothed inter- 
nally -vvith small pale hairs, excepting towards the margin, where they 
assume a dusky hue ; extemally the ears are furnished with minute 
dusky hairs, but at the base they are white. The head, in the region 
of the ear, is very pale ; the throat, inner side of the legs and the 
tarsi are white ; the tail is about equal to the body in length ; the 
basai half is tolerably well clothed with short hairs, \\%ich are black 
on the upper surface and dirty white on the under ; on the apical 
half the hairs are longer (averaging rather more than a ąuarter of an 
inch in length) and almost entirely black. The fur is long and mo- 
derately soft. 

The Octodon Bridgesii differs from the O. Cumingii (or O. Degus, 
as it should be called) in being considerably larger, of a less bright 
colour, and in having the tail longer and less distinctly tufted at the 
apex ; the feet moreover are white, or very nearly so. 

The dimensions given are taken from two specimens, one in the 
British Museum collection and the other in that of the Zoological 
Society, which were brought to this countiy by Thomas Bridges, 
Esq., a very zealous coUector and good observer, after whom I have 
named the species. The škulis of these two specimens agree vitb 
each other, and differ considerably from those of the O. Cumingii, 
In the first place they are about one-third larger, less arched above ; 
the nasal bones are narrower in proportion, the frontai bones smaller 



156 

and more contracted in front, and the palate is also more contracted 
in front. The molar teeth of the upper jaw have the inner fold of 
enamel deeper. In the lower jaw the molar teeth have the lateral 
angles more produced, and tlieir transverse diameter is conseąuently 
greater in proportion. The coronoid process is distinctly larger in 
proportion. Other difFerences of size and proportion will be per- 
ceived upon comparing the following dimensions : — 

O. Cuminyii. O. Bridgesii. 

in. lin. in. lin. 

Totai length of cranium 1 6| 1 9| 

Greatest width O 10| 1 0^ 

Length of nasal bones O 7 O 8į 

Length of frontai bones O 6į O 6# 

Width of interorbital space O 5 O 4\ 

Totai length of zygomatic arch O 8^^ O 11 

Length from front of superior incisors to the 1 rj c i f) fi * 

molar teeth J ^ ^ 

Length of the four molar teeth taken together O 4i 5^ 

Width of incisor teeth of upper jaw O IJ O 1;| 

Width of palate between foremost molars . . O 1^ O 1| 

Width of palate betvveen hinder molars .... O 2 O 2§ 

Length of ramus of lovver jaw O ^ ^3 1 If 

Height of ditto in a vertical line, dropped 1 q c 2 7 

from the condyle / ^ 

Mr. Waterhouse observed, that the skull in the genera Octodon 
and Schizodon difFers from that of the nearly allied genera of Abro- 
coma and Poephagomys, as well as the Echymys group, in having a 
small vertical plate of bone which rises from the upper surface of 
the anterior root of the zygomatic arch, and ■vvhich serves to protect, 
externally, the infra-orbital nerve. The superior incisor tooth enters 
the superior maxillary bone, and passes beyond the intermaxillary 
suture by about one-sixth of the •whole length of the tooth ; whilst 
in Abrocoma the incisor is shorter, terminating at the suture men- 
tioned, and thus approaches the genus Lagotis, as well as in several 
other characters which he had before noticed. Poephagomys is re- 
markable for having the superior incisor tooth extended backwards 
and outwards, covered by a thin fold of bone, and terminating on 
the outer surface of the palatai portion of the skull, close to the third 
molar tooth. 

Notwithstanding the great superficial resemblance which exists 
between these animals and the MuridcB, it will be evident upon 
examination that they belong to a different section of the Rodent 
order, a section the species of which is readily distinguished, as he 
had elsewhere pointed out, by the structure of the skull and lo\ver 
jaw ; it is not, however, in these parts alone that difFerences exist 
between the Octodontidee and the Muridce, for there is a dissirailarity 
in the form of the muzzle, which he should take an early opportu- 
nity of showing by means of drawings and desciiptions, made either 
from the living animals or from specimens preserved in spirit, and that 



Ii57 

not only the Octodontidee, but the whole of the great section Hystri- 
cina, established by himself chiefly upon characters fumished by the 
crania, possess peculiarities which will serve to distinguish them 
from other groups of Rodents. In this great section, moreover, we 
find the tibia and fibula invariably distinct, and not echylosed, as in 
the MuridcB, which should, I now think, embrace the Myoxid(e, but 
not the genus Anomalurus, which Prof. Wagner is inclined to ])lace 
in the last-rnentioned section, that genus having the tibia and fibula 
distinct, as in the Sciurine and Hystricine groups. 

Mr. Fraser brought before the Meeting the following species of 
Chilian Birds, not included in the former collection. (See Proceed- 
ings of Zoological Society, 1843, p. 108.) 

Milvago megalopterus, Meyen ; Synallaxisflavogularis, Gould ; Stur- 
nella militaris, Vieill.; Attagis Gayi, Less. ; Aphriza Torvnsendii., Aud. ; 
Calidris arenaria, 111. ; Cyampterus fretensis, Eyton ; Dafila pyrogas- 
ter, Eyton; Dafila urophasiams, Eyton; Phalacrocorax albigula, 
Brandt. 

To the last-mentioned bird the following note was attached : — 
" Guanayre of the natives. A very scarce bird ; found along the 
shores of Chile in rocky places. T. B." 

Mr. Fraser also described a new bird from Chile, for which he pro- 
posed the name of Leptopus Mitchellii*. 

Leptopus. 

Rostrum longum, tenue, rectum ; nares basales ; alae mediocres ; pri- 

mariae tres ferė seąuales, secunda longissima ; cauda subrotundata ; 

tarsi mediocres; digiti longi et tenues ; nulius digitus posterior; 

ptilosis junioris seniori dissimilis. 

The bill of this bird is of the šame formation as that of Totanus 
chloropygius, Vieill., vvhile the feet resemble those of Htaticula tri- 
collaris. 

Leptopus Mitchellii. Lep. capite fuscescente lined albd circa 
verticem ; colio ferrugineo ; cotpore superrie cinereo-fusco purpu- 
reis metallicis coloribus ornato ; fascid albd apud pectus ; subtits 
fasctis parvis alhis et nigris alternis ; rostro saturate viridi ; tarsis 
flavis. 
Tot. long. 7 ; alae, 4Į ; cauda, 2^ ; rostrum, I ; tarsi, I ; digito 
medio, 1 poli. 
Hab. Chile. 

Another specimen, which I take to be the young of the above, has 
an undefined white line passing from eye to eye round the back of 
the head, the whole upper surface barred and mottled irregularly 
■with ferruginous and blackish brown; cheeks and throat mottled 
with soot-colour, barred on the breast in a similar manner to the 
adult, -vvhich barring is almost lošt on the belly ; vent and thio-hs 
white. ° 

* If the name Leptopus proves to liave been previously used, I \vould 
propose Leplodactylus in its stcad. 



158 

" Description of a new species of Solarium, from the collection of 
Mr. Cuming." by R. B. Hinds, Esq., R.N, 

Solarium fuliginosum. Sol. testd orblculato-conicd, lavigatd, 
fuligineo-fusco ornatd; anfractihus inferiorihus Icevibus, subtumi- 
dis, svperioribus longitrorsumplicatis, ared mediand pallidd, strigis 
latis obliguis fuscis pictd; ad peripheriam carinatd, suprci ared 
angustd planulatd macuUs fuscis ąuadratis articulatd; ad basin 
paulisper tumidd, pallidd, Icevigatd ; aperturd guadratd ; umbilico 
patulo, crenis rectis fuscis armato. Diam. 21 ; umbilic. 5į lin. 

Hal. ? 

The only specimen which is known to us is about the size of S. 
formosum, and is therefore materially smaller than the finer speci- 
mens of S. perspectivum or S. trockleare. The character of its orna- 
tion is however so very distinct from either of these, that it would 
mislead to push the comparison further. The species is perhaps rather 
thinner and lighter than usual, the inferior whorls and base are some- 
•what more tumid, and at the šame time smooth ; but the larger 
■vvhorls are peculiarly decorated on their middle area •vvith broad dark- 
brown flames, and are obliąue as they proceed from the inferior por- 
tion upwards and forwards towards the left. The crenules are solid, 
straight, and of a dark-brown colour. 

An extensive collection of Shells was exhibited vliich had been 
coUected principally at Singapore and Borneo, and presented to the 
Society by Jatues Brooke, Esq., Corr. Mem. 



159 



Octooer 22, 1844. 
Professor Owen, V. P., in the Chair. 

A paper by Sylvanus Hanley, Esq., was read, conteiining descrip- 
tions of new species of Cyrena, Venus, and Amphidesma. 

"^ Cyrena radiata. Cyr. testd rotundato-cordatd, crassd, solidu, in- 
eeguilaterali, tumidd,subnitidd, concentrice et subimbricatim siilcatd; 
epidermide olivaceo-fuscescente, et marginėm convexum aut sub- 
arcuatum versus, luteo-virescente radiisque nigrescentibus ornatd ; 
margine dorsali postico declivi, convexiusculo ; lunuld nulld ; nati^ 
bus acutis, incurvatis, integris ; ligamento parum prominente ; su- 
perficie internd. purpured ; dentibus lateralibus distinctis, brevibus, 
minutissime rugulosis (haud crenatis autem), antico approximato. 
Long. 150; lat. 170 poli. 

Hab. Central America. Mus. Hanley, Cuming, Sowerby. 
This and the variegata of D'Orbigny are remarkable for being the 
only radiated Cyrena at present know'n to us. The latter species is 
decidedly depressed, Avhiist the radiata is peculiarly swollen. 

Cyrena sordida. Cyr. testd suborbiculari, crassd, subinceguilate- 
rali, ventricosd aut tumidd; epidermide olivaceo-fuscescente et 
marginėm ventralem convexum versus, luteo-virescente, concentrice 
rugulosd ; margine dorsali postico, convexiusculo, declivi; natibus 
erosis, satis prominentibus ; ligamento subin/osso ; lunuld nulld; 
superficie internd albidd; dentibus lateralibus brevibus obtusis, 
antico magis approximato. 

Index Tęst. Sup. t. 14. f. 51 . Long, 1-50 ; lat. 1-60 poli. 

Hab. North America. Mus. Hanley. 

The link betvveen Carolinensis and radiata, uniting the interior and 
membranaceous wrinkles of the former to the general outline of the 
latter. 

Cyrena Philippinarum. Cyr. testd maximd, compressd, obovatd, 
valde ineeąuilaterali, ponderosd, antice plicato-sulcatd, epidermide 
olivaceo-fuscescente, indutd ; margine ventrali convexiusculo ; liga- 
mentali subdeclivi, et angulum obtusum cum margine postico for- 
mante ; natibus integris, approximatis, incumbentibus ; ligamento 
pergrandi, valde prominente ; superficie internd postice et inferne 
purpured, superne albido-ccerulescente ; dentibus cardinalibus eras- 
sissimis ; lateralibus supra crenatis aut denticulatis, antico valdi 
approximato. 

Index Tęst. Sup. t. 14. f. 60. Long. 4 ; lat. 4*75 poli. 

Hab. Philippines. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

There are a few narrow diverging folds on the posterior slope, but 
this character is by no means peculiar to the species, being eąually 



160 

possesed by Keramdreni, s&e^a and ro/cMk/fl. The ligament U dull 
rello^ish. rariegated vrith rich green. The Toung are of a unifona 
bright grass-gTeen. and exhibit more decidedly than the adalt the 
Testigę:^ of an incipient lanceolate lunule. 

CrasNA rLAC£x& Cjrr. tfstd smborticmlari, smtvaUricoad^ imefmi- 
UUertU, mitiJd. citcmtrici sidcatostrietd, tpUenmiie mrk!»-jUt- 
cvscmle uuhttf ; umrytM vtmtrmii comxxo ; įbrsmū. mtrimpx ieclivi 
rt c9mcenmsaito ; itatihms erosis ; Hftmtęiito Jmho, depresao, m- 
gvsto ; liaimld amlld ,- smperjicie imtermd pmrfmnd ; demtiims tmtenli- 
b»s mimmHssimii^ rmį/nJosis kamd mtem eramiHs, mltco irtvi et Mii- 
HĮtprojtimml: 
Indės Tęst. Sup. t. H. f. 52. Long. loO ; lat. 1- 75 poU. 

Hat. ? Mus. Hanley. 

A beautiful and rare species. of vrhich I have nerer seen but my 
ovni sfiecunen and that in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris. The 
salei are dose and regular. and the outliue of the sliell. although not 
very unlike that of radiiUa, is convex in Avint of the beaks, thus 
reodering the firont es.tr<emity broad and ^Huevhat obtnse. 

VKxrs svBN'ODCLosA. Fpji. testd ovaid, crasslmsciifd, smh4ejKilaie- 
nli, saiis coarejnf, coaceiUritr eostiad ; costis coM/eHis, amtict me- 
įSoįpu otoisis, Įtostice m brrves Inmellas comcarsis. maiiįue a suleis 
ra^amtibus deatssaiis; meuyime cešttrmli oMureio amt smimrcmato ,- 
(forsa/t. mtrimfme subdecUci ; pmbe et buudi oblonyo-corittd, pro- 
miMeiUibms ; %inKe>i/o imftisso, mmgmstissimo ; mmrgime intermo mmdi' 
fvr crrmKhlo ; siq>erĮleie imtemdpmrfmro pictd. 

\'ar. o. Destd »lbidd. lirtcfo-Annmeo vmfiegmtd. 

Var. 3. 'Destdjyte»'fmsce:ftemte, imtibms mUidis : stiicis smbrtmotis. 

Indejt Tęst, Sup, t."l6. f. 19. Long. 0-58; lat. O 75 poU. 

Hai. San Nicholas. Philippines. Mu5. Cuming. Hanley. 

This species beaans some resemblance in sculpture to T. Marica, but 
tbe shape is quite ditferent. The concentric ribs are rendered sub- 
Boduloas by the radiatinsr grctores. Only a fevr specimens of this 
rare shell were procured by Mr. Cuming in the Philippine Islands. 

Vexvs CHKJiyrrai. Fem. testd rkomieo-eorAOd, cressd, vemtri- 

cttsd, midi uMįidUttenJi, mUidA, knauteo siArmdmtim mmcuiatd H 

striį9td, ndimtam eo^elhM, comcemtrui t mm eiK/rrd ; Uamellis ««- 

Merosi:^ , &m-is$čau$, mmdifme erispis ; costeUis mictiftis coH/ertis- 

simis ,- marjfime veMtmli comrejta iMtmsfM rmm/cio ,- dorsaii pos- 

tieo smbrrcto et mimiMU deriiri ,- htere postic« smperme amgmimto ; 

mmHco brevi. mttemumto, ntmadato ,- Imiimki fmscd, cordatd ; liga- 

mente mmgmsto, t»A»^'o ■' smperjicie iMtentd aibidd. immucmiaU. 

Indei Tęst- Sup. t. 16. f. 20. Long. 1 75 ; lat. 2-50 poU. 

Hmk. San. Nicholas, Philippines (Cuming). Mas. Cuming, Hanley. 

This beautiful species beais a strong resemblance to the shell de- 

Sneated in the sixth Tolaine of the ' Conchylien Cabinet,' fig. 3S4, 

vrhich b commonly ąuoted fbr the reticmtata of Linn»us eąually \riUi 

the tvro preceding figures ; althoogh Chemnitz, \nthout sepaiating it 

firom that species, specifies the abeence of the orange tinge upon the 



161 

teeth, the peculiar characteristic of that weIl-known shell. There is 
a slight shade of orange beįieath the umbones internally, and the 
teeth are similar to thosc oi puerpera. 

Venus laceuata. Ven. testd V. įjuerperre affini, mmus autem ven- 
tricosd et margine ventrali posticoque magis arcuatis ; margine 
ligamentali subrecto et minitne declivi ; lamellis concentricis con- 
fertioribus, et postivi asperrimis ; superficie extcrnd albidd, lineis 
ferrugineis aut brunneis angulatim strigatd ; extremitatc posticd 
Intus extusque immaculatd. 
Index Tęst. Sup. t. 10*. f. 23. Long. 250 ; lat. 2-50 poli. 
Hab. Moluccas.' Mus. Hanley. 

The fringed lamellac bccome so crowded at the hinder extremity 
of this rare uiid beautiful .shell as to form a kind of raised reticulatioii. 
It is a rauch rounder species than the V. Listeri, to vvhich it also 
bears a considerable resemblancc. 

Venus scahra. Ven. testd ovato-cordatd, ina:quiluteraU, subven- 
tricosd, pallide brunned, radiatlm costellatd ; costellis confertis et 
concentricl' sųmmiferis ; margine ventrali valdi urcualo ; dorsali 
utrinqite convexiusculo et antich brevi ; natibus acutis et anlici 
incumbentibus ; lunuhl subinconspicud ; pube haud excavatd ; super- 
ficie internd, lividd et postice saturatius tinctd ; margine interno 
crenato. 
Index Tęst. Sup. t. 16. f. 24. Long. 050 ; lat. O- 70 poli. 
Hab. Catbalonga, Philippines. Mus. Cuming, Haiiley. 
A rare si)ecies, which is somevvhat allied to decorata and ovata, 
but distinguibhable froin eithcr by the greater convexity of its lovvcr 
margiu. The radiating ribs are peculiarly strong upon tlie umboues, 
from whence they separate into two or three smaller oncs, vvhich 
become more deusely armed with the concentiic rovvs of scales as 
they ajjproach the lowcr margin. 

Vknijs RonoRATA. Ven. testd cordato-frigond, solidd, valide in- 
(rquilaterali, magis minusve ventricosd, albidd (intus purpureo 
postice itifectd), concentrice cingulatd ; cingulis multis, levibus, 
obtusis ; interstitiis Icevibus ; margine ventrali arcuato (fintus leviter 
crenulato) ; dorsali postico convexo et valdi declivi ; lunuld pro- 
fundd, cordatd ; pube Itevi, excavatd ; sulco radiante obtusissimo, 
lunulam alteram, ad extremitatem anticam simulante. 
ludex lest. Sup. t. 16. f. 25. Long. 1 ; lat. 1 poli. 
Hab. Van Diemen's Land. Mus. Hanley, Metealfe. 
Not at all unlike the dysera of Chemnitz, but the concentric ribs 
are in that species distant and membranaceous, whilst in ours they 
are thick, obtusc, and rather cro\vded. 

Venus Lyra. Ven. testd rotundato-cordatd, ventricosd, valde iu' 
(equilalerali, albidd, lineis maculisque brunneis angulatim variegatd, 
concentrice costellatd ; costellis confertissimis Icevibus, medio sub- 
imbricatis, antice et postice membranaceis ; interstitiis glabris ; mar- 
gine ventrali arcuato, intusque crenato ; lunuld cordatd, brunned, 
pro/undh impressd ; pube excaoatd ; superficie internd albidd. 



162 

Index Tęst. Sup. t. 16. f. 21. Long. 120 ; lat. 1-40 poli. 

Hab. Gulf of Guinea (Rang). Mus. Hanley, Cuming. 

In contour, colouring and general sculpture this rare shell ap- 
proaches the cincta of Chemnitz (f. 387), but whilst that species is 
girt with but a few broad belts, ours is adorned with at least forty. 
It is sometimes called V. cingulata of Lamarck, but not only is the 
expression " annulis creuatis" utterly at variance with its character- 
istics, but an examination also of the typical specimens of the Jardin 
des Plantes has proved to me its complete distinctness from that 
species. Its teeth are those of the section Dosina. 

Venus decipiens. Ven. testd parvd, rotundato-subtrigond, com- 
pressd, inceguilaterali, solidd, pallide fulvd, radiis latis rufo- 
bnmneis variegatd, concentrice costatd ; costis glabris, subremotis, 
depressis, postice sublamellosis , et supra pubem impressam por- 
rectis ; interstitiis subconcavis, Icsvibus ; margine ventrali subar- 
cuato, intusque subcrenato ; dorsali, utringue declivi, postice con- 
vexo, antice brevi, subrecto ; lunuld lanceolatd ; Ugamento angus- 
tissimo, infosso. 
Index Tęst. Sup. t. 16. f. 22. Long. 0-75 ; lat. 090. 
Hab. Australia ? Mus. Hanley, Cuming. 

So extremely likę the young of fasciata as with difficulty to be 
distinguished. Its form, however, is proportionably broader between 
the lateral extremities, the valves are much more compressed, and 
the interstitial spaces decidedly broader. The hinder terminations 
of the lamellar ribs, whlch project beyond the escutcheon in com- 
pressed tubercles, do not appear to become obsolete by age, as in 
fasciata, 

Amphidesma carnicolor. Amph. testd suborbiculari, convexd aut 
subventricosd, subtenui, subcequilaterali, albido-rosed aut carned, 
undigue concentrice lamellatd ; lamelUs multis, membranaceis, ad 
margines earum serratis ; interstitiis rugis radiantibus minutis, 
confertissime ornatd ; margine ventrali rotundato, intusąue integro ; 
dorsali, utrincue brevi, subrecto et sub(Bqualiter declivi ; pube im- 
pressd; superficie internd aurantid. 

Index Tęst. Sup. t. 12. f. 28. Long. 1 ; lat. 1 poli. 

Hab. Philippines. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

Exquisitely sculptured, but so minutely as to baffle the unassisted 
eye. 



163 



November 12, 1844. 
Professor Owen, Vice-Presideut, in the Chair. 

Extract of a letter from the President, the Right Hon, the Earl of 
Derby, to the Secretary : — 

" Knovvsley, Oct. 17. — A circumstance has just occurred here 
Tvhich I cannot help flattering myself will tend to throw light upon 
a matter in the history of the Macropodida ■which has been often 
disputed. I allude to the manner in which the young animal after 
birth attains its lodgement in the mother's pouch. 

" My superintendent tells me that one of our female Bettongias 
was seen to part with a young one. She was observed to place her- 
self erect in one of the angles of the place ^vhere she was confined, 
backing as it were into the corner, and in this situation produced the 
young one, which after its birth she took up in her fore-paws and 
deposited in the pouch. This latter process the superintendent ■wit- 
nessed himself. 

" She had received the malė so lately as the 19th of September, 
and the parturition took place on the 16th of October. We will 
take particular notice ■n'hen the young quits the pouch. 

" Of course this is not a decisive proof that all of the tribe adopt 
the šame process, yet I think we may fairly conclude from analogy 
that they do." 

" Oct. 19. — It may be observed that the period of utero-gestation 
is a very short one, even under a month. Something peculiar in the 
manner of the animal placing herself in the corner \vas observed by 
the person -vvho fed her, he stopped and vvatched her, and thus wit- 
nessed the birth, immediately after ■vvhich she tumed round to the 
young one, and getting it up in her fore-paws, applied them to the 
mouth of the pouch, opened it with them, and as soon as the httle 
one was deposited she put her head in after it ; when her nose re- 
appeared it was rather stained with blood. In five minutes she was 
jumping about the place as if nothing had happened." 

A specimen of Chameeleon from the Cape of Good Hope yrąs ex- 
hibited by Mr. Fraser. 

Mr. Weaver, of Birmingham, exhibited and presented to the So- 
ciety specimens of the following insects : — Hipparchia Melampus*, 
Leucaria littoralis, Sperantia sylvaria, Cleodora ? 

* Taken on the mountains of Perthshire, about 3000 feet above the levei 
of the sea. 



No. CXLI. PROCEEniNGS OF THE ZoOL. SoC. 



164 



November 26, 1844. 

"VVilliam Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

A specimea of the Phalangista gUriformis was exhibited by the 
Secretary. 

A communication was read from Joseph James Forrester, Esq., of 
Oporto, which was accompanied by a donation of nine specimens of 
Echini from the Portuguese coast, and of the following insects : — 
Saturnia Pyri, Brachyglossa Atropos, Deilephila Euphorhite, D. EI- 
penor; and also a group of PolUcipes Cornucopia. 

Conclusion of a paper by Sylvanus Hanley, on the new species ia 
the genus TelUna : — 

./, .į)<*^TELLiNA viRGULATA. Tel. testd T . Doiiūcime simtlUmd, scd pou- 
lulum angustiore, striisąue exilioribus ornatd ; extus intusgue al- 
bidd roseo pereleganter radiatd ; radus latis, haud interruptis ; 
margine dorsali albido. Long. 0"30 ; lat. O" 70 poli. 
Hab. ? (Cuming.) 

j"^*^ Tellina Owenii. Tel. testd ovato-oblongd, soUdiusculd, subimpo- 

.^ąĮj litd, compressd, <equilaterali, albidd, concentrice et confertissimk 

'1 striatd ; margine ventrali valde arcuato ; dorsali utrinąue subde- 

clivi, antice subrecto, postice incurvato et lamellis subdentato ; ex- 

tremitate anticd rotundatd; latere postico acuminato, subrostrato ; 

•• costd umbonali conspicud ; natibus acutis ; ligamento infosso ; disco 

- 1^"^ interno, aurantio ; dentibus lateralibus subcegtiidistantibus. Long. 

^ v-.«- 1-25; lat. 2 poli. 

Hab. Africa. Mus. Zool. Soc, Brit. Mus. 

A very rare and beautiful shell, whose contour is that of squalida 
and sculpture that of Pharaonis. I have named it in honour of its 
discoverer, Captain Owen. 

Tellina semen. Tel. testd ovatd aut ovali, crassd, inceguilaferali, 
subventricosd, nitidd, albidd {intus submargaritaced), antice rotun- 
datd, postice obtusd, concentrice striatd ; striis antice subimbricatis 
confertissimisąue, postice remotioribus et elevatis ; margine ven- 
trali convexo ; dorsali utringue magis minusve convezo, postici 
declivi, antice declivi aut subdeclivi ; latere antico muito longiore ; 
ligamento minimo, prominulo ; įlexurd subobsoletd ; dentibus late- 
ralibus conspicuis, postico magis approximato. Long. 025 ; lat. 
0-50 poU. 
Hab. Corregidor ; sandy mud, twelve fathoms. (Cuming.) 
Almost a Donax, but possessing a slight flexuosity which is not 
to be met v-ith in that genus. 



IJf 



I6fi 

Tellina nobilis. Tel. testd ovali, snlidinsculd, convexd, ineegui- 
lalerali, nitidissimd, lavigutd, Intus extusque rosed ; margine ven- 
trali convexiusculo, medio plerumque subrecto ; dorsali, antice vix 
declivi et convexiusculo, postice subdeclivi et subrecto aut convex- 
iusculo ; latere antico longiore, ad extremitatem obtuse rotundato ; 
postico obtuse angulato ; natibus obtusis ; flexurd costdąue umbo- 
nali subobsoletis ; ligamento prominulo ; dentibus cardinalibus par- 
vis, lateralibus nullis. Long. 1 ; lat. 150 poli. 
Hab. Orion, province of Bataan, isle of Luzon ; fine black sand, at 
low water. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

The extreme link bet\yeen Tellina and Psammobia, and not readily 
confounded with any of its division, owing to the general absence of 
colour in those Tellens which are destitute of lateral teeth. 

Tellina puella. Tel. testd obovatd, inacuilaterali, tenui, ventri- 
cosd, lavi, nitidiusculd, eitus intusgue albido-rosed ; margine ven- 
trali antice arcuuto, postice sursum acclinante ; dorsali, antice con- 
vexo, paululumąue declivi, postice convexiusculo et valde declivi ; 
latere antico longiore, rotundato ; postico brevi, angustato, angu- 
lato ; costd umbonali subobsoletd; flexurd ventrali, satis conspicud ; 
natibus obtusis ; ligamento prominulo ; dentibus parvis ; lateralibus 
remotis, subaųuidistantibus. Long. 05 ; lat. O' 6 poli. 

Hab. Senegal. Cuming, Metcalfe. 

Not vary unlike a thin Solidula, but provided with lateral teeth. 

Tellina chinensis. Tel. testd ovali, solidiusculd, convexd, sub- 
inaguilaterali, impolitd, intus extusque candidd, leevigatd ; margine 
ventrali subrecto ; dorsali, antice convexiusculo et paululum declivi, 
postice subrecto satisgue declivi; extremitate posticd obtusd; latere 
antico longiore, rotundato; ligamento — P; costd umbonali obso- 
letd ; dentibus lateralibus nullis. Long. O 62; lat. 1 poli. 

Hab. China. Mus. Britannicum. 

Tellina ala. Tel. testd ovatd, solidiusculd, subinaguivalvi, sub- 
aguilaterali, nitidd, convexiusculd, extus intusgue albidd (radio 
brevi pallide aurantio in adultis ornatd) , concentrice substriatd ; 
margine ventrali magis minusve convexo ; dorsali antice conveio et 
subdeclivi, postice declivi et prope nates subretuso ; latere antico, 
rotundato, longiore ; postico angulato, subrostrato ;flexurd costdgue 
umbonali conspicuis ; ligamento subinfosso ; cardine, dentibus pri- 
mariis parvis, et nonnunguam dente laterali antico rudimentali, in- 
structo. 
Var. Testd ovato-trigond, solidd, convexd, Icevi aut sublavigatd, ne- 
guaguam subrostratd; flexurd costdgue umbonali subinconspicuis 
Long. 1-20; lat. 1-75 poli. Var. long. 1-20; lat. 1-50 poli. 
Hab. Ceylon } Mus. Metcalfe, Cuming, Hanley. 
An extremely variable species, with some\vhat the aspect of Nym- 
phalis, but easily distinguished by its lesser convexity, and in general 
by the presence of a pale orange streak on either side of the umbones, 
or in the young by the slight rostrum and the possession of re"-ular 
concentric strije. ° 



166 

Tellina Irus. Tel. testd ovatd aut ohovatd, crassd {in adultis), 
subventricosd, sub<equilateraU, impolitd, extus intusąue albidd, con- 
centrice rugulosd; rugis interruptis minimis, confertissimis, sub- 
elevatis ; margine ventrali magis minusve arcuato ; dorsali anties 
convexo et subdeclivi, postice convexiusculo, elongato et declivi; 
latere antico paululum breviore, rotundato ; postico inferiie angu- 
lato ; lunuld {in adultis) parvd, profundd; ligamento infosso ; 
costd umbonali subobsoletd ; dentibus satis magnis. Long. 1*10; 
lat. 1-40 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming, Walton. 

Evidently a perforating species, and allied to the Petricola ochro- 
leuca of Lamarck, the true Tellina f vagilis of Linnseus's own coUec- 
tion. 



167 



December 10, 1844. 

William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair, 

A letter was read from Joseph James Forrester, Esq., of Oporto, 
announcing to the Society that he, in conjunction with his friends, 
the Viscount Santa Martha and Colonel Owen, was engaged in form- 
ing a collection of the Skins of Mammals and Birds, from the Oporto 
and Alto Douro districts. The Seoretary observed that among those 
already obtained was a Genet, a fact of much importance to natu- 
ralists, as from the days of BuiFon no information had been obtained 
of its existence in the Peninsula. 

— Cadell, Esq., presented to the Society a young Three-toed 
Sloth, Bradypus tridactylus, preserved in spirits, and the skin of the 
mother, which had died on the voyage home, within a few days' sail 
of England. 

Mr. Gould exhibited specimens of Echini from Western Australia, 
for the purpose of comparison with those sent from Oporto by Joseph 
James Forrester, Esq., and laid upon the table on the lašt evening 
of meeting. 

Descriptions of new species of Mitra and Cardium, by Loveli 
Reeve, Esq. : — 

Cardittm, 

Cardium incarnatum. Card. testd gibboso-ghbosd, longitudina- 
liter costatd, costis ąuatuor et viginti, rotundis, complanatis, mar- 
gines versus medio obsolete brevispinosis, interstitiis angustis, sub- 
profundis, transversim striatis ; pallide incarnatd, radiis roseis 
transversis hic illic ornatd. 
Conch. Icon., Cardium, pi. 1. f, 2. 

Hab. Bay of Manila (found in sandy mud at the depth of six fa- 
thoms) ; Cuming. 

A warm flesh-tinted shell, of which Mr. Cuming collected a few 
odd valves in the above-mentioned locality, and has lately received 
Severai perfect pairs. 

Cardium Mindanense. Card. testd subobliąue cordiformi, longi- 
tudinaliter costatd, costis novem et viginti, squamiferis, sąuamis 
numerosis, confertis, postici fornicatis, costarum interstitiis sub- 
profundis ; albidd, fusco hic illic nebulosd ; intus postici vividi 
purpurascente. 

Conch. Icon., Cardium, pi. 4. f. 19. 

Hab. Cagayan, island of Mindanao, Philippines (found among 
sand at low vrater) ; Cuming. 

No. CXLn. — Proceedings of the Zooi.. Soc. 



168 

The vaulted structure of the scales ia this species is about inter- 
mediate in its character between that of the scales of the Cardia con- 
sors and isocardia. 

Cahdiūm Austkaliense. Card. testd transversi ovatd, Donaci- 
formi, medio subcontractd, postice flesuoso-angulatd, subrnstratd, 
anticė compresso-attenuatd ; dimidio postico radiaiim sulcato, an- 
tico l<evigato, nitente ; albidd, ared posticd strigis brevibus fuscis 
utrinque ornatd. 
Conch. Icon., Carditim, pi. 5. f. 24. 
Hab. Port Lincoln, South Australia ; Harvey. 
This .«hell may be chiefly distinguished from the Cardium Donaci- 
forme, to which it is in many respects allied, hy the contracted flex- 
uous prolongation of the posterior portiou, and by the peculiarity of 
one half of the shell being conspicuously grooved, whilst the other 
half is smooth and shining. 

Cardium oviputamen. Card. testd obliąui ovatd, tenui, ventricosd, 
radiativi tenuissime siriatd ; nived, opacd, strigis lineisve rosaceo- 
fnscescentibus exilibus undatis concentrice nebulosd, epidermide 
pallidd margines verstis indutd ; tnarginibus intus subtiliter crenu- 
latis. 
Conch. Icon., Cardium, pi. 7. f. 36. 

Hab. ? 

The general appearance of this and the following species is very 
likę that of the Cardium serratum ; both however are of a less obliąue 
form, and the Cardium oviputamen under consideration is more ven- 
tricose. 

The concentrically waved pinkish brown marks above noticed, 
though faintly indicated, are nevertheless characteristic, as distin- 
guished from those of a different pattem, in the following species. 

Cakdiu.m vitellinum. Card. testd obligue ovatd, tenuiculd, radi- 
atim striatd ; lutescente-albd, maculis parvis numerosis rosaceo- 
fuscescentibus umbones versus copiose lentiginosd, epidermide luted 
indutd ; marginibus intus crenulatis. 
Conch. Icon., Cardium, pi. 7. f. 37. 

Hab. } 

This shell is of a less ventricose ovate structure than the preceding, 
and farther distinguished by its different tinge and style of colouring. 

Carditjm hystrix. Card. testd subquadrato-cordatd, postice con- 
cavo-angulatd, radiatim costatd, costis ad duas et triginta, an- 
gustis, cotnpt-essis, posticis sguamulis brevibus, cateris spinis 
sguamteformibus erectis, umbones versus svbinfiexis, elegantissimi 
ornatis ; costarum interstitiis striis elevatis transversim subtiliter 
cancellatis ; albidd, costarum interstitiis pallide rosaceis.lined vividi 
coccined utringue piclis ; intus purpureo-rufescente. 

Conch. Icon., Cardium, pi. 8. f. 40. 

Var. /3. Testu estus omninb nived. 

Hab. Island of Corrigidor, Philippines (found in coarse sand at the 
depth of about seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 



169 

The exquisite dellcacy and beauty of this shell is remarkable ; each 
rib is surmounted with a close-set ro\v of slender scale-like spines, 
and the interstices are minutely cancellated ; they are raoreover 
tinged with pink, and down each side of the ribs is a bright scarlet 
line. 

There is another very beautiful small specimen of the Cardium 
hystrix in the collection of Miss Saul ; and Mr. Cuming is also in 
possession of two of the white variety. 

Cardium rubicundum. Card, testd oblongo-ovatd, vix obligud, 
radiatim costatd, costis acute convexis, septem et triginta, quarum 
anticd sguamoso-crenatd, mediand utrinąue obtuso-squamatd,posticd 
tuberculatd ; rubicundd, umhones versus albicante rubido-fusco tna- 
culatd ; marginibus intus vivide rubris. 

Conch. Icon., Cardium, pi. 9. f. 44. 

Hab. Zanzibar, east coast of Africa. 

An extremely pretty species, remarkable for its vivid colouring 
and for the elaborate character of its sculpture. 

Cardium assimile. Card. testd oblongo-ovatd, obliqui radiatim 
costatd, costis quinque et triginta, basi latis, approximatis, summi- 
tatem versus attenuatis, anticis crenatis, postremis tuberculatis, 
medianis leevibus, lateraliter subtilissime impresso-serratis ; pallide 
purpureo-rufescente, umbones versus albicante, maculis sparsis 
variegatd. 

Conch. Icon., Cardium, pi. 9. f. 45. 

Hab. Zanzibar, east coast of Africa. 

This species approximates very closely to the Cardium subelonga- 
tum, yet there are difFerences which cannot be overlooked ; it has a 
greater number of ribs and the ribs are of another structure. 

Mitra. 

• Mitra Norrisii. Mitr. testd elongato-ovatd, crassd, solidd, spird 
subobtuso-acuminatd ; striis transversis et longitudinalibus.elevatis, 
confertis, undique subtilissime reticulatd aut clathratd, transversis 
prominentioribus ; eburned, epidermide corned, tenui, nigerrimd; 
columelld sexplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 1. f. 6. 

Hab. ? 

I have much pleasure in dedicating this fine species, so entirely 
distinct frora any hitherto described, to Thomas Norris, Esq., a 
worthy and esteemed patron of the natūrai sciences, whose magnifi- 
cent collection of Mitrės has so greatly contributed to the complete- 
ness of my monograph in the work above referred to. It is impos- 
sible to convey an adequate idea of the finely reticulated sculpture 
of this unique shell by a lithographed figure, it being so fine that 
the interstices of the net-work resemble minute punctures. 

Mitra Dennisoni. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird attenuato-acumi- 
natd, anfractibus subconcentrici costatis, transversim sulcatis. 



170 

suleis angtistis, costas super phs minusve obsoletis ; ruhido-aurari' 
tid, zond unicd albidd cingulatd, cterulescente-olivaceo inter costas 
pecuUariter tinctd ; columelld quadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 3. f. 14. 

Hab. Puteao, province of Albay. island of Luzon, Philippines (found 
on mud-banks at low vvater) ; Cuming. 

I deciicate this fine species with much pleasure, at the particular 
request of Mr. Cuming, to J. Dennison, Esq , a gentleman who has 
acquired considerable fame in the conchological world on account of 
the very choice and select character of his collecticn of shells. 

Mitra floccata. Mitr. testd elongnto-ovaid, crassivsculd, lavigatd, 
punctorum seriebus undigue cinctd ; lutescente-spadiced, albo longi- 
tudinaliter floccatd; columelld įuadriplicatd, labro prope basin 
crenato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 3. f. 16. 

Hab. .? 

The specimen here figured, from the coUection of Mr. Cuming, is 
the only one of the species I am acąuainted with. 

Mitra solida. Mitr. testd ovato-elongatd, crassd, solidd, spird 
subturritd ; anfractibus numerosis, convexis, leevigatis, transversim 
sulcatis, suleis angustis, striis subtilissimis prope suturas decus- 
satis ; spadiceo-fulvd, albo sparsim et irregulariter floccatd ; colu- 
melld quinqueplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 3. f. 18. 

Hab. .? 

This interesting species may be recognized by its many convex, 
deep-sutured whorls ; and the 'vvhorls, being longitudinally striated 
near the suturės, exhibit a slight cancellated appearance. 

Mitra inquinata. Mitr. testd fusiformi-oblongd, subangustd, 
spird acuminatd, transversim impresso-striatd, striis puncturatis ; 
ebumed, rubido-fusco longitudinaliter incuinatd; columelld įuadri- 
plicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 5. f, 29. 

Hab. ? 

Though a species of very simple character, it is quite distinct from 
any hitherto described. 

Mitra gracilis. Mitr. testd elongatd, spird valde productd, suturis 
subprofundis ; anfractibus transversim subtilissimi costatis, costis 
angustis irregularibus, interstitiis liris obtusis minutissimis pul- 
cherrime decussatis ; albidd, fuscescente pallide fasciatd, costis 
fusco articulatis ; columelld guadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 5. f. 31. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found in sandy mud at the depth 
of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

A most delicately sculptured shell, Vfith somewhat the character 
of the Mitra granatina about it. 

Mitra declivis. Mitr. testd elongato-turritd, basi truncatd, spird 



171 

acuminatd ; anfractibus superni angulato-decUvibus, lavibus, trans- 
versitn exilissimi impressis ; cinereo-carned, epidermide nigerrimd ; 
columelld quadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 6. f. 44. 

Hab. ? 

This shell appears to be quite distinct from the Mitra glabra ; there 
is no appearance of transverse brown lines, the whorls are angulsirly 
bent next the suture, and the spire is more sharply acuminated. 

Mitra coccinea. Mitr.testdelongato-fusiformi,spird acuminatd; 
anfractibus longitudinaliter obtuso-costatis, interstitiis transversim 
elevato-striatis, anfractds ultimi costis subevanidis ; vivide cocci- 
ned aut lutescente, balteo unico albo cingulatd ; columelld quadri- 
plicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 7. f. 49. 

Hab. Islands of Masbate and Luzon, Philippiaes (found on the 
reefs at low water) ; Cuming. 

This species may be easily recognized by its peculiarity of colour- 
ing, — bright scarlet, encircled by a simple white beit. 

Mitra tumida. Mitr. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, spird breti, apice 
acuto ; anfractibus tumidis, superne plano-angulatis, longitudinali- 
ter rude costatis, costis ad angulum noduloso-tumidis ; albidd aut 
virescente, anfractibus ad angulum rufo tinctis, ultimo balteo nigro 
latiusculo cingulato ; columelld tri- aut guadriplicatd ; aperturas 
fauce nigricante-fuscd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 8. f. 51. 

Hab. New HoUand. 

A few specimens of this peculiarly swollen shell v^ere lately brought 
from New Holland in H.M.S. Beagle. 

Mitra rupicola. Mitr. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, in medio obe- 
siusculd, spird attenuatd ; anfractibus superne angulatis, costis 
latiusculis obtusis longitudinalibus et transversis decussatis, ad de- 
cussationem nodosis ; carned, epidermide fuscd, corned, crassd, ad 
apicem erosd, indutd ; columelld triplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 8. f. 53. 

Hab. St. Elena, West Columbia (dredged from a rocky bottom at 
the depth of fourteen fathoms) ; Cuming. 

A new and very distinct species, at present unique in the collee- 
tion of Mr. Cuming- 

MiTRA balteolata. Mitr. testdfusiformi, spird acuminato-turritd ; 
anfractibus transversim elevato-striatis, longitudinaliter costatis, 
costis confertis, anfractds ultimi subevanidis ; balteolis nigris duo- 
bus in medio cingulatis, supra cinereo-albidd, lined unicd fuscd 
circum-ornatd, infra aurantid, interdum cinereo-viridescente tinctd, 
apicefusco; columelld ąuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 8. f. 54. 

Hab. MoUucca and Philipplne Islands (found at the islands of Zebu 
and Buriąs, under stones at low water) ; Cuming. 

Allied to the Mitra plicata. 



172 

Mitra chalybeia. Mitr. testd elongato-ovaM , hasin versvs sul- 
caid ; anfractibus convexis, leevigatis, juxta suturas rude subtilis- 
sime crenulatis ; cinereo-carulescente alhoque longitudinaliter stri- 
gatd, iransversim indistincte fasciatd, lineis rubido-fuscis aqui- 
distantibus undique cingulatd; columelld rufo-avrantid, ąuadripli- 
cald. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 9. f. 59. 

Hab. } 

A new and very characteristic species, at present uniąue in the 
coUection of H. Cuming, Esq. 

Mitra fulgurita. Mitr. testd cylindraceo-elongatd, subangvstd, 
transversim impresso-striatd , striis puncturatis ; pallide spadiceo- 
fulvd, strigis angustis albis longitudinalibus ornatd ; columelld 
guingueplicatd, subutnbilicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 9. f. 61. 

Hab. ? 

An interesting new species, marked with vhite lightning-like lon- 
gitudinal streaks. 

Mitra lignaria. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd. crassiusculd, spird 
acuminato-productd ; anfractibus superne depressis, longitudinaliter 
subobligue obtuso-costatis, transversim subtiliter liratis, liris binis ; 
rubido-aurantid, epidermide fuscd indutd ; columelld quadripUcatd ; 
aperturd breviusculd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 9. f. 64. 

Hab. St. Elena, West Columbia (dredged from rocky ground at 
the depth of about fourteen fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This shell has somewhat the character of the Mitra rupicola found 
in the šame localitj' ; the spire is ho\vever longer, the aperture con- 
sequently shorter, and the sculpture is of a different character. 

Mitra lacunosa. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, spird breviusculd, 
transversim sulcatd, suleis confertis, regularibus, profunde punc- 
turatis ; longitudinaliter lacunosd, lacunis subconcentrice undatis ; 
albicante, aurantio-fuscescente prope apicem macvlatd, anfractu 
vltimo fascid latiusculd aurantio-fuscescente cinguluto ; columelld 
guadriplicatd . 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 10. f. 65. 

Hab. ? 

This species is characterized, independently of its peculiar stj'le of 
colouring, by numerous longitudinal \vaved grooves or gutters having 
the appearance of sea-breaks. 

Mitra pellis-serpentis. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, crassd, solidd, 
spird subacuviinatd , liris plano-granulatis transversis et longitudi- 
nalibus subtilissime decussatd; intus extusque lutescente ; columelld 
quadriplicatd ; labro superne contracto, intus striato-crenulato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 10. f. &&. 

Hab. Islands of Mindoro and Bohol, Philippines (found under stones 
at lo\v water) ; Cuming. 



173 

The granular coriaceous sculpture of this shell Varies čonsiderably 
in ditFerent individuals. 

Mitra Cūmingii. Mitr. testd ovatd, utrinque attenuatd, spira 
acuminato-turritd ; anfractibus superne angulatis, longitudinaliter 
costatis, costis numerosis, ad angulum mucronatis, liris transversis 
angustis cancellatis, interstitiis impressis ; aurantio albogue pecu- 
liariter maculato-variegatd, maculis aurantiis nigro-lineatis ; colu- 
melld guadripUcatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 10. f. 67. 

Hab. Matnog, province of Albay, island of Luzon (found on the 
■reefs) ; Cuming. 

I dedicate this species to H. Cuming, Esq., as being one of the 
most beautiful and characteristic of the many interesting new Mitrės 
collected by that indefatigable naturalist during his researches 
amongst the Philippine Islands. 

Mitra rubiginosa. Mitr. testd elongato-ovatd, subfusiformi, trans- 
versim crebrisulcatd, suleis puncturatis ; albd, rubiginoso-tinctd ; 
columelld quinquepUcatd, plicis infimis subobscuris. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 10. f. 68. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the reefs at low vvater) ; 
Cuming. 

The iron-mould spots on this shell exhibit rather a tessellated 
style of arrangement. 

Mitra interlirata. Mitr. testd subelongatd, spird acutd, trans- 
versim liratd, liris numerosis, acutiusculis, lira minore intercur- 
rente, interstitiis striis longitudinalibus elevatis cancellatis ; albd, 
maculis perpaucis distantibus aurantio-fuscescentibus tinctd; colu- 
melld subumbilicatd, guingueplicatd, plicis infimis subobscuris ; 
basi leviter ascendente ; aperturd longiusculd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 10. f. 70. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (found in sandy mud at the 
depth of four fathoms) ; Cuming. 

The narrow intermediate ridge forms a prominent feature in this 
species. 

Mitra Zebūensis. Mitr. testd subfusiformi, nitidd, basin versus 
sulcatd, liris planiusculis, confertis, subtilissime cancellatd, liris 
longitudinalibus fortioribus ; albidd, anfractuum parte superiori 
maculis grandibus perpaucis castaneo-fuscis ornutd ; columelld 
guingueplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 10. f. 73. 

Hab. Island of Zebu, Philippines (found on the reefs at lo.w water) ; 
Cuming. 

The brown spots being situated around the upper part of the whorls 
give an irregular tessellated character to the spire. 

Mitra inkecta. Mitr. testd ovatd, basi recurvd, spird acuminatd ; 
anfractibus striis impressis cinctis, ultimo tumidiusvulo ; pullide 
flavd, maculis castaneo-fuscis pictd ; columelld obsolete sexplicatd. 



174 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 11. f. 75. 

Hab. Island of Annaa, Pacific Ocean (found on the reefs at Iow 
vater) ; Cuming. 

A solid, rather ventricose shell, with a peculiar twlst at the base. 

Mitra acupicta. Mitr. testd acuminato-turritd, anfractihus con- 
vexis, numerosis, longitudinaliter crebrilirutis, transversim im- 
presso-striatis ; albidd, apice basiąue rosaceis, liris punctis cteruleis 
et fuscis profuse variegatis ; columelld cuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 11. f. 76. 

Hab. Zanzibar, east coast of Africa. 

The surface of this beautiful shell has the appearance of being 
curiously embroidered with small coloured beads. 

Mitra obesa. Mitr. testd abbreviato-ovatd, solidd, superne valde 
obesd, spira brevissimd, suleis spiralibus et radiantibus decussatim 
impressd ; anfractn nltimo basin versus sulcato, supra Icevigato ; 
albd, lineis rubido-fuscis remotiuscvlis cingulatd, epidermide vivide 
viridescente omniriu indtitd ; columelld sexplicatd. 

Conch. Icon.. Mitra. pi. 12. f. 87. 

Hab. ? 

I have no information concerning the locality of this extremely 
interesting species, of which there is an example in the collection of 
Thomas Norris, Esq. 

Mitra ustulata. Mitr. testd elongatd, spird angusto-acuminatd. 
transversim subtilissime striatd ; albidd, lineis capillaribus fusces- 
centibus remotiusculis cingulatd, maculis grandibus vstulato -fuscis 
nebulosd ; columelld sexplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra. pi. 13. f. 89. 

Hab. .? 

This species is at present uniąne in the collection of Thomtus 
Norris, Esq. 

Mitra crebrilirata. Mitr. testd acuminato-tvrritd, longitudina- 
liter svbobligue liraid, liris angustis, crebris, interstitiis impresso- 
cancellatis ; olivaced vel olivaceo-fuscd, lined unicd pallidd ittfra 
suturas plerumąue cinctd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 13. f. 92. 

Mitra rosea, Kiener (not of Duclos). 

Hab. Ceylon. 

Figured by M. Kiener for the Mitra rosea of Duclos, which is the 
Voluta ignea, Wood, Mitra subulata, Lameirck. 

Mitra polita. Mitr. testd acuminato-turritd, Icevigatd, politd, ad 
basin sulcatd, prope apicem subtilissime plicato-costatd ; fuscd vel 
cinereo-fuscd, lined unicd pallide flavicante cingulatd ; columelld 
cuadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 13. f. 94. 

Hab. Islandą of Zebu and Luzon, Philippines (found in mud on the 
shore at low vrater, and at the depth of six or seven fathoms) ; Cu- 
ming. 



175 

At the desire of one or two gentlemen whose opinions in concho- 
loirical matters cannot be lightly esteemed. I have described the Mi- 
tra polita and crebrilirata as new and distinct si)ecies ; it mušt be 
admitted, however, that I have felt strongly inclined to regard the 
former as the Eastern analogue of the Mitra ebenus. smooth variety, 
of the Mediterranean, and the latter as the analogue of the Mttra 
ebenus, ribbed variety, of the šame region. 

Mitra variabilis. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, medio subobesd. 
Itevigatd, transversim subtilissime punctato-striatd ; lutescente- 
olivaced, lineis fuscis capillaribus remotiusculis cinctd, an/ractu 
ultimo zond unicd ccerulescente-albd medio omato ; columelld qua- 
driplicatd; aperturce fauce olivaceo-fuscd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 13. f. 95. ^ t^ • 

Hab. Torres Strait (found under stones at low ^ater) ; Dnng. 

The variable character of this species consists in its being some- 
times flaked or indistinctly streaked with bluish white. 

Mitra ctlindracea. Mitr. testd cylindraceo-ovatd. utringue at- 
tenuatd, suleis capillaribus puncturatis, superne remotiusculis, cin- 
gulatd ; lutescente-olivaced, maculis albis irregularibus infra sutu- 
ras omatd. an/ractu ultimo in medio maculato-fasciato ; columelld 
guadriplicatd ; aperturte fauce fuscescente. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 13. f. 97. 

The painting of this shell is not much unlike that of the Mitra 
variabilis. 

Mitra PULLATA. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird acuminato-turritd ; 
an/raciibus superne subangulatis. transversim impresso-striatts, 
longitudinaliter plicato-costatis, costis superne obtuso-mucronatis ; 
aurantio-lutescente, lined subtilissimd fuscd cingulatd, anfractu 
ultimo f ascid latd nigricante-fuscd omatd; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 14. f. 102. . 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the reefs) ; Cuming. 

The Mitra pullata is esactly intermediate between the Mitrai bal- 
teolata and plicata. diflfering sufficienUy from both to constitute a 
distinct species. 

Mitra olbacea. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, Bucciniformi, spird 
brevi; anfractibus convexis. Iceoigatis, epidermide comed olivaceo- 
fuscd nitidd indutd; columelld guadriplicatd, basi truncatd; labro 
in medio leviter contracto. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 14. f. 105. 

Hab. ? , , . . , . . J- ^. 

There is a peculiarity in the form of this species which distin- 
guishes it from any other of the Melania-like group. 

Mitra obeliscus. Mitr. testd acuminato-turritd, spird acutd; an- 
fractibus longitudinaliter costatis, costis angustis, crebris, inter- 
stitiis impresso-cancellatis ; lutescente-fuscd, lined unicd albd cin- 
gulatd; columelld guadriplicatd. basi contorto-recurvd. 



176 

Čonch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 15. f. 107. 

Hab. Bais, island of Negros, Philippines (found among coarse sand 
and stones at the depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

The Avliorls are numerous in thia species and rather contiguous. 

Mitra funerea. Mitr. testd abbreviato-fusifurmi, spird acutd; 
anfractibus rotundis, liris transversis et longitudinalibus creber- 
rime decussatis, anfractu ultimo Icevigato, ad basin sulcato ; fuscd, 
balteo unico angusto flavicante cingulato ; columelld triplicatd, basi 
rccvTvd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 15. f. 108. 

Hab. Pasacao, South Camarinos, island of Luzon, Philippines 
(found in sandy mud at the depth of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

The whorls of the spii e have a peculiar rounded decussated ap- 
pearance, with the yellow beit just falling in the sutural depression. 

Mitra variegata. Mitr. testd suboblongo-ovatd, transversim regu- 
lariter sulcatd, anfractuum limbo superiori subobsolete crenulato ; 
albidd, olivaceo-spadiceo nebulatd et variegatd ; columelld quinque- 
plicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 15. f. 111. 

Hab. Islands of Ticao and Mindanao, Philippines (found on the 
reefs at low water) ; Cuming. 

The whorls of this sheU are very slightly angulated, and the 
clouded variegated painting only appears beIow the angle. 

Mitra c^erulea. Mitr. testd subfusiformi-oblongd, transversim 
regulariter sulcatd, suleis angustis, puncturatis ; carulescente- 
albicante, anfractu ultimo, fascid latissimd cceruled, marginibus 
albimaculatis, cincto ; basi et aperturee fauce aurantio-fuscescenti- 
bus ; columelld quinqueplicatd, umbilicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 15. f. 113. 

Hab. Islands of Ticao and Capul, Philippines (found on the ree& 
at low water) ; Cuming. 

The white flake-like spots which appear on the upper edge of the 
blue band of the lašt whorl are just visible on the whorls of the spire 
above the suturės. 

Mitra fulgetrum. Mitr. testd subfusiformi, solidiusculd ; an- 
fractibus superne leviter angulatis, transversim impresso-sulcatis, 
suleis angustis, subtilissime puncturatis; rubido-castaned, strigis 
albis prominentibus undatis longitudinaliter ornatd ; columelld qua- 
driplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 15. f. 115. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

The white longitudinal waved streaks are very strikingly depicted. 

Mitra pretiosa. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird acuminato-turritd, 
transversim subtiliter costatd, longitudinaliter confertim impresso- 
sulcatd ; suturis subprofundis ; albidd, rubido-fusco balteatd et 
punclatd. 



177 

Conch. Icon., MzVra, pi. 15. f. 116. 

Hab ? 

In painting this shell reminds one of the Mitra crenifera ; the 
sculpture is however of a quite diflferent pattern. 

Mitra Gruneri. Mitr. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, subharptBformi, 
spird breci, turritd, acutd; longitudinaliter acute costatd, costis 
superne mucronato-tuberculatis, anfractuum parte superiori plono- 
angulatd ; olivaceo-viridescente, lineis tribus rubido-fuscis subdi- 
stantibus inter costas seriatim pictd ; columdld quinqueplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 16. f. 119. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (found on the reefs at low 
•water) ; Cuming. 

It is somewhat a matter of surprise that this very characteristic 
species, which is not uncommon, has never been described. I dedi- 
cate it with much pleasure to E. L. G. Gruner, Esq., of Bremen. 

Mitra caliginosa. Mitr. testd ovato-fusiformi, solidiusculd, spird 
breviusculd ; anfractibus convexis, Icevigatis, iransversim impresso- 
striatis ; albd, epidertnide corned nigricante undique indutd ; colu- 
melld guingueplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 16. f. 121. 

Hab. ? 

I have no locality for this species, which is a rather solid white 
shell, closely enveloped by a dark blackish epidermis. 

Mitra funicūlata. Mitr. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, spird brevi- 
usculd; anfractibus superne subangulatis, liris angustis elevatis 
subdistantibus undique funiculatis, interstitiis striis subtilissime 
cancellatis ; roseo-albicante, epidermide fuscescente indutd, liris 
fuscescente-punctatis ; columelld guadriplicatd, plicis infimis sub>- 
obscuris ; aperturd longiusculd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 16. f. 122. 

Hab. Isle of Plata, West Columbia (found in coral sand at the 
depth of fourteen fathoms) ; Cuming. 

A species intermediate between the Mitra circulata and sulcata. 

Mitra concentrica. Mitr. testd acuminato-ovatd, subfusiformi, 
longitudinaliter concentrici costatd, costis superne mucronatis, in- 
terstitiis impresso-striatis ; albidd, ferrugineo-fusco hinc et hinc 
maculato-tinctd, ad basincue fasciatd ; columelld guingueplicatd ; 
aperturee fauce striatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 17. f. 128. 

Hab. Isle of Annaa, Pacific Ocean (found on the reefs at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

This species is very closely allied to the Mitra mucronata, from 
■which it only difFers in the concentric disposition of the ribs, and in 
their being denuded of tubercles. 

Mitra Senegalensis. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird acute acumi- 
natd ; anfractibus Iccvigatis, superne tmnidiusculis ; Uvido-olivaced, 



178 

flammulis perpaucis albidis longitudinaliter ornatd ; columelld tri- 
plicatd; aperturtB fauce livido-castaned. 
Conch. Icon.. Mitra, pi. 17. f. 129. 
Hab. Senegal; Petit. 

A very characteristic species, quite distiact firom any hitherto de- 
scribed. 

MiTKA IMPRESSA. Mitr. tcstd elongūtd, sub-Terebreąformi. longi- 
tudinaliter subtiliter costellatd, costellis lavigatis, interstitiis trans- 
versim peculiariter impresso-sulcatis ; fuscescente-rubidd, macula- 
rum serie unicd subindistinctd cingulatd, costellis albidis; colu- 
melld quinqueplicatd, basi leviter recurvd. 
Conch, Icon., Mitra, pi. 17. f. 130. 

Hab. .? 

A truly interesting species, of which this is the only specimen I 
have seen. It is of a deep brick-red colour, covered with close 
ivliitish longitudinal ribs, each whorl being encircled round the middle 
■with an indistinct row of spots of a darker red. 

Mitra solidula. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, crassd, solidd, spird 
brevi, obtusd, prope apicem subtilissime concentrice sulcatd ; an- 
fractibus convexis, l<evigatis, transversim exiliter striatis ; olivaceo- 
fuscd, plicis albis ; columelld concavo-expansd, callositate albicante 
superne armatd, ąuadriplicatd ; labro peculiariter planulato, su- 
perne canaliculato, intus crenulato. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 18. f. 133. 

Hab. Island of Corrigidor, bay of Manila (found under stones at 
low water) ; Cuming. 

This is a species of an interesting group of shells, of which the 
Mitra Ziervogeliana forms the type, distinguished by their solid 
structure, the prominent development of the columellar plaits, the 
presence of a callosity, and the peculiar flattened surface of the outer 
lip. 

Mitra livida. Mitr. testd subquadrato-ovatd, spird breviusculd, 
acutd ; anfractibus Icevigatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis tu- 
midis, in/erne evanidis ; livido-olivaced, balteo unico angusto cin- 
gulatd, costis olivaceo-lulescentibus ; columelld guadriplicatd ; labro 
leviter sinuato; apertura fauce pallidk lividd, striatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 18. f. 134. 

Hab. ? 

I am much indebted to M. Deshayes for the loan of this very in- 
teresting species, of which I know no other specimens. 

Mitra choava. Mitr. testd ovatd, solidd, glabrd, spird brevi; ni- 
gricante-fxiscd, plicis albis ; columelld concavd, callositate armatd, 
guadriplicatd; labro peculiariter planulato, superne canaliculato, 
intus crenulato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 18. f. 135. 

Hab. Isle of Johanna, Mozambiąue Channel ; Hennah. 

The characters of the Mitra choava are very similar to those of the 



179 

Mitra solidula and anthracina ; each species may, however, be fully 
distinguisbed by its difFerence of form and other minor peculiari- 
ties. 

Mitra anthracina. Mitr. testd acuminato-ovatd, spird acutd, 
glaberrimd; anthracind; columelld subconcavd, guadriplicatd, cal- 
lositate parvd, superne armatd ; labro peculiariter planulato, su- 
peme leviter canaliculato, intus crenulato. 
Concb. Icon., Mitra, pi. 18. f. 137. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Pbilippines (found on the reefs at Iow water) ; 
Cuming. 

Very closely allied to the Mitra solidula, but of a more elongated 
form, with a smooth shining surface. 

Mitra robusta. Mitr. testd ovatd, crassd, spird brevi, subobtusd; 
anfractibus tumidiusculis, transversim sulcatis, basin versus pree- 
cipue, longitudinaliter concentrice plicato-rugosis ; rubido-fuscd ; 
columelld concavd, guadriplicatd, callositate armatd ; labro incras- 
sato, planulato, superne canaliculato, intus crenulato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 18. f. 140. 

Hab. ? 

This species partakes of the characters of the Mitra Woldemarn 
and Ziervogeliana in about equal proportions. 

Mitra pulchella. Mitr. testd acuminato-ovatd, spird subturritd, 
longitudinaliter costellatd, costellis angustis, planis, confertiusculis, 
basin versus subgranosis, transversim impresso-striatis ; aurantio- 
lutescente, fascid purpurascente inter costas ornatd; columelld 
quinqueplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 19. f. 142. 

Hab. Island of Barbadoes, West Indies ; Humphreys. 

The painting of this shell has a very pretty appearance. 

Mitra histrio. Mitr. testd subovatd, spird breviusculd, longitu- 
dinaliter costatd, costis subobtusis, basin versus granulosis, inter- 
stitiis transversim striatis ; vivide coccined, suturis nigris, nigro 
interdum nebulosd, balteo albo angusto, balteocue nigro, cingulatd ; 
columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 19. f. 144. 

Hab. ? 

A gaily- coloured scariet shell more or less banded and bedaubed 
Vfith. black. 

Mitra rtjbritincta. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, crassiusculd, acufb 
acuminatd, transversim undigue sulcatd; albd, maculis grandibus 
aurantio-rubris supra infrague seriatim nebuloso-tinctd ; columelld 
guadriplicatd; labro crenulato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 19. f. 147. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Pbilippines (found under stones at low 
vater) ; Cuming. 

The surface of this shell is characteristically grooved throughout. 



180 

Mitra speciosa. JMitr. testd obeso-ovatd, utrinque attenuatd, trans- 
versim impresso-striatd, longitudinaliter costellatd, costellis pla- 
niusculis, basin versus granulosis ; rosaceo-albicante, costisfascid 
latissimd fuscd aut purpurascente-fvscd tinctis, apice rosaceo ; 
columelld quadriplicatd, plicd svperd valde maximd, 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 19. f. 148. 

Hab. Island of Capul, Philippines (found on the reefs) ; Cuming. 
This shell, at a glance, has very much the appearance of the Mitra 
pulchella, but upon examinatioii it will be observed that the dark 
oand which encircles the one is painted on the ribs, whilst in the 
other it appears in the interstices. 

Mitra cavea. Mitr. testd ovatd, glabrd, longitudinaliter costellatd, 
costellis obtusis ; cinereo-nigricante, costis macularum albicantium 
serie unicd omatis ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 19. f. 149. 

Hab. ? 

The specimen here described, from the coUectron of Thomas Norris, 
Esq., is the only example of the species I have seen. 

Mitra telescopium. Mitr. festd ovato-fusiformi, leevigatd, nitidd, 
transversim punctato-striatd ; anfractibus co7itiguis, ullimo basin 
versus subcontracto, suturis conspicuis, pro/undis ; cesrulescente- 
albd, anfractu ultirno inferne rufo-castaneo, spirte apice nigricante ; 
columelld quadriplicatd . 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 20. f. 80. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the reefs at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

This new and very characteristie shell exhibits the šame peculiarly 
contracted structure as the Mitra abbatis, aud the whorls have the 
šame contiguous telescope-like appearance. 

Mitra ignobilis. Mitr. testd subobeso-fusiformi, basi leviter re- 
curvd, spird acuminatd, transversim undique sulcald, suleis con- 
fertis, subsuperficiariis ; albicante, maculis grandibus ustulato- 
fuscis seriatim nebulosd; columelld seipUcatd, plicis injimis, 
subobscuris. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 20. f. 152. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the reefs at low 
vvater) ; Cuming. 

In order not to confound this species with one of very similar ap- 
pearance, the Mitra ustulata, it is important to notice that the sur- 
face of the former is grooved throughout, whilst that of the latter is 
very finely striated and marked with rather distant brown hair lines. 

Mitra decurtata. Mitr. testd abbreviato-ovatd, subventricosd, 
crassd, solidd, spird brevi, apicem versus acutd; Ictvigatd, inferne 
sulcatd ; nigerrimo-fuscd, punctis albidis perpaucis prope basin, 
linedque albd conspicud infra suturas cinctd; columelld quadripli- 
catd; aperturd ampld ; labro stiperne sinuato et contracto. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 20. f. 154. 

Hab. ? 



181 

A fine new species, of which I have seen several esamples in an 
excellent statė of preseivatiou. 

Mitra badia. Mitr. testd acuminato-ovatd, transversim subtilissimh 
striatd ; undique badid ; columelld quadriplicatd, pUcd infimd sub- 
obscurd; aperturd breviusculd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 20. f. 157. 

Hab. ? 

This is rather an unsatisfactory species, though certainly not re- 
ferable to any hitherto described. 

Mitra cadaverosa. Mitr. testd ovato-turritd, spira acutd; an- 
fractibus transversim impresso-striatis, supra et infraplus minusve 
angulatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis ad angulos exasperato- 
mucronatis ; albd, halteo angustofuscescente inter costas cingulatd ; 
columelld quadriplicatd ; apertura fauce striatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 21. f. 160. 

Hab. Philippine and Lord Hood's Islands (found under stones at 
low water) ; Cuming, 

However closely this shell may approximate to the Mitra exaspe- 
ratą, it is uniformly white, and ahvays exhibits a strong peculiarity 
in the band which appears in the interstices and not upon the summit 
of the ribs. 

Mitra carnicolor. Mitr. testd subabbremato-fusiformi, liris 
parvis subobtusis, alternis majoribus, undiąue cingulatd, liris striis 
impressis longitudinaliter incisis ; estus pallide carneolo-fusces- 
cente, intus rosaced ; columelld quinqueplicatd, plicd infimd sub- 
obscurd. 

Conch. Icon.. Mitra. pi. 21. f. 164. 

Hab. ? 

A neatly sculptured delicately tinted shell, ąviite distinct from any 
hitherto-described species. 

Mitra Hindsii. Mitr. testd lanceolato-fusiformi, spird acutissimi 
turritd; anfractibus superne angulatis, infra angulum leviter con- 
tractis, transversim carinat o -costatis, costd super angulum promi- 
nentiore, interstitiis concavis, subtilissime elevato-striatis ; lutes- 
cente, costis spadiceis, epidermide tenui indutd; columelld guadri- 
plicatd, plicis duabus inferioribus f ere obsoletis ; aperturce fauce 
subrosaced. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra. pi. 21. f. 165. 

Hab. Gulf of Nicoya (found in mud at the depth of about seven- 
teen fathoms) ; Hinds. 

This beautiful species, which I have the pleasure of dedicating to 
a most zealous labourer in the field of conchological research, may 
be recognised by its graceful form and by the keel-like elevation of 
the ribs. 

Mitra latruncularia. Mitr. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, tenui- 
culd, basi truncatd; transversim undique sulcatd, suleis angustis, 
crebris, punctatis ; albidd, rubido-castaneo tessellatd etfasciatd; 
columelld guadriplicatd. 



182 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 21. f. 166. 

Hab. ? 

A slight thin shell closely grooved throughout, the grooves being 
minutely punctured and the intermediate ridges prettily tessellated 
with white and reddish brovvn. 

Mitra Deshayesii. Mitr. testd suhfusiformi, spird turritd, an- 
fractibus superne angulatis, ad angulum nodosis, infra IcBvibus ; 
livido-viridescente, nodis aurantio-coccineis, strigis in tnedio inter- 
ruptis e nodis descendentibus ; columelld, quadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon.. Mitra, pi. 22. f. 1 70. 

Hab. ? 

I have two examples of this extreniely interestlng species from the 
coUection of M. Deshayes, and two from that of Thomas Norris, Esq. 

Mitra vruinosa. Mitr. testd ovato-fusiformi, spird acuminatd, 
lineis impressis longitudinalibus et transversis decussatim exsculp- 
tis ; spadiceo-fuscescente, strigis nivcis brevibus angustis e suturis 
subirregulariter descendentibus ; columelld quadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 22. f. 171. 

Hab. ? 

This is another peculiarly characteristic species for which I have 
no locality. 

Mitra Solandri. Mitr. testd ovato-oblongd, crassiusculd , spird 
elevatd, apice subobtuso ; undiųue sulcatd, suleis latiusculis, con- 
fertis, peculiariter subtilissime corrugatis, liris intermediis angus- 
tis, carincEformibus ; pallide fusco alboque fasciatd ; columelld 
ąuadriplicatd. 

Hab. ? 

An ancient species described many years since in manuscript by 
Dr. Solander under a name that is occupied. 

Mitra flammigera. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird acute acuminatd, 
suturis impressis ; anfractibus superni tumidiusculis, transversim 
undique liratis, liris alternis majoribus, interstitiis lineis impressis 
decussatis ; albidd, flammis latiusculis spadiceis longitudinalibus 
pictd ; columelld quinqueplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 22. f. 173. 

Hab. ? 

The sculpture of this attractive species approaches very nearly to 
that of the Mitra interlirata, from which it differs more materially in 
form. 

Mitra loricata. Mitr. testd fusiformi, utringue attenuatd, spira 
anfractibus plaHO-convexis ; fortiter noduloso-granosis, granis 
regularibus, seriatim creberrime digestis ; albidd, maculis perpau- 
cis aurantio-fuscescentibus hic illic fasciatim tinctd; columelld 
quinqueplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 22. f. 174. 

Hab. ? 

The entire surface of this species, from the coUection of W. Met- 
calfe, Esq., is very strongly closely granulated. 



183 

Mitra maculosa. Mitr. testd ohhngo-ovatd, spird breviusculd. 
suturis impressis ; an/ractibus transversim punctato-striatis, parte 
superiori lutescente-albd fuscescente partim tinctd, infra castaneo- 
fuscd albipunctatd ; columelld quinqueplicatd ; labro intus superrit 
sinuato. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 22. f. 175. 

Hab. Australia and island of Annaa, Pacific Ocean (found at the 
latter place on the reefs) ; Cuming. 

This species may be recognised by its peculiarity of colouring, the 
upper portion of the whorls being nearly white, stained just here and 
there with brown, the lovver chestnut-brovvn speckled with white 
dots. 

Mitra proscissa. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, ufringue attenuatd. 
spira an/ractibus contiguis, suturis impressis ; transversim undigue 
liratis, liris latiusculis, obtusoconvexis, confertis, interstitiis an- 
gustis, subtilissime cancellatis ; albidd, maculis aurantio-fusces' 
centibus bifasciatim tinctd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 22. f. 177. 

Hab. ? 

It may be as well to caution the reader against confounding this 
shell with the Mitra ferruginea, a name which I have seen erro- 
neously attached to it in one or two important collections. 

Mitra rotundilirata. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, utringue atte- 
nuatd, transversim undigue liratd, liris rotundis, confertis, inter- 
stitiis angustis, striis elevatis decussatis; aurantio-castaned ; colu- 
melld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 23. f. 178. 

Hab. ? 

The ridges of this shell are peculiarly rounded, and impart a kind 
of crimped appearance to the lip. 

Mitra Ruppkllii. Mitr. testd fusiformi-ovatd, basim versus leviter 
contractd, transversim undigue liratd, liris subrotundis, interstitiis 
l<evibus ; castaneo-fuscd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 23. f. 179. 
Hab. Red Sea ; RiippeU. 

An interesting species, in wlucli the ridges are almost as rounded 
as in the former ; they are however wider apart, and the interstices 
are net crossed with raised striae. 

Mitra Ticaonica. Mitr. testd ovatd, crassd, solidd, spird brevi, 
suturis profundis ; an/ractibus transversim undigue exiliter sulcatis, 
juxta suturas Iteviusculis ; spadiceo-brunned, aperturte fauce vividh 
purpureo-/uscd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 23. f. 181. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the reefs at low water) ; 
Curaing. 

A very characteristic stout solid species, with a dark purple-brown 
richly-enamelled mouth. 



184 

Mitra planilirata. MItr. testu oblongo-ovatd, spird subacvmi- 
natd, transversim vndiąue sulcatd, liris intermediis peculiariter 
planulatis ; fuscd ; columelld ąuadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 23. f. 184. 

Hab. ? 

This species may be easily distinguished from those which it so 
nearly resembles in general appearance by its peculiarly flattened 
ridges. 

Mitra peregra. Mitr. iestd oblongo-ovatd, spird suboblusd ; 
transversim f ortiter sulcatd, suleis pertasis ; riibidd, liris trans- 
versis profuse albimaculatis ; columelld qmnqueplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 24. f. 186. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

This species, vvhich appears to be figured by Kiener for tlie Mitra 
tmcleola, may be connected by a series of intermediate varieties with 
the Mitra cucumerina. 

Mitra astricta. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, basi truncatd ; anfrac- 
tibus lavibus, cinereo-fuscis, fascid albidd infra suturam, lineisgue 
fuscescentibus parallelis crebris undiqu€ cinctis ; columelld quadri- 
plicatd ; labro subeffuso. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 24. f. 188. 

Hab. ? 

The entire surface of this shell is enlaced with fine brown lines. 

Mitra Sinensis. Mitr. testd cylindraceo-oblongd, crassd, spird 
brevissimd, acutd; transversim crebriliratd, liris angustis , promi- 
nentibus, granosis, lineisque longitudinalibus impressis exilibus 
decussatd ; fuscd ; columelld decempUcatd, callositate conspicud 
superne armatd; intus fuscd, nitide encausticd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 24. f. 190 b. 
Mitra crenulata (pars), Kiener, Icon., f. 105 a. 
Hab. Coast of China. 

TL^is fine species, though one of great rarity, has been probably 
confounded hitherto 'with the Mitra crenulata, an error into which I 
had myself fallen, until the arrival of a magnificent specimen most 
liberally forwarded to me for inspection by M. Gruner of Bremen, 
and which has been invaluable as the means of establishing a new 
and very important species. It difFers entirely from the Mitra crenu- 
lata, independent of coloiu-ing and size, in the character of its sculp- 
ture, whilst the columella has an additional number of plaits and is 
armed with a remarkable callosity at the summit. 

Mitra glans. Mitr. testd ovatd, subcylindraced, superne obesd, 
crassd, solidd, spird brevissimd, partim occultd ; longitudinaliter 
obtuso-costellatd, costellis f ortiter granulosis ; vivide aurantio- 
fuscd, granulis albidis, intus albd; columelld octoplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 24. f. 191. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (found on the reefs at low 
water) ; Cuming. 



185 

Characterized by its very distinctly granulated sculpture, and by 
ifcs short obese form. 

Mitra undulosa. Mitr. testd cylindraceo-ovatd, crassd, spira 
brevissimd; Iceviusculd, lineis eiiliter impressis undicue cinctd; 
albd, lineis fuscis cingulatd, unduUsque fuscis angustis longitudi- 
nalibus variegatd; columelld octoplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 24. f. 192. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found among coral sand on the 
reefs at low water) ; Cuming. 

The lineated character of the painting is so difFerent from that of 
the M. crenulata, that I cannot refrainfrom separating it as a distinct 
species. 

Mitra NANrs. Mitr. testd abbreviato-ovatd, spird brevi, acutd, 
transversim undigue sulcatd, suleis basin versus profundioribus ; 
rubido-fuscd, balteo angusto jlavicante, peculiariter albimaculato , 
cinctd ; columelld ąuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 24. f. 193. 

Hab. ? 

Distinguished by its narrow yellow beit, which has a peculiar 
white knotted appearance. 

Mitra porphyritica. Mitr. testd obeso-ovatd, basi subgranosd, 
spird acute turritd; longitudinaliter plicato-costatd, costis angii- 
latis ; anfractibus supra albicantibus, infra olivaceo-cinereis, albi' 
zonulatis ; columelld cuadriplicatd ; aperturd brevi. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 2.5. f. 195. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at lo\v 
water) ; Cuming. 

A short stout species, -vvith a sharp angularly turreted spire, en- 
circled with bands of a peculiarly livid olive-ash-colour. 

Mitra virgata. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, spird brevi, apice acu~ 
minatd ; loEvigatd, nitidd, basin versus impresso-striatd ; niger- 
rimo-fuscd, virgis albis longitudinalibus fleruosis, interdum medio 
interruptis, ornatd, anfractu ultimo zonuld pallidd angustd non- 
nunguam superne cingulato ; columelld guadriplicatd ; labro medio 
contracto, superne sinuato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 25. f. 197 a and b. 

Mitra retusa, var., Gray ; Zool. Beechey's Voyage. 

Hab. Isltind of Luzon, Philippines (found under stones and in 
crevices of rocks) ; Cuming. 

This species is exactly intermediate between the Mitra paupercula 
and retusa. 

Mitra chrysalis. Mitr. testd ovatd, spird brevi, subretusd; trans- 
versim undiąue sulcatd; fuscd aut fuscescente, anfractu ultimo 
maculis interruptis medio uniseriatim cincto ; columelld guadripli' 
catd; labro medio contracto. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 25. f. 200. 

Hab. ? 



186 

May be distinguished from the young of the Mitra cucumerina by 
its peculiarly contracted lip. 

Mitra coxcinna. Mitr. testd ovatd, basi contractd, spird turritd ; 
anfractibus superne angitlatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis an- 
gulum super granoso-mucronatis, liris parvis obtusis transversim 
decussatis , liris iransversis vivide luteis, interstitiis nigricante- 
castaneis ; columellu guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 26. f. 203. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (found under stones at lo\v 
■\vater) ; Cuming. 

A bright prettiJy painted species, very closely appioximatiDg in 
forrn and sculpture to the Mitra crocata. 

Mitra vexustuI)A. Mitr. testd ovatd, spird aaiminatd, anfractibus 
convexis, longitudinaliter granoso-costatis, vivide luteis, zonulis 
angustis nigerrimo-castaneis duabtis tribusve cingulatis ; columelld 
quadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, \A. 26. f. 204. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (found under stones at \o\\ 
^vater) ; Cuming. 

The \vhorls of this species have not the šame angular structure a-s 
those of the preceding, nor are the ribs granosely pointed at the 
upper extremity. 

Mitra flavescens. Mitr. testd ovatd, spird snbacuminatd, an- 
fractibus longitudinaliter costatis, costis superne subnodosis, liris 
granosis decussatis ; flavescenie, zond fuscd medio albilineatii , 
cinctd ; columelld ųuadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 26. f. 207. 

Hab. I.sland of Masbate, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

Ailied to the preceding species by its style of sculpture, but difFer- 
ng in form and pattem of colouring. 

Mitra variata. Mitr. testd ovatd, basi contractd, spird turritd ; 
anfractibus superne angulatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis la- 
tiusculis, obtuso-prominentibus, interstitiis transversim impresso- 
striatis ; luted, ustidato-fusco varie fasciatd et lineolatd ; columelld 
ąuadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon.. Mitra. pi. 26. f. 209. 

Hab. ? 

This shell exhibits a beautiful variation of colour ; the ribs Jire not 
erossed with granose ridges, likę those of the Mitra concinna, crocata, 
and flavescens, but have the interstices engraved with fine irapressed 
striae. 

Mitra affinis. Mitr. testd ovatd, spird acuminato -turritd ; an- 
fractibus longitudinaliter obtuso-costatis, costis liris planiusculis 
iransversis decussatis; aurantio-rubrd, fascid luteo-albicante cin- 
gulatd ; columelld quadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 2G. f. 211. 



187 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

The specific difFerences of this shell are not of an unimportant 
character ; the cross ridges are somewhat flattened, the white band 
is broader, and the granules are of the šame uniform colour as the 
ground. 

Mitra turben. Milr. testd oblongo-ovatd, basi atlenuatd, spira 
obtuso-rotundatd, suturis subprofundis ; longitudinaliter creberrinie. 
plicato-costellatis, costellis interstitnsque transversini impresso- 
striatis ; aurantio-lutescente ; columelld quinqueplicatd, plicis pro- 
minentibus ; aperlurd intus striatd. 
C'onch. Icon., Mitra, pi. '27. f. 213. 

Hab. Philippine Islands (found under stones at lo\v \vater) ; Cu- 
ming. 

It is a curious fact that the whole of the specimens of this species 
coUected by Mr. Cuming have the lower portion of the lip broken 
a\vay. 

Mitra citrina. Milr. testd ovato-conicd, superne rotiindatd, solidi- 
usculd, spird brevi, apicem verstis subtiliter sulcatd, apice elato, 
acuto ; Icevigatd, aurantio-citrind, livido-castaneo varie tinctd ; co ■ 
lumelld quinqueplicatd ; aperturd longissimd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 27. f. 215 a and b. 

Hab. ? 

A new and very remarkable Cone-like species, in the collection of 
Thomas Lombe Taylor, Esq., o f Starston, Norfolk. 



December 24, 1844. 
No business was transacted. 



I N D E X. 



The names of New Species and of Species nevvly cliaracterized are printed in Roman 
Characters: those of Species previously knovvn, but respecting which novel information 
is given, are printed in ItaUcs : those of Species respecting which Anatomical Obser- 
vations are made, are printed in Cai-itals. 



Page 

Abrocoma 156 

Acanthylis bicolor, Gr&y 99 

^gotheles 1 eucogaster, Gould 1 06 

Alauda ai~vensis,lA\m 66 

bracht/dactyla, Tėvam 66 

cristata ? Lmn 66 

Alcedo iipida, Linn 64 

Araadina Gouldiae, GomM 5 

Atnphidesma 159 

Ainphidesnia carnicolor, /fejt/ey ... 162 

scabrum, i/arefej/ 17 

Zebuense, Hanley 17 

Ana/ina truncata 91 

Andi'opadus gracilirostris, Strick. ... 101 

latirostris, Strick 100 

Anous ? 36 

stolidus 35 

Antims pratinsis, Bechst 66 

Antilope scripta 123 

Aphriza Tmvtisendii, Aud 157 

Aptenodytes minor 58 

\xnAm&, Gould 57 

Arca ambigua, Reeve 47 

angicostata, Reeve 46 

anomala, ižeetJe 39 

■^■^ antiguata 43 

Brasiliana 45 

bullata 125 

bullata, 7?ee»e 126 

caelata, Reeve 126 

cepoides, Reeve 47 

chalcanthum, i?ewe 44 

cistula, /žec»e 41 

clathrata, Reeve 44 

covatta., Reeve 127 

compacta, i?ee«e 41 

contraria, ižeet^e 45 

cornea, /feei'e 40 

crebricostata, Reeve 46 

crenata, Reeve 45 

cunealis, 7ilee»e 124 

cuncata, i?ee«e 42 

cymbajforrais, Reeve 41 

cyrnbcpformis 47 



Arca disparilis, /?eet7e 46 

Donaciformis, Reeve 125 

fasciata, ife«>e 125 

ferruginea, /fee^e 43 

Gambiensis, TJeeiJe 42 

gibbosa, /?e(?»e 40 

globosa, ifee!;e 45 

gubernaculum, 5eere 40 

Hankeyana, Reeve 47 

\i\?iXi%, Reeve 47 

holoserica, iJeeae 39 

imbricata 126 

inceąuivalvis 45 

incongrua 45 

inflata, Reeve 41 

Japonica, Reeve 42 

lacerata 124 

■ lactea 127 

lateralis, /?ec»e 127 

Įima, Reeve 125 

loricata, iJeef e 46 

Luzonica, Reeve 44 

maculosa, 5ee»e 40 

minuta, i?eei»« 127 

Modiolcpformis,'De.s}i 124 

mutabilis 124 

myristica, iže«»e 43 

na.\ice\la., Reeve 127 

No€e 126 

ohliąua., Reeve 43 

obtusa, Reeve 123 

ocdusa., Reeve 47 

ocellata, Reeve 125 

oli\acea, Reeve 127 

ovata., Reeve 44 

Tpertnsa, Reeve 41 

pilula, Reeve 39, 40 

pulcliella, /feefe 128 

pusilla 126 

raAiaia, Reeve 43 

reversą 46 

rotundicostata, ^eece 44 

rufesccns, /Jec^e 45 

scapha 40 



190 



Arca sculptilis, /?ee»e 128 

secticostata, Reeve 43 

setigera, Ileeve 124 

stiiata, Reeve 128 

symmetrica, iJeeee 127 

symmetriea 128 

tenebrica, /Seeve 126 

tenella, Reeve 124 

vellicata, Reeve 42 

virescens, ižeeee 124 

volucris, /?ee»e 126 

Zebuensis, Reeve 1 28 

Arctomys Empetra, Schreb 8 

Jrdea cinerea, Linn 66 

comata. Pall 67 

garzetta, "Lmu 67 

MiNUTA, Linn 10 

Atrichia clatnosa, GomW 2 

Attagis Gayi, Less 157 

Balana Boops, Auct 96, 145 

Bįfrontia, Desh 24 

Bos Sylhetanus, F. Cuv 145 

Botam'HS stellaris, Steph 67 

Brachyglossa Atropos 164 

Bradypus didacfylus 93, 95 

didactvlus, Linn.- 96, 146 

tridacii/lus 167 

Buccinum chlorosloma 48 

Budytes negleela, Cnv 66 

Byssoarca pusilla, Sow 1 26 

Calidris arenaria, 111 157 

Camelus Sivalensis, Hors 88 

Canis Azarte 153 

Bengalensis, Sliaw 7 

CINEREO-ARGENTEUS, Scbrcb. 7 

fulvipes 153 

MageUanictis 153 

Capra Caūcasica, Guld 8 

HiRCus, var 8 

Cardium assimile, Reeve 169 

Australiense, ifeea'fi 168 

consors 168 

Donaciforrne 168 

\\yįXv\x, Reeve 168 

incarnatum, i?ee»e 167 

isocardia 168 

Mindaneiise, Reeve 167 

oviputamen, iJeef? 168 

rubicundum, T^eece 169 

serratum 168 

siibelongatum 169 

vitellinura, ^fet»e 168 

Castor Fiber, Linn 9 

Cebus 81 

Cercopithectis pileatus 3 

radiatus 83 

ruber 83 

Cervus ViRGiNiANUs, Ray 7 

CluBtura bicolor, Gray 99 

Chamceleon 163 



Page 

Cftaradrius h iatieida, Linn 67 

;;/Mt'ia//s, Linn 67 

Chione 110 

Circe scripta 109 

Circus rufus,^n%i 64 

Ch-rus, Sow 24 

Cleodora 163 

Colossoclielys Atlas, Falconer ... 54, 84 
Atlas, Falconer 85 

C'OLUMBA LEUCOCEPHALA, Ray 10 

MYSTACEA, Temm 10 

COLUMB-'E 10 

Columbella acbatina, G. iJ. 5oio. ... 50 

aspersa, G. 5. 5ow 49 

atomella, G.B.Soiv 53 

airamentana, G. B. Smv 51 

blanda, G.B.Som 51 

Broden^ii, G. B. Sotv 53 

catenata, G.B.Soiv 52 

chlorostoma, (7. iJ. Soto 48 

coniformis, G. B. Sotv 49 

deciis&ata, G. B. Sow 51 

dichroa, G. B. Sotv 50 

dormitor, G.B.Soui 53 

Duclosiana, G. B. Sotv 48 

fabula, G. B. Sotv 50 

Guildingii, G. fi. 5ou) 53 

guttata, G. B. Sotv 50 

inipolita, G. B. Sotv 51 

jaspidea, G.B.Soiv 50 

Kraussii, G.B.Soiv 53 

LiguU, G. B. Sotv 49 

mher, G. B. Sow 50 

nionilifera, C. B. 5oM' 53 

nigricans, G. B. Sotv 52 

m\ea, G. B. Sotv 51 

oh&cma., G. B. Sow 49 

y)ar\a, G. B. Sow 52 

])(Kci\a, G. B. Soiv 48 

Puella, G.B.Soiv 52 

pusilla, <?. iJ. &)u; 53 

rudis, G. B. Sotv 48 

rugulosa, G. B. Sotv 51 

splendidula, G.B.Soiv 49 

subulata, G. B. Sotv 52 

suffnsa, G. B. Soio 52 

Ticaonis, G. B. Sotv 51 

\enusta, G. B. Soi4) 49 

vulpecula, G. jB. >Soio 50 

Columbtis coronatus 136 

Corbula adusta, //i'nrf* 26 

aurita, Hiuds 26 

Corbula, Bruguieres 26 

Corbula carnosa, Ilinds 26 

crispa, Hinds 26 

procera, Hinds 26 

Cossypha poensis, S/ne/ir 100 

reclamator, Vieill 100 

Criniger 101 

Crocodilus lorigirostris 85 



191 



Page 

Cryplospira 76 

Cueulus canorus, Linu 66 

C'urritca cinerea, Bechst 65 

melanocephala, Lath 65 

or])hea, GoxA6. 65 

Cursoriits Isabellinus 66, 153 

iJyanoplerus fretensis, Eyton 157 

Cyllene 152 

(Jymba 150 

Cynocpphalus 81 

Cypseliis parvus, Licht 99 

Cyrena 64, 159 

Cyrena Carotinensis 159 

Keraudreni 160 

o/iesa 160 

Philippinarum, Haniey 159 

placeus, Haniey 160 

radiata, Haniey 159 

radiata 159,160 

rolnndata 160 

sordida, Haniey 159 

Cytherea 109 

C'ytherea argentea 110 

cor, Haniey 110 

Hindsii, //ara/ey 110 

lala 109 

obliąuata, Haniey 109 

oblifjiiata 109 

peltucida 109 

-: — l'hilippinarum, Haniey 110 

plebeia, Haniey 1 09 

varians, Haniey 1 09 

Dąfila pyrogaster, E)~ton 157 

urophamanus, Eyton 157 

Dasypus SEX-ciNCTtis, Auct 96 

V1I.L0SPS, Desm 96,146 

Deilephila Elpenor 164 

Euphorbi<e 164 

Delj)liinula 25 

Dermesles lardariug 36 

Didelphh elegans 154 

Didus solitarim, Gmelin 77 

Donacina 71 

Dosina 162 

Eehini 164 

Eckymys 156 

Edenlata 94 

Edentala 144 

Elephas Ikdicus, Cuv 96 i 

Emya leclum 85 

Erethizon dorsatum, f. Cuv. ... 9 ' 
Eulabeornis castaneoventris, Gould . 56 I 

Euomphal'ix, Sow 24 1 

Feus Bengalensis, Desm 7 

Lk.o 54 

ilelanura 128 | 

Fringilla Canarienuis 1 

Gallin^ 10 I 

Oatlinula chloropits, Lath 67 

GaRRULVS CRiSTATUS, Vielll 9 I 



Geopelia placida, Gould 55 

tranąuiUa, Gould 56 

Glauconome angulata, Reeve 20 

cerea, Reeve 21 

curta, ifeetie 20 

corrugata, /fewe 20 

radiata, Reeve 20 

rugosa, iSeere 19 

straminea, Reeve 20 

\irem, Haniey "Į 18 

Solen -^-irens, Zinn J 18,19 

Grallatores 10 

Granivor^ 9 

Halmaturūs Billardieri, Gould 146 

dama, Gotdd 33 

Houtmanni, Gould 31 

manica/m 35 

Thelidis 33 

Hajiūle Jacchus ;... 82 

Hapalotis alhipes 104 

loiigicaudata, Goulrl 104 

Helicites, Schlot 24 

Hesperomys megalonys, Waterh. ... 154 
HimantopuH melanojiterus, Meyer ... 67 

Hipparchia Melampus 163 

HirundinidfE 99 

Hydroch.erus Capybara, Erxl. . . . 9(i 

Hypsiprymnus platyops, Gould 103 

SETosus, Ogilb 9 

Hystricina 157 

leracidea occidentalis, ffoM/rf 105 

Ibis Falcitiellus, Temm 67 

RUBER, Lacep 10 

Iguanodon 54 

I.VSECTIVORj; 9 

Labyrinthodon 54 

Lagopus fernigineus, Fraser 37 

Lagorchesfes albipilis 33 

hirsutus, Gould 33 

Lagotis Cuvieri, Benn 154 

Laniida, Laniina 102 

Lanius ejceubitor ? Linu 64 

r«/>«, Briss 65 

Leptodactyhis 157 

Leptopus Mitchellii, Fraser 157 

Lernea Sprattie, Pennant 38 

Lerneonema monillaris, Milne Edw. 38 

Leiicaria littoralis 163 

Limosa melanura. Leisi 67 

Lithodomus canaliferus, Hanl 16 

plumula, Hanl 17 

Lophyrus Victoria;, i^/-a*er 136 

Loris' 89 

Loris gracilis 4 

LoxiA CCERULEA, Linu 10 

Macacus Sinieus, V. CuK 3 

Macropodidce 163 

Macropus gracilis, <?02</<2 103 

lunalus 103 

ocydromus, Gould 33 



192 



Macropus ocydromus, Gonld ... 146 

itfae/rojrfes, Born, Chemn 110 

MalurintB 100 

Malurus Acacia ? B.iip'p 66 

pulcherrimus, Goiild 106 

Marginella Australis, i/žW* 75 

avena, Valenc 75 

Belcheii, fJinds 73 

hlanda, Hinds 76 

carulesceiis 74 

C'leryii 73 

coustricta, /?/n<fs 74 

fusitbnnis, //j«<fe 75 

iinbricata, Hinds 76 

interrupta 76 

livida, Hinds 73 

maculosa, Kiener 76 

inuralis, ///nrf* 76 

inusica, Hinds 73 

nitida (Vol variną) , Ilinds 75 

uivosa, Hinds 74 

nodata, Hinds 73 

piperata, Hinds 72 

pruinosa, Hinds 74 

prunum 74 

sagitt ata, Hinds 76 

sapotilla, Hinds 74 

icrvjitA, Hinds 73 

tricincta, Hinds 76 

vitrea, Hinds 75 

MARSCPrAT-i 9 

Masfodon elephantoides 88 

Megalosaurus 54 

Megapodiirue 77 

Megascolex ca;ruleus, Templeton ... 89 
Mellivora Capensis, F. Cuv. ... 145 

Melo 150 

Milvago megaloptertts, Meyen 157 

Mitra 167 

Mitra abbatis 180 

aciipicta, Reeve 174 

affiuis, Reeve 186 

anthracina 179 

astricta, i?eei'e 184 

badia, /?«e»e 181 

balteolata, i?e«7e 171 

balteolaia 175 

cadaverosa, Reeve 181 

caliginosa, /fee»e 177 

caruicolor, /žeere 181 

CAS ea, Reeve 180 

chalybeia, Reeve 1 72 

chooMtL, Reeve 178 

clin-salis, Reeve li^5 

circtdata 177 

citrina, i?e?»e 187 

coccinea, Reeve 171 

C(£n\\ea., Reeve 176 

concenirica, Reeve 177 

conciima, Reeve 1 86 



Mitra crebrilirata, Reeve 174, 175 

crenulata 184,185 

crocata 186 

cucumerina 184, 186 

Ciimingii, Reeve 173 

cylinfkacea, Reeve 175 

declivis, Reeve 1/0 

decurtata, Reeve 180 

Dennisoni, i?e«JC 169 

■ Desbavesii, Reeve 182 

ebenus 175 

exasperata 181 

ferniginea 183 

flamiuigera, Reeve 182 

flavescens, fieM'e 186 

^occAi&t Reeve 170 

fulgetrum, i?epfe 176 

fulgurita, Reeve 172 

funerea, /?eepe 176 

funiculata, fleere 177 

glabra 171 

glans, Reeve 184 

gracilis, Reeve 170 

granatina 170 

Gruuen, Reeve 177 

Hindsii, Reeve 181 

\\[&tno, Reeve 179 

ignobilis, Reeve 180 

impressa, Reeve 178 

infecia, /feetie 173 

inąuinata, Reeee 170 

interiirata, TSeere 173 

interlirata 182 

lacunosa, Reeve 172 

latnincularia, /?e«i^ 181 

lignaria, iJeepe 172 

\W\<\a, Reeve 178 

loricata, ^eece 182 

lyriformis, Swains 151 

rnaculo-sa, Reeve 183 

mucronala 177 

nanus, Reeve 185 

Norrisii, Reeve 169 

nucleola 184 

obelisciis, Reeve 175 

obesa, /?eere 174 

oleacea, i?p«'e 175 

paupercula 185 

pellis-serpeiitis, Reeve 172 

peregra, ^epi'e 184 

planilirata, Reeve 184 

plicata 171, 175 

pobta, Reeve 174 

— — polita 175 

porphyritica, Reeve 185 

pretiosa, i?eece 176 

proscissa, /?efee 183 

pruinosa, Reete 182 

pulcbella, fleet-e 179,180 

\tw\\*Aa., Reeve 175 



19.'J 



Page 

Mitra relusa 185 

robusta, Reeve 179 

rosea, Diiclos 174 

rotuudilirata, iJeet'c 183 

rubigiuosa, A!ee»e 173 

rubritincta, Rene 179 

rupicola, Reeve 171, 172 

Ruppellii, Tfeere 183 

Seuegaleusis, Reeve 177 

Sinensis, Keeve 184 

Solandri, /?e«7e 182 

solida, ižee»e 170 

solidula, Reeve 178, 179 

speciosa, /ffe»e 180 

subulata, h».\a 174 

sulcata 177 

telescopiura, ifee»e 180 

Ticaonica, ^eet)e 183 

inmida., Reeve 171 

iurben, Reeve 187 

undulosa, /?ee»e 185 

ustulata, i?e«»e 174 

us/ulata 180 

variabilis, i?eet?e 175 

variata, ^e«'e 186 

■ variegata, i?ee^»e 176 

venustula, i?ec»e 186 

\\rgata., Reeve 185 

Woldemarii 179 

Zebueiisis, i?ee»e 173 

Ziervogeliana 178, 179 

Modiola arcuatula, i/a^/ey 16 

bu'adiata, //a?!fey 15 

discrepans 16 

Metcaltii, Hanley 14 

Modiolus 15, 16 

Oirenii 16 

Philippiuarum, Hanley 15 

sordida, Hanley 16 

striatula, Hanley 14 

strigata, Hanley 15 

subramosa, //are/ey 14 

sulcata,h9.vo. 15 

MoscHUS Stanleyanus, Gray ... 7 

Molacilla nefflecla, GoMld 66 

MurideB 156 

Mus Darivinii 154 

■ MESSORius, Shaw 8 

sylvaticus 105 

Muscicapa albicollis, Temiu 64 

Fraseri, Strick 101 

grisola, \jh\x\ 64 

laiirostris, Swains 102 

Muscicapid(B, Muscicapinee 101 

Myadora, Gray 91 

Myadora brevis, Jff«;e 93 

crassa, Reeve 92 

curvata, /Jewe 93 

— ohlouįfl., Reeve 93 

— ovata, y?e?efe 92 



Myadora Pandora-formis, Reeve ... 93 

plaua, 72ee»e 92 

planą 93 

striata, 7?eew 93 

striata 92 

tincta, Reeve 92, 93 

trigona, i?ec»e 92 

Myopotamus CoYPUs, Desiu 96 

Coypus 154 

Myoxid(B 157 

Mytilacea 14 

Mytilus granulatus, Hanl. 17 

Nassa 121 

NetEra 62 

Neeera, Gray 97 

Neaera cochlearis, Hinds 98 

lyrata, Hinds 97 

tenuis, Hinds 97 

Octodon 156 

Octodon Bridgesii, Waterh 155 

Cumingii 154, 155 

Degus 155 

Octodontida 156 

Odostomia eulimoides, Haiil. 18 

Rissoides, Hanl. 18 

turrita, Hanl 18 

Omalūivis, Deshayes 24 

Omnivor^ 9 

Oriolus galbula, Lmn 65 

OrPHEDS RUFUS 9 

Otis Houbara 66, 153 

Ovis Tragelaphus 95 

Tragelaphus, Desm 145 

Pacbycephala Gilbertii, Gould 107 

Pandora brevis 91 

Papio 81, 82 

Papio Rhdesus 83 

Parus major, Linn 9 

Perameles arenaria, Gould 104 

Perdix Bonhami, Fraser 10 

petrosa, hax\\ 66 

Petricola ochroleuca, Ijaiii 166 

Phcenospira 72 

Phalacrocorax albigula, Brandt ... 157 

Phalangista gliriformis 164 

Pliascogale calurus, Gould 104 

penicillata 105 

■ ■ crassicaudata, Gould 1 05 

Phoca viTULiNA, Linii 96 

Phcenicura ruticilla, Swaius 65 

Phylloscopus 99 

PiTHEcus Satyrus, GeofF. 96 

Plyctolophus citrino-cristatus, Fras. 38 

sulphureus 38 

Podiceps Australis, Gould 135 

cristalus 135 

Poephagomys 156 

Pocphagomys ater 154 

Pollicipes Coniucopia 1 64 

Prinia icterica, Slrici 1 00 



194. 



Piinia olivacea, Strici 99 

Procellaria leucoptera, Gott^rf 57 

Solandri, Gould 57 

Procellaridce 5/ 

Psammobia 60, 165 

Psittacus Timneh, Fraser 38 

PSOPHIA CREPITANS, Liiin 146 

Psophodes nigrogularis, Gould 5 

Puffinus carneipes, Gould 57 

Pycnonotince 1^" 

Pycnonohis flavirictus, Strick 101 

Pyrgita domestica /* Cuv 66 

RalUdce 56 

Rana esculenta 1^9 

Ranella albivaricosa, Reeve 136 

anceps 139 

-bituljercularis 140 

ccelata 137 

caudata, Say 116 

coliacea, 7fee»e 137 

cuspidata, ifeefe 139 

foliata 137 

granifera, ¥ltiitx 138 

. h&iivAa., Reeve 139 

livida, J?ce»e 138 

Muricįformis 116, 139 

nohiiis, Reeve 137 

plicata, ifewe ^38 

ponderosa, iJeeiJe 137 

jmlchra 137 

pustulosa, iieeije 137 

. rosea, TJeetie 139 

scrobictclator '38 

siplionata, Reeve 138 

triąuetra, Reeve 139 

tuberosissima, Reeve 139 

venustula, /iee»e 138 

Rkynchaspis į 

Ringicula Australis, //«nrf« 97 

carou, Hinds 97 

exserta, Hinds 97 

graiulinosa, Hinds 96 

propiuquaiis, //i'nrfs 96 

RODE.NTIA ° 

Salicaria galactotes, Gould 65 

phragmilis, Selb 63 

Saturnia pyri 164 

Saxicola ? 6a 

Saxicola Deserti, Riipp "S 

(Enanthe, Gould 65 

rMie/ra, Bechst 65 

Scalaria aculeata, G. B. Sow 12 

acumiiiata, G. jB. 5ow 31 

alata 11 

alata, G. 5. Soit) 10 

aurita, G. B. Sow 26 

bicarinata, G. B. Sow 30 

hiMata, G. B. Sotv 27 

Cataiiauensis, G.B.Soiv 27 

communis 12 



Scalaria concinna, (?. B. So«7 28 

connexa, G.B.Soiv 28 

dubia, G. B. Sow 13 

Elenensis, G. S. &w 29 

fasciata, G. B. Sow H 

. fnahilis, G. B. Sow 27 

iusca, G. B. Soiv 30 

gradih, G. B. Soiv 12 

hesagona, G. B. 5ow 29 

hyalina, G. jB. 5ozf H 

iiiimaculata, G. B. &M) 26 

imperialis, G. B. So!<? 13 

indistincta, G. B. 5ou; 27 

irregularis, G. B. /Sou) 13 

laxata, G. B. Sow H 

Lyra, G. B. Sow 13 

marmorata, G. B. Sow 1 1 

Mindoroensis, G. B. Sow 30 

Mitrfeformis, G. B. 5ou> 12 

multicostata, G. B. Sow 28 

mnricata, Kiener 13 

obtusa, G.B.Soia 29 

ovalis, G. B. 5ow 29 

Pliilippinarum, G.B.Soiv 12 

polita, G.B.Soiv 30 

pulcherrima, G. B. Sow 28 

pyramidalis, G. B. Sow 12 

rėplicata, G.B.Sou) H 

similis, G.B.Soiv 27 

statuminata, G. B. Sotu 30 

subtilis, G. B. 5ot» 28 

venosa, G. B. Soif 13 

vestalis, Hinds 27 

Schizodon 156 

Schizostoma, Bronn 24 

SciuRUs LtsTERi, Ray 8 

MAXIMUS 146 

Semnopithecus Leucoprymnus Cepha- 

lopterus 1 

Semnopithecus Nestor 1 

Siliquaria anguitui 67 

Solarium, Lain 22 

Solarium asperum, //mrfs 23 

cselatum, Hinds 25 

dealbatum, Hinds 24 

dorsuosum, Hinds 23 

fenestratum, //mrf« 25 

formosuTO, //inrfs 22 

fragile, //m(/s 24 

fuligiiiosum, //in<?s 158 

fulvum, //jWs 24 

gramdalum 23 

TperdiK, Hinds 22 

įierspeciivum 22, 23, 158 

placentale, Hind.i 22 

pmpuratuiu, Hinds 25 

ąiiadriceps, Hinds 23 

troclileare, Hinds 25 

troclileare 158 

. virgatum, Hinds 24 



195 



Page 

Solariella, Searles \\ood 24 

Solenacea 19 

Solidula 1(55 

Sperantia sylvaria 163 

Slenopidce 5 

Sterna fuliginosa 36 

Stry.T nyctea 19 

Sturnella militaris, Vieill 157 

Si/nalla.vis flavogularis, Goiild 157 

Talegalla 77 

Tchitrea, Less 102 

Tellina acuta, Woo(l 62, 1 42 

aXn, Hanley 165 

smciM'd, Ilanky 148 

asperrima, Hanley .' 59 

' assimilis, //flnfey 144 

Aurora, Hanley I47 

Bruguieri, Hanley 142 

Bumettį 69 

casta, Hanley 63 

casta 63 

camaria 68 

Chinensis, Hanley 165 

Columbiensis, //a/jfey 71 

Corbiiloides, Hanley 70 

corbuloides 144 

crucigera 60, 72 

Culter, Hanley 69 

Cumingii, //arefey 59 

cv&^is, Hanley 72 

cuspis 147 

Cycladiformis, //flM/ey 70 

cygnus, Hanley I44 

cyrenoiAta., Hanley 64 

decussata, Lam 68, 149 

depressayljava 72 

Deshayesii, Hanley 148 

Diana, Hanley I47 

Discus, Hanley 63 

Bomheyi, Hanley I44 

Donacina 148,164 

■ €iivirat&, Hanley 61 

tiongaia, Hanley I44 

■ felix, Hanley 7I 

fimhnata, Hanley 149 

-foliacea 142 

■ iormosa, Hanley 142 

- f ragilis, Linn 166 

trigida, Hanley 143 

Gargadia 7I 

^andiį, Hanley 141 

gubernaculum, Hanley 142 

■ Gm\(\ing\\, Hanley 60 

Hiberna, Hanley 148 

\\\\sii&, Hanley 140 

• irabellis, /fora/e;/ I43 

ina;qualis, Hanley 71 

incarnata, Hanley 68 

ineamata 72 

■ inornaia, Hanley I44 



Page 

Tellina insculpta, ^anfey 7o 

Ims, Hanley 166 

3 ubar, Hanley 60 

juvenilis, //arefey 140 

laceridens, //awfcy 61 

Lilium, Hanley 147 

lintea, CoTvrai 149 

Listeri, Hanley 69 

lacerna, Hanley 147 

lax, Hanley 140 

lux 14Į 

Lyra, Hanley 68 

margaritacea, ham 72 

Mexicana 59 

micans, Hanley 72 

miles, Hanley Iąq 

nobilis, Hanley ]65 

nux, Hanley 62 

nymphalis 165 

oblonga 147 

ostracea 149 

Ovpenii, Hanley I64 

perplexa, //arafey 149 

Pharaonis, Hanley 148 

Pharaonis I64 

Philippinai-um, //arafey 69 

Philippinarum I40 

pinguis, Hanley 63 

plebeia, Hanley I47 

polita 148 

princeps, ii/a«/ey 62 

Prora, Hanley 61 

psammoteHa 140 

pwAic&, Hanley 62 

puella, Hanley I65 

pulcherrima 59 60 

putnila, Hanley 69 

punicea 61 

RasteUum, Hanley 59 

regia, Hanley 61 

Tohiista, Hanley 63 

Rodon, Hatdey 14o 

nibescens, Hanley 60 

scalpellum, i/a«/ey I47 

Senegalensis, Hanley 68 

sincera, Hanley 68 

Sol, Hanley 142 

solidula , 69 

Souleyeti, Hanley 71 

Sovrerhii, Hanley 62 

Soįverbii 71 

spectabilis, //anfey 141 

Spengleri 59, 143 

spinosa, Hanley 143 

sp lendida, Anton 68 

sgualida I64 

subtnmcata, Hanley I49 

tenera 140 

tenuis 70, 141 

truncata 142 



196 



Page 

Tellina tulipa, Hanley 148 

umboneHa, Lain J44, 147 

undulata, //a»% 72 

VaUoiiis, //anfey 143 

\evwa\\i, Hanky 141 

veiTucosa, Hanley 60 

vestalis, i/an/ey 141 

vircjata 60 

\n-go, Hanley 143 

virgulata, //an% 164 

Tellinides purpurascens 62 

truncatulm, Sow 141 

Tep hr odomis Indica, Gray 102 

ocrealm, Strick 102 

Testudn Indica 55 

Tetrao Cupido 123 

umbellus 123 

Torinia, Gray 24 

Trigona H" 

Tringa variabUis 67 

Triton acuminatus, ^we 116 

Begrotus, /fewf 114 

angulatus, /fe«;e 120 

anomalus, //Jn<fe 22 

antiąuatus, Hinds 21 

aąuatilis, Reeve 114 

Australis 113 ^ 

bacillum, i?ee»e 120 ; 

bracteatus, //inrf* 21 

canaliferus 112, 113 

cancellinus 115, 121 

carAuMS, Reeve 121 

clavator ..- 111 

. concinims, ifeepc 120 

crispus, /Seeiie 118 

cynocephalus 114, 115 

liecapitatiis, fteeue 119 

decipieus, ^eepc 121 

digitale, iJeeye 120 

eburneus, 7?ee»e 118 

egregius, Reeve 119 

elongatus, /žee»e 117 

encausticus, ifeepe 115 

exaratus, Reeve 116 

exilis, iJeepe 111 

esitnius, Reeve 119 

fiCo\Ae&, Reeve 116 

fictilis, Hinds 21 

gallinago, iJewe 110 

gemmatus, ižeepe 117 

gracilis, i?ee»e 117 

grandimaculatus, ^e«)e 113 

lativaricosus, ifeere 120 

lotorium 113 

moritinctus, iieei'e 115 

itiveus 116 

obscurus, Reeve 117 

pagedus, iJee»e 121 

END OF 



Triton Pfcifferiamis, iJeei-e 112 

pietus, Reeve 121 

Quoyi 118 

Ranelloides, ifeefe . UI 

retmus 115 

ridens, Reeve 1 '5 

rubeciila 117 

sarcostoma, Reeve 113 

Sauliae, i?eei'e 112 

scrol/icutator, haia 138 

sculptilis, i?ee»e 118 

Sinensis, ifee»e 113 

siphonatus, Reeve 119 

tessellątus, ifeece 120 

Thersites, i?ee»e 115 

tortuosus, 7?e<?»e 118 

trilineatus, ifce»e 114 

truucatus, i/i'/Mfe 21 

tnmcatus 120 

tuberosv^ 115 

variegatus 113 

verrucosHS, ifee»e 118 

vespaceus 117 

vestitus, //irMfe 21 

viperinum 118 

Vaxellus cRisTATtjs, Temm 146 

VeneridcB į" 

Venus 1''9 

Venus Chemnitzii, Hanley 160 

cingulata, Lam 162 

decipiens, Hanley 162 

decorata 161 

dysera, Chenin 161 

fasciata 162 

lacerata, i/an/ey 161 

Listeri 161 

Lyra, Hanley 161 

Marica 160 

ovata 161 

puerpera 161 

reticulata, Lma 160 

roborata, //iainfey 161 

scabra, Hanley 161 

subnodulosa, Hanley 1 60 

Į variabilis, Sovr 110 

Į VlDUA PARADTS.EA, CuV 10 

I Voluta Cylleniforniis, Gray 151 

I fulminatą 151 

Į Guildingii, Gray 151 

ignea,^\oo(l 174 

lyriformis, Kiener 151 

j mammilla, Gray 149 

megaspira, Gray 150 

i nivosa 150 

I Norrisii, GrajL 15" 

piperita, Gray 150 

Volvarina 75 



PART XII. 



Printed bv Richard and John E. Taylor, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 



PART XIII. 
1845. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 

BV R. AND J. E. TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



LIST 



CONTRIBUTORS, 

IVith References to the several Articles rontrUmted hy each. 



Balfour, John Osborne, Esq. page 

Australian Birds Skins, presented by 21 

Clark, Dr. 

Letter f'rom 1 

DicKsoN, E. D., Esq., M.D. 

Letter from, containing an offer to present to the Society 
five Birds of Cavthage (P/eroc/e« ^'MftaiM* ? Teram.) ... 13 

FiTTON, Edward, Esq. 

Note 011 the White-vvinged Crossbill (Loxia lewoptera) . 91 

Forrester, J. J., Esq., K.C.V.V. 

Letter from, acconipanying a donation of three Specimens 

of Salamandra maculosa, Bonap 1 1 

Donation of two Specimens of Salamandra, a Tree-Frog, 
and a Scolopendra cingulata 18 

Fraser, Mr. L. 

Exhibition of two Birds from Chile 1 

Exhibition of Birds' Skins, presented to the Society by 

Lieut.-Col. Owen, K.C.A .13 

Descriptions of three New Species of Birds in the Society 's 

coUection ^6 

GouLD, John, Esq. 

On three new Species of Birds from China ; and on a sniall 
Mammal and new Grallatorial Bird from \Vestern Australia. 1 
Descriptions of a new Tiogon and seven New Birds from 

Australia * ^^ 

Descriptions of four New Species of Birds from Australia . 62 
Description of a new Tern 76 



GouLD, John, Esq. page 

Descriptions of five New Species of Maminals .... 77 
Descriptions of three New Species of Birds froni Australia . 80 

Oii the genus Anotts, Leach 103 

Descriptions of two new Birds from New South Wales . lO^ 

GuLLivER, George, Esq. 

On the Size of the Red Corpuscles of the Blood in the 
Vertebrata, with copious Tables of Measurements .... 93 

Hanley, Sylvanus, Esq. 

Descriptions of three Ne\v Species of Shells, belonging to 
the genus Artemis 11 

Descriptions of six New Species of Donax, in the collec- 
tion of Hugh Cuming, Esą l^ 

Descriptions of two New Species of Z)owaa: 17 

Descriptions of three New Species of Bivalve Shells, of the 
genera Cytherea and Venus 21 

Descriptions of New Species of Ostrea, in the coUection 
of Hugh Cuming, Esq 105 

HoDGSON, Bryan h., Esq. 

On Nepalese Birds 22 

Ingarfield, — , Esq. 

Donation of a Specimen of C7awcer iVbrre^tctM .... 13 

LowE, the Rev. R. T. 

Letter from, accompanying a specimen of Zeus conchifer, 
Lowe 103 

Ogilby, William, Esq. 

Exbibition of Tyrrhaptes paradoxus and five Mammals 
from the Altai Mountains of Siberia 75 

Olive, Jeremiah, Esq. 

Donation of Birds' Skins from Australia 75 

OwEN, Professor. 

Observations on the living Echidna exhibited at the Me- 
nagerie of the Society in May 1845 80 

On the exi8tence of t\vo Species of Wombat (Phascolo- 
mys) 82 

Pfeiffer, Dr. L. 

Descriptions of Ne\v Species of Helix and a new Glandina, 
in tlie collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq 88 

Descriptions of New Species of Land-shells, from the col- 
lection of Hugli Cuming, Esq 43 

Descriptions of twenty-t\vo New Species of Land-shells, 
in the collection of Hugh Cuming, Esą 63 

Description of a New Species of Amphipeplea .... 68 

Descriptions of t\venty-two New Species of ZTefo ... 71 



Pfeiffer, Dr. L. page 

Remarks on the genus AcJuttinella, Svainson, and descrip- 
tions of six New Species from the collection of Hugh Cu- 
ming, Esq 89 

Descriptions of fourteen New Species of Helix, from the 
collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq 123 

Descriptions of thirty-six New Species of Helix, from the 
collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq 126 

Descriptions of New Species of Land-shells from Jamaica, 
coUected by Mr. Gosse 137 

Philippi, Dr. - .' 

Descriptions of a New Species of Trochus, and of eighteen 
New Species of Littorina, in the collection of Hugh Cu- 
ming, Esq 138 

PoNTET, — , Jun., Esq. 

Donation of a Skin of a Boa constrictor 43 

Recluz, m. c. a. 

Dėscription de quelques nouvelles Nėrites Fluviatiles, du 

cabinet de H. Cuming, Esq 119 

Dėscription d'une nouvelle espėce de Conovulus , . . 122 

Reeve, Lovell, Esq. 

Descriptions of eighty-nine ne\v species of Mitra, chiefly 

from the collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq 45 

Descriptions of New Species of Murex 85 

Descriptions of New Species of Shells 108 

On the Growth and Re-calcification of the Shell in Cį/- 
pr(ea I33 

Stark, James, Esq., M.D. 

On Tetrao medius I3 

Templeton, Dr,, Roy. Art. 

Letter from \\ 

Thompson, W, Esu. 

On the Lanis capistratus of Temminck 68 

Waterhouse, g. r., Esq. 

On New Species of Bats coUected in the Philippine 
Islands, and presented to the Society by Hugh Cuming, Esq. 3 

W\LLiE, James, Esq. 

Donation of Fish from the Hot Springs of Thermopylse . 17 

Yakrell, William, Esq. 

Note on the Herring {Clupea Harengus) 91 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 14, 1845. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Dr. Cleirk of Cambridge, descrihing the 
morbid appearances ^vhich presented themselves on the dissection of 
a young Orang Outan vvhich died lately in the Gardens. 

Mr. Fraser exhibited specimens of two species of Birds from Chile, 
procured by Mr. Thoinas Bridges, Corresponding Member. One 
was the Sterna Inca, Less., which, according to Mr. Bridges, is called 
" Moiija " by the natives. The other \vas a specimen of a Little 
Bittern, Ardeola exilis, Bonap., called by the natives " Aspergala." 

Mr. Gould exhibited to the Meeting a number of Birds from China, 
being the first collection forwarded from Amoy to this country. 
He described the follouing ne\v species : — 

CoRvus PASTiNATOR. Cor . plutnls ptUose saturate purpurascente- 
nigrd; caudd virescenti ; scapulariis tectricibusgue caudce maculd 
semilunari nigrd ad apices ornatis ; rostro tarsisąue nigris. 

The entire plumage deep shining purplish black or plum-colour, 
glossed w'ith a greenish hue on the tail-feathers; the scapularies and 
upper tail-coverts \vith an obscure crescent-shaped mark of black at 
the tip ; bill and feet shining black. 

Totai length 18 inches ; bill, 2| ; wing, 12 ; tail, 7 ; tarsi, 2i ; mid- 
dle toe and claw, 2^. 

Hab. Chusan. 

Remark. — This species is closely allied to the Rook of Europe, but 
difFers from it in the hue of the plumage, \vhich is of a beautiful pur- 
ple or plum-colour vvhere the European bird is green ; the bill is also 
straighter and the face much less denuded, the fleshy base of the 
nostrils being the only part destitute of feathers ; the feet and claws 
are also larger. 

Mergus Orientalis. Mer. (Foem.) capite cristd collogue rubi- 
ginoso-rubris ; mento albo ; corpore superiore, caudd, alis, lateri- 
Nos. CXLIII. & CXLIV.— Proceedings of the Zool. Soc. 



busque griseis ; primariis ferrugineo-nigris ; seciindariis albis ; 
corpore inferiore pallide cervino ; tectricibus caudce albidis. 

Female. — Head, neck and crest dark nist-red ; chin white ; all tlie 
upper surface, wings, tail and fianks grey ; primaries brownish 
black ; secondaries pure white ; under surface cream-colour, fading 
into white on the under tail-coverts. 

Totai length 23 inches ; bill, 2\ ; wing, 9| ; taU, 5 ; tarsi, 2. 

Hab. Amoj'. 

Remark. — Nearly allied to the Goosander of Europe, but smaller 
in size and mere delicate in colour than that bird. I believe a malė 
of this bird is in the British Museum ; the female is in my own col- 
lection, and is the only one I have seen. The specimen in the Mu- 
seum assimilates as closely to the malė of the European bird as the 
one here deseribed does to the female. 

Pica serica. P. capite, colio, pectore et tectricibus cauda saturati 
nigris ; tectricibus alarum cinereo-cčeruleis, ventre et scapulariis 
albis ; caudd metallice nigro-viridi ; rastro et pedibus nigris. 

Head, throat, chest, upper part of the back, upper and under tail- 
coverts deep black ; secondaries and greater \ving-coverts shining 
steel-blue ; spurious wing and edges of the base of the outer webs of 
the primaries shining deep green ; inner webs of the primaries white 
the tips of the primaries ^nd the margins of the inner ■vvebs for a 
short distance from the tip black ; scapularies and belly pure \vhite 
tail greenish black, with bronze reflexions ; bill and feet black. 

Totai length about 19 inches; bill, 2; wing. S; tail about 12 
tarsi, 21. 

Hab. Amoy. 

Closely allied to the common Magpie, but differs in the wings being 
blue instead of green, in the rather less extent of the wlnte, and in 
having a longer bill and much longer tarsi. 

Mr. Gould also exhibited to the Meeting a small species of Mam- 
mal, which he characterized as 

Dromicia concinna. Drom. maculd nigrd ante oculos ; corpore 
superne et parte eiteriore crurttm pallide bru/i?ieis ; crurum parte 
interiore et corpore subtus distincte albis. 

Before the eye a mark of black ; all the upper surface, the outer 
side of the limbs and the tail, pale sandy brown ; all the under sur- 
face and the inner side of the limbs white ; the two colours distinctly 
separated, or not blending into each other. 

Length of the head and body, 3| inches ; of the tail, 3^ ; of the 
ear, \. 

Hab. Western Australia. 

^'^ery nearly allied to the Dromicia of ^'an Diemen's Land, but 
distinguished from that animal by its much smaller size, by the di- 
stinct separation of the colours of the upper and under surface, and 
by the absence of any enlargement at the base of the tail. 

Also a new Grallatorial bird, which he named 

FuLicA AusTRALis. Ful. capitc collogtie nigris; superne griseo- 



i 



nigro, subtus fuliginoso ; iridibus rubris ; rostro cinereo-caruleo ; 
vertice viridi-albo ; tarsis pedibtisgue griseis. 
Head and neck black ; all the upper surface greyish black ; under 
surface sooty black ; irides bright red ; bill light bluish grey ; crown 
of the head greenish \vhite ; legs and feet French grey. 

Totai length 14 inches ; bill, lį; wing, 8; tail, 2į ; tarsi, 2į. 
Hab. Western Australia. 



" Descriptions of ppecies of Bats coUected in the Philippine Islands, 
and presented to the Society by H. Curaing, Esq." By G. R. Water- 
house, Esq. 

The following descriptions and notices, added to those given in 
the Proceedings for May 1843, include all the species of the order 
Cheiroptera collected by Mr. Cuming in the Philippine Islands ; and 
it is necessary to statė, with regard to the descriptions alluded to, 
that they are all drawn up from sjjecimens preserved in spirit ; and 
although every care has been taken to ascertain the true colouring 
of the fur as nearly as possible by repeated examinations of the spe- 
cimens, raounted as they were in clear spirits of \vine, the colours 
may not prove to be exactly as I have supposed. 

The foilowing table displays sorae of the more prominent charac- 
ters of the species of Vespertilio (generally so difficult to determine) 
about to be described : — 

A. Wing-inembrane extending to the distal end of tibia. 

a. Ears moderate, or rather small, rounded ; tragus rather short, 

rounded at the apex ; heel-cartilage short. 
a. 1 . Nostrils separated by a moderately 
■wide space, and opening sublate- 
rally 1 . Vesp. tristis. 

a. 2. Nostrils with a narrow space be- 

tween them (a distinct notch, how- 
ever, in that space), and o^ieuing 
almost in front 2. Vesp.Eschscholtzii. 

b. Ears large and pointed ; tragus long, narrow and pointed ; 

heel-cartilage long. 

b. 1. Hind-foot very large 3. Tes/j. viacrotarsus. 

b. 2. Hind-foot small 4. Vesp. pellucidus. 

B. \Ving-membrane extending to base of toes. 

a. Ears short, rounded at apex; tragus 

short, subpointed 5. Vesp. Meyetii. 

b. Ears large, pointed ; tragus long, at- 

tenuated and pointed 6. Vesp. mfo-pictus. 

Vespertilio tristis. Vesp. vellere niolli, nigricanii-fuliginoso ; 
auribus mediocribus , rotundatis ; tragis mediocribus arcuatis, apice 
rotundatis ; rostro brevi obtuso ; alis angustis. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin. ... 2 5 
caudcc 2 o 



nnc. lin. 

Longitudo antibrachii 2 I 

auris O 3§ 

Alarum amplltudo 13 O 

The fur is dense in this species, but not long ; dense fur extends 
on to the head, and leaves but a small portion of the muzzle, which 
is covered with shorter hair : the general colour is sooty black, and 
the hairs appear to be uniform to the root ; those on the belly are 
shghtly tinted with greyish at the point. The incisor teeth are 
-^. The forehead is much arched ; the muzzle short and obtusely 
rounded, very broad cind hairy ; the lower lip has a narrow trans- 
verse naked area at the tip ; the nostrils are sublateral, moderately 
separated, and there is a slight depression between them. The 
ears are moderate, rounded, but with the upper, or anterior, margin 
nearly straight; the tragus is curved, and rather obtusely rounded 
at the point, about 2\ lines in length, and 1| line in width. The 
•vvings are rather narrow, and have the membranes black ; they ex- 
tend to the heel of the hind-foot, which has the metatarsus narrow 
and long, the distance from the heel to the base of the toes exceeding 
the toes in length ; the toes are shortish and equal, the nails are also 
short and but little curved; the heel -cartilage is short, bent back, 
and not easily brought in a right angle ■vvith the tibia, as in many cf 
the species of the present genus. The hind-legs are rather long ; 
the interfemoral membrane ample, naked above and below, excepting 
quite at the base ; the tail is enclosed to the point in this membrane ; 
the thumb is moderate. 

Vespertilio Esciischoltzii. Vesp. vellerelongo fusco-nigricante, 
corpore subtus jjilis apicibus cinerascentibus ; artubuK fuscis ; au- 
ribus brevibus ; tragis ungustis, ad apicem rotundatis, antice emar- 
ginatis. 

imc. lin. 
Longitudo ?.b apice rostri ad caudae basin. ... 2 O 

caudae 2 O 

fmtibrachii 1 9 

auris O 3^ 

Alarum amplitude 12 O 

Incisor teeth -įp; the outermost incisor of the upper jaw is smaller 
than the inner one. The forehead is much arched, and separated, 
as it were, from the muzzle by adeep transverse depression; oneach 
side of the head is a naked groove, which runs over the eye. The 
muzzle is short and rounded, naked at the tip only, the other parts 
moderately well clothed with hairs : the nostrils open almost in front, 
and are more than usually approxiraated ; their upper boundary 
is prominent, and there is a deep groove bet\veen them. On the 
inner side of the upper lip are two small fleshy folds, and some com- 
pressed tubercles situated toward the angle of the mouth ; the lower 
lip has a narrow triangular naked area at the tip. The ears are 
short, broad and rounded, but have the upper margin subtruncated; 
on the inner side are two transverse ridges ; the lower part of the 



ear is extended forwards to the angle of the mouth. The tragus is 
narrow, curved, rounded at the point, indistinctly emarginated on 
the outer side, and about 2f lines in length. The wings are rather 
narrow, and extend along the hind-leg to the distal end of the tibia 
only. The hind-legs are moderate ; the metatarsus narrow and long, 
the distance from the heel to the base of the toes exceeding the toes 
in length ; the toes are rather short and nearly eąual. The inter- 
femoral membrane is ample, naked, excepting at the base ; the heel- 
cartilage is short ; the tail enclosed in the interfemoral membrane to 
the point ; the thumb is very small. 

Of the species deseribed in this paper, Vespertilio EschschoUzii 
approaches most nearly to the V. tristis ; it is mucli smaller, how- 
ever, than that animal, has the thumb smaller in proportion, and its 
colouring is less dark. Among the species of M. Temminck's Mo- 
nograph our V. tristis most nearly resembles, in the form of its head 
and ears, the V. blepotis (pi. 53. fig. 2.); the V. EschschoUzii (of 
which Mr. Cuming brought home several specimens) is at least one- 
third smaller. 

Vespertilio macrotarsus. Vesp. supra cinereus, subtūs albicaiis; 

auribus longis, angustis, ad apicem acutis, postice f ere rectis ; 

trago elongato, attenuato, acuto ; alis amplisfuscis, ad basin pal- 

Udioribus. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin. ... 2 3 

ad basin auris .... O 5 

caud(B 1 10 

antibrachii 1 9A 

pollicis O 3| 

auris O 6| 

pedis postici a calce ad apicem digiti O 6į 

Alarum amplitudo 11 O 

The fur on the back is apparently dusky grey next the skin, and 
pale ashy grey externaUy, and on the under parts the hairs are grey 

at the base and whitish at the point. The incisors are — ^ ; the 

pair of incisors on either side of upper jaw nearly eąual. The fore- 
head is convex, and separated from the muzzle by a transverse de- 
pression : the muzzle somewhat produced and pointed, the mesial 
portion above and in front naked, the naked portion above extending 
about two lines from the tip, and separated from the somewhat 
swollen cheeks by a longitudinal groove on each side : between the 
nostrils, Mrhich are widely separated and pierced almost laterally, is 
a shallovv groove. The lips have small scattered hairs, excepting at 
the tip, where they are naked ; on the chin is a naked Ayart some- 
\vhat removed from the apex. The ears are largish and rather nar- 
row, pointed, and have the hinder margin nearly straight. The 
tragus is narrowish, attenuated, and pointed at the apex. The wings 
are ample, and the membranes encroach on the back so as to reduce 
the portion covered with fur to a narrow strip of about half an inch 



in ■vvidth ; they extend along tlie hind-leg to the heel only ; the tliumb 
is comparatively long; the hind-foot very large, and having the toes 
equal, excepting the outer one (according to the uatural position of 
the foot, but the toe correspondmg to the inner toe in most other 
animals), \vhich is rather shorter. The interfemoral membrane is 
mcderately ample, and does not extend quite to the tip of the tail, 
a poition of about one line in lengthbeing free. The heel-cartilage 
is very long. 

In the large size of the hind-foot the present species approaches 
the V. Hasseletii of Temminck's Monograph, but it does not appear 
that that species has the wings encroaching on the back as in V, ma- 
crotarsus ; the ears are much larger, the thumb also larger, tail 
longer, &c. The proportious, as compared with tliose of M. Tem- 
minck's V. macrodactylus and V. brachypterus, difFer considerably, 
though both these species have the hind-foot large ; the larger ears, 
longer thumb, and more ample wing will serve to distinguish it. 

Vespertilio pellucidus. Vesp. vellere longo, pallide rvfo, cor- 
pore subtus cinerascenti-albo ; alis fuscis, pellucidis ; auribus mag- 
nis, apice acutis, postici emarginatis ; trago elongato, attenuato ; 
rostro producto, depresso, subacuto. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin. ... 1 8 

caudce 1 9^ 

antibrachii I 3 

auris O 7 

Alarum amplitudo 9 6 

The fur in this animal is long, of a delicate pale rufous on the upper 

parts of the body, but slightly tinted with grey next the skin ; the 

2 2 

under parts are ashy white. The incisor teeth are as usual —7- ; the 

two innermost of the upper jaw are widely separated, long-pointed, 
and resemble canine teeth ; the outer pair are very small. The forehead 
is considerably arched ; the muzzle produced, pointed and depressed, 
and has a slight concavity above ; the nostrils are \videly separated, 
pierced laterally, and have a slight depression between them ; the tip 
of the muzzle is naked. The lo\ver lip has a small, smooth, naked 
space at the tip. The ears are of a very pale brown colour, large, trans- 
parent, pointed, and strongly emarginated behind ; the tragus is very 
long and slender (its length being about A'i lines, and width at the 
base less than 1 line), and decreases gradually in \vidth from the 
base to the point ; close to its root, externally, is a slightly promi- 
nent angle. The -vvings are large and supported by very delicate 
and slender bones, very transparent, and extend slightly on to the 
toe of the hind-foot. The hind-legs are long and slender ; the foot 
small ; the metatarsus shorter than the toes, -vvhich are slender and 
very nearly eąual, if we except the one to 'vvhich the \ving is slightly 
attached, which is distinctly shorter than the ręst. The interfemo- 
ral membrane is ample, and presents a few scattered hairs : the heel- 
cartilage long. The tail is long, and enclosed in the membrane to 



the point ; the foiirth vertebra from the base has much flesh about 
it, which forms a small lump, — perhaps this is accidental. The 
thumb is slender, but rather long. 

This species is remarkable for having long aad extremely slender 
limbs, and for the transparency of its flying-membranes. I could 
read this writing through the wing-membranes, moistened as they 
were with the spirit, at a distance of more than a quarter of an inch. 

Vespertilio Meyeni. Vesp. intense rufescenti-fuscus, pilis ad 
basin albescentibus ; corpore subtus cinereo lavato ; brackiis ru- 
fescentibus ; rostro brevi, obtuso ; auribus subtriangulis, ad apiceni 
rotundatis , postice emarginatis; tragis arcuatis, angustis, ad apicem 
subacutis. 

unc. lin, 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin .... 1 7 

:- cauda O 11 

antibrachii 1 1 

auris O 2į 

Alarum amplitude 6 6 

(2 9 \ 
—^J ; the inner- 

most pair of the upper ja\v are larger than the external pair, and bifid 
at the apex. The forehead is moderately arched ; the muzzle is 
broad and but sparingly clothed with hairs, swollen at the sides ; 
two longitudinal grooves mark the usual external boundaries of the 
nasal bones ; and these grooves, at first shallow, become deeper be- 
hind, where they are curved outwards towards the eyes, over which 
is a small fleshy tubercle ; the upper part of the nose (between the 
two grooves mentioned) is almost naked, but a few minute scattered 
hairs are observed at the tip, and even in front, and along the edge 
of the upper lip. The lower lip presents a very small triangular 
naked patch at the tip. The nostrils are rather widely separated, 
and open obliquely outwards. The ears are short, subtriangular, 
have the extreme point rounded, and the posterior border slightly 
emarginated ; on the inner side are three or four transverse rugae. 
The tragus is narrow, subpointed, and has a notch in the middle of 
the external margin. The wings are somewhat narrow, and have 
the membranes of a very dark brown colour, the limbs being of a 
dusky purpHsh red tint ; the membrane of the wing extends to the 
base of the toes. The thumb is small ; the hind-legs shortish ; the 
metatarsus short, being about equal in length to the toes, which are 
very nearly eąual, the outer one being but a trifle shorter than the 
others. The interfemoral membrane is by no means ample, brown 
above and very pale beneath, where palg scattered hairs are observa- 
ble, especially near the tail ; above, this membrane appears to be 
naked, excepting at the base. The heel-cartilage is moderate, and 
on the lower or outer side of this cartilage is an obtusely-angular 
piece of membrane, about 2 lines in length and 1 line in breadth. The 
tail has the extreme point free. 

I have attached to this and one of the foregoing species the nameb 



8 

of two able naturalists who have contrlbuted to our knowledge of the 
zoological productions of the Philippine Islands. 

The V. Meyeni apparently approaches most nearly to the V. trala- 
titius of Temminck's Monograph, but has the muzzle broader and 
more rounded, the ears less pointed, the tail, antibrachium and tibiae 
shorter, the latter considerably so ; the foot is also shorter and broader 
than represented in M. Temminck's figure of that species. The co- 
louring (so far as one may judge from specimens preserved in spirit) 
also difFers. 

Vespertilio rufo-pictus. Vesp. suprd ochraceis, pilis ad basin 
cinereis ; corpore subtUs Jlavescenti-albo ; alis nigrescentibus, ared 
magnd ad basin, brachiis, tnembrandque interfemorali rufis ; auribus 
longis, angustis, aaitis, postice distincte emarginatis ; tragis at- 
tenuatis, acutis. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin .... 2 3 

caudee 1 11 

antibrachii 1 11 

auris O 5į 

Alanim amplitudo 13 6 

Fur moderate ; on the upper parts of the body pale grey at the root, 
and of a delicate }'ellow colour externally ; on the under parts of the 
body yellowish white, scarcely tinted \vith grey at the root. The 
wing-membranes are black, excepting in the region of the bones of 
the fingers and a large area at the base, at \vhich parts they are of 
a bright red colour ; a straight line draAvn obliquely across the wing 
from the thumb to the heel would mark the boundary of the red basai 
portion. The small strip of membrane above the arm is red, clouded 
with black. The limbs and interfemoral membrane are also red, and 
the naked tip to the muzzle, as well as the ears, are very pale fiesh- 
colour. The hinder toes are dusky at the tip. 

The forehead is but little arched ; the muzzle is produced, but 
somewhat rounded at the tip, which is the only part which is naked, 
and even here a few minute scattered hairs are observable in the 
middle. Above the nose are t\vo longitudinal grooves. The lo\ver 
lip has a semicircular naked space at the tip, and a tubercle is ob- 
ser\'ed between this point and the throat. The nostrils are lateral, 
and the space bet\veen them is slightly depressed. The ears are long, 
rather narrow and pointed, and distinctly emarginated behind. The 
tragus is about 4į lines long, narrow, attenuated and pointed. The 
wings are very ample and extend to the base of the toes. The thumb 
is long ; the hind-legs moderately long ; the metatarsus shorter than 
the toes (claws not included), aud these are very nearly equal. The 
interfemoral membrane is moderately ample, well clothed ^vith hair at 
the base, and a few longish scattered hairs are observable on other 
parts, especially on the upper surface. The heel-cartilage is long, 
extending to within about four and a half lines of the tail. 

This species very much resembles the Vespertilio pietus of Palias, 
but is much larger, and diifers in the form and proportions of its ears. 



Taphozous Philippinensis. Taph. vellere brevi fuscescente vel 
castaneo, corpore suhtus pallidiore ; pilis ad basin albescentibus ; 
auribus mediocribus. 

unc. lin 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin .... 3 Ii 

caudiE O 8 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... O 5 

auris O 6 

antibrachii 2 7 

tibi^e O 11 

Alarum amplitudo 13 6 

This species approaches most nearly to the Taphozous saccolaimus, 
but difFers in being considerably smaller, in having the muzzle 
shorter and more pointed, the ears larger, and the feet considerably 
smaller ; the colouring moreover is different. It agrees with T. lon- 
gimanus in having no throat-pouch or nakedness at that part, but 
difFers in its proportions, &c. 

The fur is short and by no means dense, nearly white next the 
skin both on the upper and under parts of the body ; on the upper 
parts the hairs have the visible portion tipped with reddish brown o r 
chestnut colour, sometimes brown. The under parts are always of 
a paler hue than the upper, and sometimes almost white, merely 
suffused with pale chestnut-brown : on the throat this colour is usuaUy 
more intense. The wing-membranes are brown, sometimes dusky ; 
the interfemoral membrane assumes a paler hue beneath. 

The head, viewed from above, presents a triangular figure, of vvhich 
the tip of the muzzle forms the apex, and is somewhat acute ; the 
nose is slightly prominent ; the nostrils terminai, and but slightly 
separated ; the upper lip terminates in a point ; the under lip is some- 
what swol]en at the extremity, and a largish transverse s\velling or 
tubercle is observed below the chin. The ears have the anterior 
part running on to the forehead, but separated by a space of about 
two lines, which space is occupied by the deep frontai pit ; they are 
of moderate size, perhaps might be called rather large ; the lateral 
and anterior margins meet so as to form nearly a right angle ; on the 
anterior margiu, which is thickened, is a series of pointed tubercles ; 
the lateral or outer margin is very slightly emarginated, and on the 
inner side numerous transverse smaU folds or ridges are perceptible ; 
the point of the ear is narrow, but rounded. The tragus is scarcely 
2 lines in length, and about 2į lines in width, rounded at the apex 
and contracted at the base. ITie tail is enclosed in the interfemoral 
membrane rather less than one-third of its length. The interfemoral 
membrane is about eleven lines in antero-posterior extent, naked 
beneath, slightly hairy above to the base of the free portion of the 
tail, which has a few long scattered hairs. The feet are almost naked, 
having only a few scattered hairs. The limbs are of a pale dirty flesh- 
colour. 

The teeth most nearly resemble those of skull fig. 11. pi. 60. of 
Temminck's Monograph, but the iucisors are more expanded at the 
apex than represented in that figure, and very deeply notched. The 



10 

. . . o . 1-1 , 5-5 

formulae are the šame, viz. incisora, — ; camnes, y— j ; molars, j^ ; 

the first falše molar of the upper jaw is small and almost hidden by 
the gum ; the second distinct ; both first and second falše molars of 
lower jaw are distinct ; the latter is most elevated, but the foremost 
is the largest. The palate has numerous vvell-developed transverse 
ridges, seven in number, if we commence from between the canines, 
in front of which are two others less distinct ; the third, -vvhich is 
between the falše molars, is most developed. The tongue is thick, 
but pointed at the apex, and presents a triangular transverse section, 
extending in its ordinary position to the incisor teeth, -vvhich on the 
inner side are covered by the gum up to their points. 

Besides these, and the Philippine Island Bats noticed or described 
in the Proceedings for May 1S43, I have to add, as also forming 
part of Mr. Cuming's coUection, a species of Nycticejus which agrees 
most closely with the N. Borbonicus ; this and the Taphozous Phi- 
lippinensis appear to be extremely abundant in the Philippine Islands ; 
and lastly, a species of Dysopes, which I feel very little doubt is the 
D. tenuis of Horsfield ; it agrees most closely with the detailed de- 
scription and figure given by Temminck. 



11 



January 28, 1845. 

Williani Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

A communiention was read from Joseph James Forrester, Esq., 
Corr. Memb., of Oporto, ■vvhich was accomjjanied by a donation of 
three specimens of Salamandra maculosa, Bonap., and a Skin of the 
Genetta vulgaris, Cuv., the latter presented to the Society by E. J. 
Johnston, Esq., Her Britannic Majesty's Consul at Oporto. 

Mr. Montgomery read extracts from a letter from Dr. Templeton, 
Royal Artillery, Columbo, Ceylon, and exhibited to the Meeting a 
collection of land and freshwater Shells from that island, comprising 
Severai new and rare species hitherto undescribed. Amongst others 
are a new species of each of the folIowing genera : — Achatina, Helio;, 
Neritina, Ampullaria, Valvata, Planorbis, and Melania ? 

" Description of three new species of Shells belonging to the 
genus Artemis," by Sylvanus Hanley, Esq. 

Artemis simplex. Art. testd orbiculari-sublrigond, solidd, sub- 
incBcuilaterali, nitidd, eburned, ventricosd, concentrice et subitnbri-- 
catim sulcatd ; suleis haud confertis ; margine ventrali arcuato ; 
dorsali utringue declivi, anties retuso, postice arcuato; utrdque 
ewtremitate rotundatd ; lunuld haud magnd, impressd ; ared dorsali 
posticd nulld. ■ Long. r63 ; lat. 1*55 poli. 
Index Testaceologicus, sup. t. 15. f. 41. 
Hab. Panama, St. Elena. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 
The general outline, ovving to the abruptness of its slopas, closely 
resembles that of excisa ; but in that species the sulci (or rather cos- 
tellae) are elevated, the hinder dorsal area is excavated, and the lunule 
is large and ill-defined. The colour is ivory-white, ■with usually a 
zone or two of very pale blue ; and, contrary to the other two spe- 
cies, the greatest length is from the beaks to the lower or ventral 
margin. 

Artemis subquadrata. Art. testd suborbiculari, subguadratd, 
compressd, subpellucidd, valde in<Bquilaterali, intus extusque albidd, 
concentrice substriatd ; margine ventrali postici arcuato, antice 
convexo et sursilm acclivi ; dorsali antice convexo haudgiie declivi, 
postice subrecto et declivi; extremitate posticd latissimd, anticd 
angustd ; lunuld magnd, subobsoletd. Long. 1'62; lat. 1'75 poli. 

Ind. Tęst., sup. t. 15. f. 39. 

Hab. St. Elena, West Columbia. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

The peculiar breadth of the posterior side, ■vvhose upper or dorsal 
angle is horizontai, or even ascending, the freedom from incurvation 
and abrupt slope of the front dorsal line, and the scarcely defined 



12 

lunule, concur to render this rare shell strikingly difFerent from any 
knowii species in this genus. 

Artemis sculpta. Art. testd orhiculciri-subquadratd, įnagis mi- 
nusve ventricosd, solidiusculd , in<squilateraU, subnitidd, sordide 
albidd aut albido-lutescente (nonnunqua?n pallide livido-fuscescente 
albogue marmoratd^ , concentrice sulcatd; striis radiantibus, sulcos 
confertissimos antice (jplerumque etiani postiče) decussantibus ; 
suleis medio suhimbricatis, ad utramque extremitatem. lamellosis ; 
margine ventrali subarcuato ; dorsali postiee convexinsculo vixque 
declivi, antice retuso et paulh declivi ; lunuld impressd, ovato- 
cordatd ; ared dorsali posticd nulld; natibus haud protninentibus . 
Long. 1-80; ]at. 2 poli. 
Ind. Tęst., sup. t. 15. f. 42. 
Hab. Australia .'' Mus. Hanley, &c. 

The radiating lines are not always perceptible on the posterior 
side of the adult, and the concentric sulci in that case appear fim- 
briated. It is allied to subrosea of Gray. 



13 



February 11, 1845. 

"VVilliam Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Dr. Dickson (Corresponding Member), 
dated Tripoli, January 4th, announcing that he has in his possession 
five Birds of Carthage, Pterocles guttatus ?, Temm., alive and quite 
tame, ■which he \vould be happy to present to the Society if a means 
of conveyance to this country could be obtained. 

A specimen of Cancer Norvegicus, taken by a fishing-boat at the 
" Silver Pits," eighty miles eastward of Scarborough, Avas presented 
by Mr. Ingarfield. 

A communication was read from James Stark, M.D., F.R.S.E., 
in \vhich he advocates the hypothesis that the Tetrao medius is neither 
a hybrid nor a distinct species, but merely an immature malė of the 
Tetrao Urogallus or Capercailzie, founding his opinion on the ap- 
pearance of the Tetrao medms immediately after the re-introduction 
of the Capercailzie into Scotland by the Earl of Breadalbane, and on 
the fact, that no two species of a genus, however similar they may 
be in appearance, pair voluntarily while in a statė of nature. 

Mr. Fraser laid before the Meeting a collection of Birds' Skins 
which have been presented to the Society by Lieut.-Colonel 0\ven, 
K. C. A., of Oporto, containing the following siDecies: viz. Buteo vul- 
garis, Flem.; Slurnus vulga7-is, hinn. ; Pica caudata,Flem.; Garru- 
lus glandarius, Flem. ; Picus major ? ; CEdicnemus crepitans, Selby ; 
Fulica ater, Penn. ; Spatula {Anas clypeata, Linn.) ; Mareca {Anas 
Penelope, Linn.), and Larus argentatus, Mont. 

The Secretary called the attention of the Meeting to a specimen 
of a new species of Lagomys, discovered by Bryan H. Hodgson, Esq., 
Corr. Memb., in the Nepaul district, which he describes as Lagomys 
Nepalensis. The present species adds a seventh to this most in- 
teresting group. 



No. CXLIV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



14 



February 25, 1S45. 

R. C. Griffith, Esq., in the Chair. 

" Descriptions of six new species of Donax, in the coUection of 
Hugh Cuming, Esq. (Corr. Memb.)," by Sylvanus Hanley, Esq. 

DoNAX TicAONicus. DoTi. tcstd cuneiformt , convexd, nitidissitnd, 
solidd, obliųud, Icevigatd, maiime integuilaterali, albidd, aut livido- 
purpurascente, concolore, cpidermide flavescente indui d ; margine 
ventrali integro, magis minusve convexo ; dorsali, antice declivi et 
subrecto aut subretuso, postice subrecto et subito declivi; extre- 
mitate lateris antici producti, attenuaUi, rotundaid ; latere postico 
brevissimo, truncato et inferne obtuse angulato ; pube concentrice 
et proftmde rugosd ; natibus acutis, prominentibus ; svperjicie in- 
ternd aut violaced aut albidd violaced pustice fucatd ; dente late- 
rali antico remoto, jiostico approximato. Long. T; lat. 1 '50 poli. 

Hab. Ticao, Philippines (Cuming). 

Remarkable for its oljliąuity and the abrupt truncation of the pos- 
terior side. 

DoiVAX cuLTER. DoH. testd elongatd. angustd, convexd, satis inegui- 
laterali, niiidd, striulis exilibus con/ertim radiatd, variis coloribus 
pictd (plerumgue purpured, sed etiani fluvd lineis purpureo-brun- 
neis radiatd, albidd radiis viulaceis aut lividis, aurantid et rosed, 
Sčepf! radiis albidis ornatu); margine ventrali crenulato, antice sub- • 
recto, postice convexo ; dorsali antice recto et vix paululum de- 
clivi, posticl' convexo satisgue declivi ; latere antico producto, ad 
estremitatem obtuse rotundato ; postico rotundato-cuneiformi ; lu • 
nuld ligamentogue anguslis ; pube striis simplicibus radiatd ; costd 
umbonali obtusissimd ; dentibiis lateralibus haud remotis. 

Var. a. Testd subinaguilaterali ; margine ventrali medio subpostice 
retuso; dente laterali antico, plerumgue magis approximato. 

Var. b. Testd minus elongatd et įnagis inaguilaterali ; margine ven- 
trali rarb retuso; dente laterali antico plerumgue magis remoto. 

Long. 0-50; lat. 1-50. 

Hab. Var. a. Matzellan, Gulf of California (Cuming). 
Var. b. Acapulco (Cuming). 

Rather a common shell, and closely allied to pulchella. 

DoNAX ASPtR. Don. testd trigond, ventricosd, solidd, subineeguilate- 
rali, albidd aut carned, anties nitidiusculd et radiatim striatd, pos- 
tice impolitd et radiatim costellatd ; striis ezilibus et simplicibus; 
costcllisparvis, decussatis, aut subsgtianiosis aut subgranosis, supra 
costam umbonalem angulatam confertis ; margine ventrali crenato, 
arcuato ; dorsali antico, valde declivi, subrecto ; postico retuso, 
inernii, subitbgue declivi : extremitate lateris antici longioris, ro- 
tundatd , posticd angtclatd; natibus valde prominentibus et maximi 



13 

incurvatis; pube pland ; dentibus lateraUbus approximatis . Long. 
1-30; lat. 1-60 pol. 
Hab. Tumbez, Peru (Guming). 

Closely resembling dentiferus, but not provided with the charac- 
teristic tooth, much stronger and more triangular, and with its ven- 
tral edge more arcuated, and its front extremity more attenuated. 
The front dorsal edge appears retuse (which it is not in reality), from 
the lateral projection of the swollen beaks. The lower margin is 
stained with violet anteriorly. 

DoNAX NAVicuLA. Don. testd elongato-trigond, crassd, subventri- 
cosd, nitidd, subin(equilaterali, siiblcevigatd (stfiis radiantibus 
tantum in medio perspicuis), albd, epidermide flavd indutd, prope 
marginėm dorsalem utringue brunneopurpurascente strigatd; mar- 
gine ventrali in medio ventricoso, intus crenato ; dorsali antice 
subrecto et subdedivi, postice incurvato et declivi ; ared posticd 
lavi, subconcavd ; latere antico longiore, angustato, ad extremitatem 
rotundato ; postico cuneiformi, ad extremitatem obtuso ; ligamento 
minimo ; costd umbonali obtusd ; superficie internd albidd, utringue 
superne purpured ; dentibus lateraUbus maxime approximatis. 
Long. 0-40 ; lat. 090 poli. 

Hab. Gulf of Nicoya, Central America (Cuming). 

Allied to CuUforniensis, but more triangular. 

DoNAx GRACiLis. DoH. testd elongatd, angustd, nitidd, valde in- 
eeguilaterali, compressd, sublcevigatd, albidd aut pallide viulaceo- 
rufescente, epidermide lutescente indtitd ; margine ventrali convexo 
aut subarcuato, haud flexuoso, intus crenulato ; dorsali magis mi- 
nusve livido, utringue subrecto, antice vix paiilu/um declivi, posticd 
valde declivi; latere ant'co pradučio, atienuato, ad extremitatem 
rotundato, postico acuminato -cuneiformi ; ligamento minimo ; ared 
pcsticd Icevi, obtusissimd ; costd umbonali obtusd ; superficie internd 
purpurascente ; dentibus lateraUbus perspicuis, approximatis. 

Var. b. Testd albidd, radiis paucis Uvido-rufescentibus ornatd. 

Var. c. Testd rufescente aut lividd. 

Long. 0-40 ; lat. 1 poli. 

Hab. Bay of Guayaąuil. Var. b. Chiriqui. Var. c. Bay of Carac- 
cas (Cuming). 

Allied to Owenii, but with the margin crenulated. 

DoNAX soRDiDus. Don. testd abbreviato-cunciformi, convexd, niti- 
diusculd, solidd, valde inaguilaterali, striis exiUbus simpUcibus 
confertim radiatu, sordide albidd ; lineis elevatis obliguis subcon- 
centricis, partem superiorem et Irevigatam testą postice asperanti- 
bus ; margine ventrali crenulato, medio arcuato ; dorsali antico, 
declivi et subrecto ; postico subrecto et valde declivi ; latere antico 
attenuato ; postico brevi et infertie {in adultis etiam superne) obtuse 
angulato ; pube fortiter et confertim rugis subdecussatis concentrice 
exaratd ; costd umbonali subangulatd ; superficie internd albidd, 
purpureo infectd ; dentibus lateraUbus approximatis, antico per- 
magno. Long. 0'70; lat. 1 poli. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope. Mus. Brit., Cuming. 



IG 

Intermediate between striata and semisulcata. The raised oblique 
lines which rougheu the posterior side near the beaks where the 
striae have become entirely obsolete, are a striking character in this 
rare species. 

Mr. Fraser exhibited to the Meeting and characterized three new 
species of Birds from the Society's collection, viz : — 

Pal^ornis MODESTUS. Pūl. pttlose viridi; genis pallide cervinis ; 
vittd a naribus ad oculos viridescenti-nigrd ; mandibulis nigris. 

Hab. ? 

This bird is nearly allied to the P. Pondicerianus, but difFers in 
the colour of the cheeks, breast and mandibles ; it differs also from 
P. Malaccensis in the paler colour of the cheeks, and that colour not 
extending further back than the ears, in the colour of the beak, &c. ; 
it may also be readily distinguished from Mr. Hodgson's Nepaul spe- 
cies by the colouring of the cheeks. 

LoRius suPERBUs. Lor. capite et tectricibus majoribtts inferioribus 
alarum nigris ; genis, lateribus, pectore et uropygio rubris ; 
nuchd, ventre,femore, et tectricibus cauda inferioribus cceruleis ; 
scapulis, tectricibus alarum inferioribus minoribus, et dimidio ter- 
minali caudce caruleis ; alis externis viridibus. 

Hab. ? 

This bird is about the size and is closely allied to the Lorius Phi- 
Jippensis, Briss., but differs in having the shoulders and smaller 
under ^ving-coverts blue, the larger ones black (in this respect it 
somewhat resembles the Lorius domicellus, Auct.) ; in the absence of 
the red band immediately below the black crown ; and in having an 
entire red band from shoulder to shoulder, whereas in L. Philip- 
pensis it is only partial. 

Lards Bridgesii. Lar. ptilose grised; capite et mento pallide ci- 
nereis ; primariis et secundariis nigris, apicibus secundariarum 
albis.fasciam albam trans alas formantibus ; quibusdam primariis 
apicibus albidis ; vittd nigrd lat. 1 poli. prope apices remigum ; 
rostra pedibusque nigris. 

poli. 

Tot. long 18 

AltB 11 

Cauda 5^ 

Rietus 2^ 

Tarsi 2 

Digitus inedius 1 J 

From Valparaiso, Chile. Collected by Mr. Thomas Bridges, Corr. 
Memb. 

This apparently new species of Guli is closely alHed to the Larus 
fuliginosus. Gould, but differs in the beak being much more slender, 
in the general colour being lighter, in the head and chin being nearly 
white, in having a white band across the wings, and the black band 
across the tail being more decided. 



17 



March 11, 1845. 

Rev. John Barlovv, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. R.I., iu the Chair. 

Four specimens of Fish from the hot springs of Thermopylae were 
presented to the Society by James Wyllie, E?ą. Mr. Yarrell stated 
them to be Cyprinoid Fishes of the genus Leuciscus, but from thelr 
highly desiccated statė and very small size it was impossible to refer 
them to a definite species. 

A paper by Sylvanus Hanley, Esq., lyas read, containing descrip- 
tions of two nevv species of Donax : — 

DoNAX ASSiMiLis. Don. testd cuneiformi, magis minusve crassd, 
antice compressd, postice ventricosd, valde incegmlaterali, lividd, 
albo-violūscente, aurantid aut flavidd, zonis saturatioribus aut vio- 
laceis plerumąue pictd, radiatim striatd ; striis haud confertis, 
antice simplicibus, postice elevatis et decussatis ; margine ventrali 
crenulato, haud arcuato, antice sursum acclinato ; dorsali, antici 
subdeclivi subrecto aut convexiusculo, postice suhrecto et valdi" de- 
clivi ; latere antico producto, ad extremitatem rotundato et atte- 
nuato ; postico perbrevi et inferni angulato ; costd umbonali sub- 
angulatd ; pube decussatd, et costelld ad extremitatem dentiferd, 
scEpe radiatd; ligamento prominente-et satis magno ; superficie in- 
ternd in adultis, prope marginėm violaced ; dente laterali antico 
haud remoto, postico subapproximato. Long. 1 ; lat. 1*55 poli. 
Hab. Panama. Mus. Cuming, Hanley, &c. 

Very variable in colouring, often with a short purple perpendicular 
ray upon the umbones ; sometimes witli three or four pale rays on a 
darker ground, but usually uniform and only marked when aged, with 
the rib-lLke stria projecting at the margin likę a tooth. ITiis latter 
character and the identity of its sculpture render the species liable 
to be confused with dentifera, but the greater tenuity and less elon- 
gated shape of that shell is preserved even in the younger specimens. 

DoNAX LUBRicus. Don. testd cuneiformi, compressd, solidiusculd, 
valde inceguilaterali, nitidissimd, lividd aut albo-violascente, antice 
l<Evigatd, postice striis radiantibus ornatd ; margine ventrali ex- 
iliter crenulato, conveso aut convexiusculo ; dorsali, utringue sub- 
recto, antice declivi, postice valde declivi ; latere antico attenuato, 
ad extremitatem rotundato; postico perbrevi et infernP. obtuse 
angulato ; vulvd rugis confertis concentricis, striisąue exilibus ra- 
diantibus, eleganter decussatd; costd umbonali subobtusd; natibus 
acutis ; dentibus lateralibus obsoletis. Long. 0*6 ; lat. 0*8 poli. 

Hab. ? Mus. Cuming. 

Peculiar for uniting a smooth surface to a crenulated margiu. 
No. CXLV. — Procbedings of the Zoological Socikty. 



l& 



March 25, 1845. 

■Wil]iam Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

Two specimens of Salamandra ; a Tree Frog, Rana arborea ; and a 
Bcolopendra cingulata, were presented to the Society by Joseph James 
Forrester, Esq., of Oporto, CJorr. Memb. 

Mr. Gould exhibited to the Meeting a new species of Trogon, from 
South America, and seven new Birds from Australia, \vhich he cha- 
racterized as follows : — 

Trogon ppella. Trog. loris, plumis auricidaribus et gula fusco- 

nigris ; capite, corpore superiore, et pectore aureo-viridibus ; alif 

nigris ; tectricibus alarum maculis minimis albis ornatis ; corpore 

in/eriore vivide coccineo, separato a viridi pectore f ascid semilunari 

albd ; tribus remigibus eiterioribus nigris vittis albis angustis 

freguentibus ornatis ; femoribus nigris. 

Lores, ear-coverts and throat duU black ; head, all the ujiper sur- 

face and chest golden green ; wings black ; the coverts very minutely 

freckled with white, and the primaries with a very narrow line of 

white along the basai portion of their outer webs ; all the under sur- 

face scarlet, separated from the green of the chest by a semilunar 

mark of white ; two middle tail-feathers golden green ; the two next 

on each side golden green on their outer webs and black on their 

inner, the whoIe six tipped with black ; the three outer feathers on 

each side black, crossed by numerous narrow bars of, and narro\vly 

tipped with, white ; thighs black ; bill orange ; irides red ; feet dark 

grey. 

Totai length, 10 inches; bill, 1 ; 'vving, 5\; tail, 5f ; tarsi, \. 

Hab. Escuintla, South America. 

Remark. — Nearly allied to Trogon collaris, Vieill. 

CucuLUs OPTATTJS. Ciic. corpore superiore ccsruleo-griseo ; pogo- 
hUs internis primariarum fasciis latis albis ornatis ; remigibus sa- 
iurate violaceo-brunneis ; apicibus subalbidis, serie macularum ob- 
longarum albarum alternatim ordinatd ; corpore subtiis albo, fasciis 
nigris. 
The whole of the upper surface slaty grey ; inner w'ebs of the pri- 
maries broadly barred \vith while ; tail-feathers dark violet-brown, 
•R'ith a row of oblong spots of white placed alternately on either side 
of the stem, and slightly tipped with white ; the lateral feathers have 
also a row of white spots nn the margin of their inner webs ; chin 
and breast light grey ; all the under surface buflfy vhite, crossed by 
bands of black ; irides, bill and feet orange. 

Totai length, 13 inches ; bill, lį ; wing, 7| ; tail, 6| ; tarsi, |. 
Hab. Port Essington, Australia. 



19 

Remark. — Closely allied to the Common Cuckoo {Cuculus canorus) 
of Europe. 

CucuLus iN'SPERATūs. Cuc. cūpite, guld, et corpore superiore cte- 

ruleo-griseis ; alis, dorsoque nitide viridescentibus ; caudd brunneo- 

viridi singuld plumd apice albo, et marginibus pogoniorum inte- 

riorum ordine macularum albarum triangularium ornatis ; parte 

subscapulari tectricibus caudce inferioribus, crissogue rufis ; corpore 

subtiis rufo-tincto-griseo. 

Head, throat and all the upper surface dark slate-grey ; back and 

wings glossed with green ; taU glossy brownish green, each feather 

tipped with white, and with a row of triangular-shaped white marks 

on the margins of the inner webs ; primaries and secondaries with a 

patch of white on their inner webs near the base ; edge of the shoulder 

Avhite ; under surface of the shoulder, vent and under tail-coverts 

rufous ; the remainder of the under surface grey, washed with rufous ; 

bill black ; feet olive. 

Totai length, 9į inches ; bill, 1 ; wing, 6į ; tail, 5 ; tarsi, f. 
Hab. New South "VVales. 

Remark. — Nearly allied to Cuculus cineraceus of Vigors and Hors- 
field. 

Cuculus dumetorum. Cuc. capite, uropygio, collogue saturate 
caruleo-griseis ; alis, caudd dorsogue metallice brunneis ; apicibus 
remigum leviter albis ; pogoniis interioribus serie macularum tri- 
angularium parvarum ornatis; peetore griseo, rufo-tincto. 
Head, neck and rump dark slate-grey ; back, vdngs and tail bronzy 
brown ; tail-feathers slightly tipped with white and with a row of 
small triangular-shaped spots on the margins of their inner webs ; 
breast grey, washed with rufous ; under surface of the shoulder, flanks, 
vent and under tail-coverts deep rufous ; irides brown. 

Totai length, 8^ inches ; bill, | ; -vping, 5 ; tail, ^\ ; tarsi, į. 

Hab. Port Essington, Australia. 

Remark. — Nearly allied to Cuculus insperatus. 

Sphenceacus gramineus. Sphen. vittd supra oculos albd; corpore 

superne brunneo; medid plumarum saturate brunned ; subtiis griseo ; 

lateribus crissogue cervinis ; medid parte singula plumce pectoris 

lined minimd saturate brunned ornatd. 

Stripe over the eye M^hite ; all the upper surface brown, the cen- 

tres of the feathers being dark brown ; secondaries brownish black, 

margined with bufF ; tail pale reddish brown, with dark browu shafts ; 

under surface grey, passing into buff on the flanks and vent ; each 

feather of the breast with a very minute line of dark brown down the 

centre ; bill and tarsi fleshy brown. 

Totai length, 5į inches ; biU, ^ ; wing, 2į ; tail, 2| ; tarsi, į. 
Hab. Van Diemen's Land and the southem coast of Australia ge- 
nerally. 

Pachtcephala glaucura. Pach. capite, loris, spatio infra oculos, 
et latd maculd semilunari trans pectus saturate nigris ; guld, intra 
maculam nigram, albd; nuchdposteriore, lined angustd apud latera 



20 

pectoris pone semilunam nigram, et corpore inferiore flavis ; caudd 
grised ; tectricibus cauds inferioribus albis vel subjlavis. 

Head, lores, space beneath the eye and a broad crescent-shaped 
mark from the latter across the breast deep black ; throat within the 
black, white ; back of the neck, a narrow line down each side of the 
chest, behind the black crescent, and the under surface yellow ; back 
and \ving-coverts yellowish olive ; •vvings dark slate-colour, margined 
with grey ; tail entirely grey ; under tail-coverts -vvhite, or very 
slightly washed with yellow ; irides reddish brown ; bill black ; feet 
dark brown. 

Totai length, 7 inches ; bill, | ; wing, 4 ; tail, 3| ; tarsi, I . 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land. 

Nearly allied to Pachycephala gutturalis, but distinguished by a 
shorter bill and by the colouring of the tail, which is entirely grey. 

Cysticola campkstris. Cyst. capite ferrugineo-rubro, dorso tec- 
tricibusque alarum brunneo-griseis ; singulis plumis corporis snpe- 
rioris fascid longitudinali saturate bi~unned oniatis ; caudd rufo- 
brunned, plumis duabus mediis latd maculd nigrd juxta apices ; 
corpore subtus pallidi cervino. 
Head rūsty red ; back and wing-coverts bro^vnish grey, all the 
feathers of the upper surface with a broad stripe of dark brown down 
the centre ; wings blackish brown, the primaries margined extemally 
with rūsty red, and the secondaries edged all round with brownish 
grey ; tail reddish brown, all but the two centre feathers with a large 
spot of black near the tip ; all the under surface pale bufF. 
Totai lėngth, 5| inches ; bill, ^ ; wing, 2| ; tail, 2| ; tarsi, f. 
Hab. Australia. 

Rernark. — For the loan of this new species I am indebted to the 
kindness of H. E. Strickland, Esq. 

Calamoherpe LONGiROSTRis. Cūl, vittd pūlHdd, suprū oculos cer- 

vind ; corpore superne rufo, subtus saturati cervino; inento al- 

bido. 

Faint line over the eye fawn-colour ; all the upper surface reddish 

brown, becoraing more rufous on the upper tail-coverts; primaries 

and tail dark brow'n, fringed with rufous ; chin •whitish ; all the under 

surface deep favvn-colour ; irides yellowish brown. 

Totai length, 65 inches ; bill, Į^ ; \ving, 3 ; tail, 3 ; tarsi, 1. 
Hab. Western Australia. 



21 



April 8, 1845. 

William Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

A number of Australian Birds' skins, presented to the Society by 
John Osborne Balfour, Esq., were exhibited. Two of the specimens 
were from Moreton Bay, the others principally from Bathurst. 

Descriptions of three new species of Bivalve Shells, of the genera 
Cytherea and Venus, by Sy Ivanus Hanley, Esq. : — 

Cytheeea Ovum. Cy. testd ovatd, solidissimd, eecuivalvi, ventri- 
cosd, nitidd, Icevigatd, albidd, epidermide fulvd indutd ; margine 
ventrali integro, arcuato ; dorsali, utrinųue convexiusculo et sub- 
declivi ; latere antico rotundato ; postico obtuse subangulato, su- 
perrie glauco-cineraceo ; natibus recte incurvatis, sapi erosis ; 
lunuld obsoletd ; superficie internd albidd, postice livido-purpuras- 
cente infectd ; dente postico leviter crenulato ; sinu palliari vix 
ullo. Long. 0-90 ; lat. 1-20 poli. 

Index Tęst., sup. t. 15. f. 21. Mus. Cuming, Hanley- 

Hab. ? 

Remarkable for its peculiar solidity and the eąuality of its sides. 
It bears a slight resemblance to the true casta of Chemnitz, but is a 
more ovate shell. 

Venus Bkugttieri. Ven. testd ohlongd, solidiusculd, subnitidd, con- 
vecod, valde in<equilaterali, aut pallide brunned, radiis paucis albis 
ornatd, aut fusco-cineraced, radiis saturatioribus angustis remotis 
interruptim pictd ; radiatim sulcatd ; suleis in medio subimbricatis, 
utrinque subdecussatis, et postic'i in costellas (plerumgue subgra- 
nosas) mutatis ; margine ventrali subrecto autpaulh convexiusculo ; 
dorsali, postice vix declivi, subrecto aut convexiusculo, antice sub- 
declivi et convexiusculo ; extremitate anticd rotundatd ; latere pos- 
tico producto, obtuse et obligue biangulato ; margine postico magis 
minusve convexo ; natibus curvatis et radio brevi livido postice 
ornatis ; lunuld subobsoletd ; ligamento subinfosso ; margine cardi- 
nali intus purpureo ; dentibus angustis, recurvis.parallelis. Long. 
0-85; lat. 1-40 poli. 
Index Tęst., sup. t. 15. f. 59. Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

Hab. ? 

Belonging to the section Pullastra, and allied to decussata, but 
easily distinguishable by its shape and peculiar sculpture. It has how- 
ever been figured for that species in the ' Encyclopėdie Mėthodiąue,* 
pi. 283. f. 4. 

Venus magnifica. Ven. testd suborbiculari, subcordatd, tumidd 
aut ventricosd, solidissimd, valdi inaąuilaterali ; margines verstis 
No. CXLVI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



22 

purpureo tinctd, umhones versus albidd brunneo sparsim maculatd; 

iineis concentricis , sulcisque radiantibus decussatd ; lineis, antice 

undosis et patilo elevatis, posiice obsoletis, med'ib planulatis et sur- 

siim spectantibus ; suleis freąuentibus, profundis ; margine ven- 

trali arcuato, intusque crenato ; dorsali, antice convexo et declivi, 

postice convexo et vix declivi ; latere postico majore, obtuso ; nati- 

bus maxime curvatis ; pube, lunuldgue prominente cordiformi, 

Uvido-purpureis ; ligamento infosso ; superficie internd albidd, im- 

macvlatd ; dentibus ut in V. puerpera. Long. 5" ; lat. 5 poli. 

Hab. Ticao, on the sands ; Cuming. Mus. Cuming. 

This splendid shell is most closely allied to puerpera, but the ces- 

sation of the concentric ridges on the posterior side, the tinge of 

purple which environs the \vhole margiu, and the absence of an}' 

coloured rays, enable us at once to separate them. The concentric 

lines gradually become less elevated and more distant towards the 

lower margiu, and finally (iu the adult) entirely disappear. The ra- 

diating sulci in aged specimeus are so broad at their extremity as to 

give the interstitieil spaces the appearance of costellse. 

Abstract of a paper on Nepalese Birds, by Bryan H. Hodgson, 
Esq., Corr. Me.Tib., late British resident at Nepal : — 

Brackypodi^je. 

Genus Stachyris, mihi (olim Cilathora). Tjrpes, S. nigriceps, pyrops 
et chrysceus, all new. 

Bill as long as head, strong and straight, elongate-conic, much 
compressed ; towards base much higher than broad, with its ridge 
elevated and keeled between the large nareal fosses ; rounded for- 
■wards, and the tips either straight, entire and depressed, or the upper 
one suddenlj' inclined, \vith remote notch ; gape smooth ; frontai 
plumes rigid, and concealing the base of the bill ; nares placed at fore 
end of the fosse, and covered by a salient arched incumbent scale, 
which closes the aperture forwards ; tongue narrow, simple, with bifid 
jagged tip ; wings short, bowed, perfectly rounded ; tail moderate, 
gradated, rather cuneate than fan-shape, and either frayed or subrigid ; 
feet suited to creeping and clinging ; tarse elevate and strong, longer 
than centrai toe and nail, and nearly or quite smooth ; toes short, 
depressed, unequal, basally connected ; hind large, and eąual to outer 
fore toe ; nails repent and Parian. Exclusively monticolous and shy 
of man ; not gregarious ; feeds on tiny hard insects and the larvae and 
pup?e of tree-haunting species — rarely on seeds ; exclusively arboreal ; 
builds large globuJar nests, which are fixed upon and between the 
Crossing twigs of low thick bushes, and lays four or five eggs, of a 
pale fawn-colour, either unmarked or spotted with brown. 

1 st species, -S. nigriceps, mihi. — 5^ inches long ; bill to gape, \^ ; 
tail, 2^ ; tarse to sole, J-| ; centrai toe and nail, W ; hind toe and 
nail, y^^; closed wing, 2^. 

Colour. — Above medial red-brown, deeper and purer on \vings and 
tail ; below sordid rūsty, brightest for\vards ; top and sides of head 
black, picked out with hoary ; chin hoary, confined by a black band 



23 

running from the cap towards the breast ; legs fleshy ; bill horn- 
yellovv, darkened on ridge ; iris pale orange. 

2nd species, -S. pyrops, mihi. — 01ive-brown above, sordid rūsty 
below and on the sides of head and neck ; beneath and before the eye 
and under the chin a black spot ; bill sordid sanguine, dusky on the 
ridge ; legs horn-colour ; eye sanguine. 4^ inches long ; bill, ^ ; 
tail, 2 ; tarse, | ; centrai toe and nail, -^^ ; hind, -^ ; wing, 2. 

3rd species. S. chrysceus, mihi. — Above vernal green, deeply tinged 
with golden ; below brigbt golden ; cap with dusky stripes ; bill 
dusky ; legs yellow. Length, 4^ inches ; bill, ^ ; tail, 2 ; wing, 2^ , 
tarse, | ; centrai toe and nail, \ ; hind, -į^. 

Remark. — These singular birds belong I think to Swainson's group 
of the BrachypodiruB, among the creeping genera of that group ; but 
they show some tendency to pass to the Leiotrichanians, by means 
of Pteruthius and our Heteromis ; Heteromis at all events mušt take 
place next Fteruthius ; but I think the true position of Stachyris is 
among the Brachypods, near to lora and Icteria, with the forms 
that we shall next give, and leading to the Crateropodans. 

Genus Misomis, mihi. 

General structure of lora, but the bill quite diflferent and Meruline ; 
commissure and culmen subarched throughout ; tarse lovver and not 
exceeding the large thumb with its nail ; tail fully rounded. Type, 
M. ruficeps, mihi. — Timalia gularis of Horsfield ? 

M. rttjiceps. — Body vernal green, passing to yeUow on the throat 
and breast, \vhere also there are dark lines down the shafts of the 
plumes ; cap, wing and tail brunescent ; bill bluish horn ; legs fleshy 
grey ; iris hazel. Length 5| inches ; bill, į ; tail, 2^ ; tarse, J-| ; 
centrai toe and nail, ^; hind, -^•, closed wing, 2|. Sexes alike. 

Genus Erpornis. 

General structure of the lašt, but the bill very straight, compressed, 
with the culmen -vvell-raised and keeled between the nares, as in Sta- 
chyris and in lora, but less thick and rounded and the notch more 
remote than in lora ; vings longer and more acuminate, with the 
first three ąuills less equally gradated ; legs smaller ; tail even. 

Type, Erpornis xanthochlora, mihi. — Above vernal yellow, below 
white ; legs and bill fleshy grey ; iris bro'vvn. Five inches long ; bill, į ; 
tail, 2^; closed \ving, 2f ; tarse, \^; centrai toe and nail, ^; 
hind, ^. Sexes alike. 

Remarks. — The above two forms are much related to each other, 
as well as to Stachyris and the other Brachypodan clinging-birds ; but 
Miromis inclines towards Timalia among the Crateropodans, while 
Erpornis is nearer to Stachyris and Zosterops, which lašt I consider 
to be a Brachypod. Both inhabit the lower and centrai hills, and 
feed on tiny tree-insects and their larvae and pupae. Their tongue 
is simple. 

Genus Ixulus. 

General structure of Polyodon, but the bill, tongue and nares sim- 



24 

ple^ and Brachypodan, not Meliphagian ; bill short and singly notched 
at the tip. 

Type, Polyodon flavicollis or Yuhina flavicollis, as printed. 

Remark. — Polyodon is a strictly Meliphagian fonn. la^ulus is one 
of the genera serving to connect the true Honeysuckers with the re- 
pent Brachypods, such as Zosterops, Chloropsis, &c., and w'hich are 
so likę the former. 

Crateropodin^. 

Genus Py et oris, mihi. 

Bill short, strong, perfectly entire, arched throughout the culrainal 
and tomial lines ; nareal fosse and scale obsolete ; rietus ■with very 
strong short bristles ; orbits nude ; wings short and feeble, the first 
two quills much, the next two little gradated ; third pair equal and 
longest ; tail long, broad and gradated throughout ; legs and feet ty- 
pically Crateropodan, with a high strong tarse ; toes medial, uneąual, 
centrai not elongated, laterals uneąual, hind large ; nails large, but 
not much curved nor acute ; hind one largest. 

Type, Timalia hypoleucos, Auct. 

Hab. The plains only, represented in the hills by Deceira. 

A. rufifrons, mihi. — Above sordid ashen olive, passing to clear 
rūsty brown on the alars, caudals, brows and chin, and the former 
(typically) marked \vith frequent regular cross-bars of black ; tail 
longer and more gradated than in Nipalensis ; head similarly crested ; 
bill and feet embrowned fleshy or horny grey ; iris brown. Length, 
8| inches ; bill, į ; tail, 4| ; \ving, 3į ; tarse, \\ ; centrai toe and 
nail, J-|; hind, ^. 

Remarks. — These birds form one of those singular Imks which 
unite the Crateropodan and Brachypodan thrushes ■vvith the Meli- 
phagida, of ^vhich lašt our Alcopus is a true member, having the 
brushed tongue in perfect development. Zosterops, Chloropsis, 
Hypsipetes, &c. of the Brachypodan group, likewise have the brushed 
tongue in more or less development, but not so perfectly as in Al- 
copus. In Ixops there is little trace of it. Ixops leads from a Meli- 
phagian type (Alcopus) to the Crateropods, and Ixulus from another 
{Polyodon) to the Brachypods. 

Mtotherin^. 
Genus Pnoepyga (olim Tęsia), mihi. 

Bill short, straight, Cinclosyhdan, depressed as far as the nares, 
compressed beyond, ^vith inflexed tomia and tip faintly inclined and 
notched ; nares large, fossed, unplumed, furnished with a salient 
membranous scale, which lunates the aperture ; rietus and brows 
smooth ; ■tt'ings very short, bowed, and perfectly rounded ; tail rudi- 
mentary, consisting of only six jilumes, ■vvhich are hid by the pufiy 
rump-feathers ; legs and feet ambulatory ; tarse elevate, smooth ; 
lateral toes equal. Types, the follovving : — 

Ist species, albiventer (M. squamata, Gould, postea), mihi. — 
Above and sides olive-brown, more or less dotted with rufous ; below 



25 

white, largely picked out with centrai dusky drops ; feet dusky grey ; 
bill dusky horn. Length, 4į inches; bill, Ą ; tail, į; clo.sed wing, 
2į ; tarse, 1 ; centrai toe and nail, \f ; hind, į^. 

2nd species, rufiventer. — Very likę lašt, but the ground-colour 
below invariably rufescent, not \vhite, and size rather less. 

3rd species, unicolor, mihi. — Throughout of a dull brunescent 
olive, likę Cinclus. Length, 3| inches ; bill, ^ ; tail, -į-^ ; closed 
\ving, 2^ ; tarse, ^-f ; centrai toe and nail, į ; hind, ^. 

4th species, pusillus, mihi. — Above saturate olive ; below orange 
tawny, margined finely with black above and below ; the colours 
confused towards the vent ; legs sordid fleshy ; biU dusky horn ; iris 
brown. Length, 3^ inches; bill, ^; tail, ^; closed wing, 1| ; 
tarse, -Į-| ; centrai toe and nail, \^ ; hind, ^. 

Genus Oligura, mihi. 

General structure of Pnoepyga, but the tail more developed and 
furnished with twelve plumes ; the bill more depressed ; rietus less 
entirely smooth ; nareal tect less developed and nares conseąuently 
ovoid ; lateral toes uneąual, hind large, and nails more acute. Types, 
the foIlowing: — 

Ist species, flaviventer, mihi. — Above deep grass-green, below 
rich yellow ; cap bright chestnut ; legs fleshy grey ; bill dusky above, 
fleshy below ; iris brown. Length, 3| inches ; bill, -^ ; tail, 1 ; 
■vving, IJ ; tarse, \^ ; centrai toe and nail, \^ ; hind, plūs į. 

2nd species, cyaniventer, mihi. — Above grass-green, below slaty 
blue ; legs and feet smoky grey ; bill dusky above, horn below. 
Length, 3| inches ; bill, \^ ; tail, \^ ; closed vi'ing, less 2 ; tarse, 1 ; 
centrai toe and nail, \^ ; hind, ^. 

Remarks. — The above genera were first discovered and described 
by myself, but I failed then to note the distinction between the two. 
I have now thrown all the prior and new species together. These 
singular birds are peculiar to the mountains, and dwell in moist 
woods where there is plenty of underwood ; they are solitary, silent, 
live and breed on the ground, and feed on seeds, gravel and insects ; 
their stomach is thick — almost a gizzard. They should stand with 
Aipunemia and Brachypterix, between Pitta and Cinclus. Our Horor- 
nis and Monticola are analogous forms among the SylviancB, and Todus 
among the Muscicaps. Gould has figured our first species of Tęsia, 
which he calls Micrura squamata. 

Sylviad^. 

SaXIC0LINjE. 

Dimorpha, mihi (see ' Indian Review,' Siphia). 

Bill short, cylindrico-depressed ; Muscicapan, but less vvide and 
less armed at the tip ; base loaded with a forward soft zone, putting 
forth hairs which partly conceal the nares ; rietus less wide and less 
armed than in Muscicapa, but approaching thereto ; wings more or 
less elongated and acuminated, with 4th, 5th, or 6th ąuill longest; 
the first thręe or four more regularly gradated than in Muscicapa ; 



26 

alar and caudal plumes vvedged and mucronate, and the tail itself 
either slightly gradated from centre and sides, or cuneate ; legs and 
feet more suited to walking than in Muscicaps ; tarse smooth and 
exceeding the mid toe and nail ; toes medial, compressed, unequcil ; 
hind sometimes large, but not broad ; nails large and slender, or 
small and more bent. 

The subgenera seem to be three, or Dimorpha, Digenea, and Syn- 
ornis. 

Dimorpha 
proper, with long Avings, having the fourth quill longest ; tail broad 
and gradate from centre and sides ; feet with the lateral fore-toes 
nearly equal and the hind-toe small, and the nails falcate and short. 

Types, D. slrophiata, monileger and ruhrocyanea. D. strophiala 
printed apud Indian Review, quod vide. 

D. P monileger, mihi. — Above olive-brown, sordid, save on the 
vvings and tail ; below diluted and sordid ; frontai zone rūsty ; chin 
and throat white, enclosed by a black band ; bill black ; legs fleshy ; 
iris brown. Length, 5g^ inches ; bill, ^ ; tail, 2 ; closed wing caret ; 
tarse, J-| ; centrai toe and nail, J-į- ; hind, y-|. Sexes alike nearly. 

D. ? ruhrocyanea, mihi. — Above indigo-blue, beiow deep rūsty ; 
frontai zone, basai edges of tail and vent white ; bill black ; legs 
fleshy. Length, 4\ inches; bill, -į^; tail, 1|; closed wing, 2| ; 
tarse; f ; centrai toe and nail, plūs -^ ; hind, -^. Deviates from the 
type in form of wing, which has first three quills much gradated 
and fifth longest, and it has the legs, feet and nails of the next sub- 
genus, 

Digenea, mihi, 
which diflfers from Dimorpha proper by having the wings shorter, 
with the fifth or sixth quill longest, the legs and feet longer and 
slendęrer, and the nails less bent, but larger ; the thumb larger and 
the nail cuneate. The types are tricolor and leucomelanura. 

D. tricolor. — Above olive-green, passing into ruddy olive-brown 
as you recede from the head ; below sordidly luteous or fulvous ; bill 
lilackish ; legs fleshy grey. Length, 4| inches ; bill, \ ; tail, 2 ; closed 
wing, 2^ ; tarse, less | ; centrai toe and nail, ^ ; hind, ^. 

D. leucomelanura, mihi. — Above saturate slaty, passing to black on 
\vings and tail ; tail laterally towards the base Avhite, below albescent 
slaty ; throat pure \vhite ; bill and legs black. Length 5 inches ; 
bill, i ; tail, 2^ ; M'ing, 2| ; tarse, J-| ; centrai toe and nail, \^ ; 
hind, ^. 

Passing next to the subgenus 

Synornis, 
\ve have a medial Museicapan wing, vvhereof the first quill is spurious, 
the second long, and 3-4 longest. The bill is more exposed at its 
base, the rictal and nareal hairs are shorter, and the legs and feet 
are more ambulant, \vith smaller thumb and nails, neither slenderly 
elongate nor shortly falcate. The type of this form is our Joulaimus, 
but it is the species \vhereof the malė seems to be Sykes's Saxicola 
rubeculoides, and the female Gmelin's Muscicapa leucura. 



27 

S.Joulaimus, mihi Above earthy bro\vn,below diluted to luteous ; 

throat and breast bright rūsty ; sides of head aad neck duU slaty ; tail 
black, vvith white lateral base. Female below void of the red colour, 
being througbout sordid vvhite. Length, 5| inches ; bill, ^V : t^'l> 2^ ; 
wing, 2į ; tarse, f ; centrai toe and nail, -f-^ ; hind, 7^. Weigbt, 

3 °^' 

Hab. Tarai. Rarely or never the hills, to which the others are as 

entirely confined. 

Philomelin^. 
Genus Muscisylvia, mihi. 

General structure as in Grillivora, but feebler ; gape wider and 
bristled ; tip of the bill more suddenly bent ; nares elongated, with 
nude membranous tect and lunato-elliptic aperture, set over by tiny 
hairs ; wings and tail ample, with broad webs and obtuse mucronated 
terminations ; -vvings round, acuminate ; fifth quill longest ; tail me- 
dial, even, broad; legs and feet suited to walking and perching; 
tarse equal to mid toe and nail ; toes long and slender ; nails acute ; 
hind much the largest, and equal to the digit ; exclusively Montico- 
lous ; stomach muscular and strong ; feeds on hard and soft insects, 
pulpy berries and small seeds. A shy forester ; not gregarious. 

Type, M. leucura, mihi. — Throughout deep indigo-blue, passing 
to black on alars and caudals ; forehead and shoulders rich cobalt 
blue ; tail basally and laterally whitened ; a white spot on the side of 
the ueck of the malė ; bill and legs black ; iris dark. Length, 7į 
inches : bill, f ; tail, 3į ; wing, 3į ; tarse, 1^ ; centrai toe and nail, 
i|; hind, |. Weight 1 oz. 

Genus Nemura, mihi. 

General structure of Phcenicura, but slighter, with slenderer legs 
and feet, and bill more armed at the point, and lateral toes uneąual ; 
wings and tail mucronated, as in the lašt, but the webs less broad 
and the tips narrowed yvedge^dse ; nails long, slender and delicate, 
likę the digits and legs. Manners of Phcenicura, but a forester and 
shy. Feeds on insects, soft and hard, and on pulpy berries. Found 
in centrai and northem regions of hills. Types, N. rufilatus et flavo- 
livacea et cyanura. 

N. rufilatus, mihi. — Above and the cheeks indigo-blue ; brow8, 
shoulders and rump soft cserulean ; belovv white, save the flanks, 
which are bright rūsty ; bill and legs black ; iris brown. Length, 5| 
inches ; bill, | ; tail, 2| ; wing, 3į ; tarse, 1 ^^ ; centrai toe and nail, f ; 
hind, Ą. 

N.flavolivacea, mihi. — Possibly female of the lašt. Above olive- 
green, \vith a yellowish tinge ; below sordidly fulvescent ; bill and 
legs fleshy grey. Length, 5| inches ; bill, ^Sį- ; tail, 2g : wing, 3 ; 
tE^se, 1^ ; centrai toe and nail, f| ; hind, \^. 

N. cyanura, mihi.— Head, neck, breast and wings oHve-brown, 
more diluted belovv ; rump and tail verditer-blue ; flanks bright rūsty ; 
chin, belly and vent \vhite ; legs and feet black. Sexes alike. Length, 



28 

5§ inches ; bill, | ; tail, 2į ; wing, 3 ; tarse, 1 ; centrai toe and nail, f ; 
hind, less |. 

Sylvianje. 
Genus Tarsiger, mihi. 

Bill equal to head, straight, subdepressed, feeble, gradually ■widen- 
ing from the tip ; the upper mandible more than half exceeded by the 
nareal fosse, and much overlaid by the soft ftontal plumes ; nares 
broad lunate, forward, apert, shaded by a nude membrane ; tip of 
bill obtuse, and nearly unarmed ; gape rather wide and ciliated ; 
■wings submedial, round rather than acuminate, firm ; fifth quill 
longest ; 4-6 and 3-7 respectively equal ; alars and caudals wedged 
and mucronate ; tail medial, rounded ; tarse very elevate, slender 
and smooth ; toes ambulant, simple ; laterals uneąual, hind rather 
large ; nails large, slender, simple ; hind largest. Exclusively mon- 
ticolous ; dwells in low brushwood solitarily, and is much on the 
ground, feeding chiefly on small ground insects. Makes its nešt on 
the ground, saucer-shape, of moss, and places it under cover of some 
projecting root or stone ; eggs verditer. Has much analogy with both 
the lašt genera, which it represents among the feebler Sylviana, to 
which it belongs, as they to the Philomelincs. lt differs from the lašt 
by its feebler, more depressed bill, larger and more membranous 
nares, and more slender legs and feet ; also by its mucronate and 
Avedge-tipped alars and caudals. The mucronation allies it to Mus- 
cisylvia, from which it diifers by its less ample wings and tail, more 
elevate tarse, and feebler bill. 

Type, T. chryscBus, mihi. — Below the whole body with the entire 
shoulders, the lo\ver back and greatest part of tail, deep gamboge- 
yello\v ; superciliary line the šame ; head above, neck and upper back, 
yello\v-tinted olive ; lores, orbits and ears continuously, centrai 
caudals and tips of the others black ; alars dusky black, fringed on 
the lo\ver edges \vith yellovv ; legs fleshy bro\vn ; bill horn-yellow 
belo\v, dusky above. Female duUer-hued, devoid of the black cheek- 
mark and superciliary line ; her body above entirely olive-green ; 
alars and caudals dusky olive. Length, 5į inches ; bill, W ; tail, 2į ; 
\ving, 2^ ; tarse, 1^ ; centrai toe and nail, -i-| ; hind, j^. 

Genus Ortkotomus, Horsf. 
Ist subgenus, Ortkotomus. 

Bill sub-certhian, long, slender, inclining to arch, and entire, \vith 
the base largely exceeded by the nareal fosse ; nares large, membra- 
nous, free, the aperture lunate-linear and shaded above by a large 
unarched membrane ; rietus slightly bristled ; ^vings short, bowed, 
and feeble, but not perfectly rounded ; first four quills conspicuously 
gradated in a diminishing ratio ; 5—6 equal and longest ; tail mode- 
rate, narrow, feeble, much-rounded, \vith the two centrai plumes 
frequently elongated, as in the Bee-eaters ; tarse high, stout, double 
that of the centrai toe, and strongly scaled ; toes short, unequal, the 
outer fore longer and basally connected ; the hind large and strong ; 



29 

nails strong and acute, the hind largest. Nearly confined to the 
hills ; rare below in the cold season ; solitary or in pairs ; familiar ; 
dwells in low bushes and hedge-rows and fences, picking up minute 
insects from the leaves and decayed ■vvood, and frequently descending 
to the ground, Avhere they movė fitfully, by hops, to take minute in- 
sects, and presently return to their low perch. Make beautiful pen- 
sile nests, by sewing together the edges of large leaves, and hence 
are called ' Patia ' or the ' Leaf-bird ' in the hills. 

Type, Sylvia put oria, v. sphenura, v. ruficapilla, Auct. — Above 
vernal green, below white ; the great alars and caudals dusky ; the 
top of the head brown-red ; bill dusky horn ; legs fleshy brown ; iris 
brown. Female similarly coloured, but vi^anting almost entirely the 
prolonged centrai tail-feathers of the malė, and smaller. Length (of 
malė), 5\ inches ; bill, f; tail, 2|-; closed wing, 1| ; tarse, į; cen- 
trai toe and nail, ^ ; hind, ^. Weight į or A oz. Has a loud 
shrill monosyllable note — tee-tee-tee. I suspect there are two spe- 
cies, because the eggs difFer in colour in the nests brought me, 
some being verditer-blue and unspotted, and others bluish -vvhite, 
with fawn spots. The latter, I think, belong to the above, and the 
former to a smaller species, having the caudal appendage very little 
developed. I call this 

Orthotomus Patia, and subjoin the following measurements. Length 
(of malė), 4f inches; bill, |; tail, lį ; wing, 1| ; tarse, if; centrai 
toe and nail, plūs ^ ; hind, ^. 

2nd subgenus, Prinia, Horsf . 

Bill shorter and straighter, but still longer than the head, and not 
notched ; less cut out at the base by the nareal fosse ; rietus hispid ; 
nares smaller, ■with wider aperture ; wings yet shorter and absolutely 
rounded, ■with the first five quills conspicuously gradated up to the 
sixth and longest; tail ampler, more elongate and more gradate, 
fan-shaped, feeble ; legs and feet slighter. Manners and nidification 
of the lašt, but a lowlander, being more rarely found in the hills than 
these. 

Type, Prinia fusca, mihi. — Length 5 inches; bill, ^; tail, 2^^; 
■wing, less 1| ; tarse, i-| ; centrai toe and nail, -^ ; hind, -į^. Above 
lutescent brown ; laterally luteous ; below white ; tips of the caudals 
with black drops, margined with white ; bill dusky ; legs carneous ; 
iris brown. 

2nd species of Prinia, P. brunnifrons, mihi ; ruficapilla, Auct. } 

Above olive-brown, deeper and ruddier on the cap, \vings and tail ; 
below sordid vvhite ; under tail-coverts sordid olive, and the thighs 
the šame ; bill yellow horn ; legs plumbeous grey ; tail smaller than 
in the lašt. Length, 4 inches ; bill, plūs | ; tail, 1^ ; tarse, | ; centrai 
toe and nail, \^ ; hind, -^, 

Remark. — Aberrant towards Horeites by its smaller tail and more 
perfect foot. This is a common species in the plains, and may pos- 
sibly be the Tailoi--bird of authors rather than our Patia, which is 
rare there. 



30 

3rd subgenus, Horeites, mihi. 

Bill shorter than the head, quite straight, cylindric, feeble, di- 
stinctly notched ; nares basai, ovoid, covered with a membranous 
scale ; legs and feet stronger than in either of the above, and more 
suited to ground action ; tarse high, strong, and heavily scaled, as in 
Orthotomus ; toes longer, more ambulant, with the laterals equal and 
centrai elongated ; rietus ąuite smooth ; M'ings and tail as in Prinia, 
or as in Orthotomus. Inhabits the northern region near the snows, 
dweUing in brushwood and being much on the ground. 

Ist species, H. pollicaris, mihi. — Remarkable for its small wing3 
and tail and large hind digit, the tail being equal in length to the 
closed wing, which is perfectly rounded and short, as in Prinia. 
Above olive-brovvn ; below and the eyebrovv pale yellow ; bill sordid 
comeous grey ; legs fleshy grey. Length, 3^ inches ; bill, -^ ; 
tail, \^ ; u-ing the šame ; tarse, J-| ; centrai toe and nail, \^ ; hind, ^. 

2nd species, H. schistilatus, mihi. — Has an ampler wing and tail 
than the lašt and a smaller thumb ; its wing is as large as in Ortho- 
tomus, and its tail broad and faa-shaped, hke Prinia. In colours very 
' likę brunnifrons, but distinguished by its broader ampler tail, larger 
wing, and shorter Regulus-like bill. Above uniform olive-brovvn ; 
laterally pale slaty and below pure white ; cap clear brown-red or 
chestnut. Dwells near the snows, likę the last-named. Length, 
4^ inches ; bill, ^ ; tail, 2^ ; wing, 1^ ; tarse, | ; centrai toe and 
nail, ^ ; hind, ^. 

Allied to the lašt two species are some more Cachar birds of very 
similar manners and plumage, distinguished by a compressed bill, 
which is raised betvveen the keeled nares, as in our Stachyris, and 
by the inner toe and nail of their strong ambulant feet being longer 
than the outer toe and nail. Some have the tarse smooth and the 
tail more or less scansorial, that is, cuneate in form and rather rigid 
or worn ; these I call Tribura. The others have the tarse scutellate 
and rather longer, and the tail broad and fan-shaped, and not at all 
rigid or worn ; these I stj'le Heromis, though they hardly deserve 
subgeneric separation. 

Genus Tribura, mihi. 

Bill to gape equal to head or less, straight, cylindric, compressed ; 
at base higher than broad, and having the ridge raised and keeled 
between the oval apert nares ; tip of upper mandible scarcely inclined, 
but distinctly notched ; rietus smooth ; -svings short and feeble, but 
not much or eąually gradated ; first two quills conspicuously gra- 
dated, three next subequal and longest ; tail more or less elongated, 
and gradated throughout, rather cuneate than fan-shaped, and some- 
what rigid or worn ; tarse stout, smooth, longer than the mid toe and 
nail; toes and nails simple, compressed, inner fore with its nail ex- 
ceeding the outer fore, centrai elongate, hind least; nails acute. 

Type, T. luteoventris , mihi. 

Tribura luteoventris, mihi. — Above olive-brovvn, vvith a luteous 
lustre ; belovv lutescent laterally and albescent centrally ; a jpale line 



31 

over the eye ; bill dusky horn ; legs cameous. Length, 5| inches ; 
bill, ^ ; tail, 2^ ; wing, 2^^ ; tarse, f| ; centrai toe and nail, \^ ; 
hind, •^. Inhabits the Cachar, among brushwood ; manners un- 
known. 

Genus floromis, mihi. 

General structure of Tribura, but the rietus more or less armed ; 
the tarse strongly scaled ; the wings more gradated, having the fifth 
or sixth longest, and the tail broad, fan-shaped, and not wora or rigid. 
Inhabits the northern hills ; manners unknown. 

Types.fortipes Kad flaviventris . 

H. fortipes, mihi. — Above olive-brovvn, dark and pure ; below and 
the brow yellowish ; bill yellow horn ; legs pure fleshy. Length, 4-| 
inches ; biU, \ ; tail, 2 ; wing, 2^ ; tarse, if ; centrai toe and nail, 
W ; hind, ^. 

H. flaviventris, mihi. — Very similar to the lašt, but a smaller bird, 
with shorter tarse ; above olive-brown ; below and the brow greenish 
yellow and pale ; bill and legs fleshy. Length, 4| inches ; bill, \ ; 
tail, If ; wing, 2 ; tarse, i| ; centrai toe and nail, W ; hind, -^. 

H. ? fuligiventer, mihi. — Aberrant ; probably a Tribura, having the 
wing of that form, but the tail not worn or rigid, and hence perhaps 
that character may not be permanent. Above dusky olive-brown, 
diluted into greenish of a dusky cast below ; bill and feet dark. 
Length, 5 inches ; bill, ^ ; tail, 2 ; wing, 2į ; tarse, | ; centrai toe 
and nail, W ; hind, |. 

H.Pfulviventris, mihi. — Above saturate olive-brown ; below sordid 
luteous, shaded on the flanks with the upper hue ; bill and legs dusky 
grey. Length, 4| inches ; bill, Ą ; tail, lį ; ^ving, 2į ; tarse. įį ; 
centrai toe and nail, ^ ; hind, ^. 

Our singular genus 

Temnoris (olim Suthora), 

and which name, if objected to, may give place to Hemirhynchus , is 
I think a Parian fonn, being much allied to the small long-tailed Tits. 
It seems however to group well with our Heteromorpha and Conostoma 
and Gould's Paradoxornis, and the vp^hole may perhaps fall into the 
GlaucopiiKE. There are t\vo species of Suthora confounded by me 
under the name of nipalensis ; I now erase that name, and substitute 
ūtrifrons amd f ulvifroiis, thus : 

T. atrifrons, mihi. — General colour bright rūsty, palest on the 
belly and vent, brightest on the wings ; falše wing black ; margins 
of the prime alars albescent ; caudals and alars internally blackish, 
and apertly so tovvards their tips ; head saturate slat}% margined late- 
rally and in front by a darker zone, and passing into diluted slaty, 
mixed with rūsty on the sides of the neck ; chin transversely barred 
black ; cheeks albescent ; bill dusky, with a bluish base ; legs sordid 
grey. Length, 4į inches ; bill, less i ; tail, 2į ; ■wing, \\į ; tarse, | ; 
centrai toe and nail, \ ; hind, f. 

T. fulvifrons, mihi. — General hue of the preceding, but the head 
and neck concolorous with the back ; the cheeks not whitened. 



32 

the chin unbarred, and the size larger ; bill paler or fleshy, with a 
dusky ridge. Length, 4^ inches ; bill, }; tail, 2|; wing. 2 ^^ : 
tarse, i| : centrai toe and nail, Ą ; hind, ^. 

MUSCICAPIN^. 

Genus Chelidorynx, mihi. 

General structure of Rhipidura, but the bill very short and Crypto- 
lopho-hirundine, being as broad as long from the forehead and 
very slightly armed at the tip ; rictal bristles long, as in Rhipidura ; 
nares advanced, lateral, elliptic, and shaded above by a membrane ; 
tail rigid, with -vvedged tips to the plumes, smaller and less rounded 
than in Rhipidura. 

Type, Ch. chrysoschistos, mihi. — Above slaty, with a greenish 
smear ; below bright yellow ; wings and tail dusky ; shafts of the 
caudals -vvhitened ; ears, lores and orbits black. Length, 4| inches ; 
bill to gape, f ; tail, 2^ ; wing less 2į ; tarse, ^ ; centrai toe and 
nail, -^ ; hind, -^. Weight į oz. Inhabits the centrai hilly region 
and great valley, on skirts of \voods, among shrubs and low trees ; 
very lively and shows itself much ; solitary or in pairs. Stomach 
distinctly muscular ; diet small insects. 

This type seems to reąuire a place between Rhipidura and Crypto- 
lopha, to which lašt it is allied by the bUl, vvhich however is shorter 
and broader, leading to the next singular form, which is a flycatcher 
in the guise of a swallovr, and forms with this one a perfect passage 
from the Flycatchers to the Swallows. 

Genus Hemichelidon, mihi. 

General structure of a swallow, vvith only something Muscicapan 
in wings and rietus ; bill as in Hirundo exactly, but the gape hardly 
so -vvide and slightly bristled ; nares round and vertical, as in Hirundo ; 
■wings long and pointed ; Ist ąuLll spurious, 2nd long, 3rd longest ; 
tail moderate and subfurcate ; legs and feet small and slender. 
Types, H.fuUginosa and f erruginea. 

H.fuUginosa, mihi. — Uniform sooty brovvn, darkest on the wįngs 
and tail, and shaded with white on the belly, vent, and under tail- 
coverts; the body below paler than above. Length, 4| inches; 
bill, i ; tail, 2 ; tarse, -^ ; centrai toe and nail, less ^ ; hind, ^ ; 
■vving, 2|. 

H. ferruginea, mihi. — Size and proportions of the lašt ; colour 
rūsty brown, passing to olive on the cap ; alars and caudals inter- 
nally blackish, and more or less so apertly ; bill dusky cameous ; 
legs pure fleshy ; tail (in both) moderate and slightly forked. 

Found only in the hills, and chiefly the centrai region ; dwell in 
woods and have the general manners of the Flycatchers, but with a 
bolder and more continuous fiight. 

Genus Hemipus, mihi. 

General structure of Rhipidura, passing to Myiagra ; legs and feet 
very small ; bill more or less elongated and cylindric ; rictal bristles 



33 

moderate, that is, shorter than in Rhipidura ; tail gradated and 
narrow. 

Type, H. piccecolor, mihi. — Above dusky brown, passing to black 
on the wings and tail ; a large obliąue centrai bar of ■vvhite down the 
wing ; two bars on the croup, the margin of the black cap, and the 
terminai part of the lateral alars white ; belovv pale sooty to the 
breast, thence to tail-coverts albescent ; bill and legs black. Female 
•wanting the black cap of the malė. Length, 5| inches ; bill, i^ ; 
tail, 2f ; wing, 2^ ; tarse, A ; centrai toe and nail, ^ ; hind, ■^. 

Inhabits the hills generdly ; chiefly procured in the great valley. 

Alatjdin^. 
Genus Heterura, mihi. 

Bill to gape equal to the head, to brow much less than the head ; 
Anthine in the general character, but stronger, Tvith the culmen, 
commissure and gonys more or less curved ; base of the upper man- 
dible a good deal cut out by the nareal fosse, and its tip inclined and 
notched ; tomiae trenchant and scarpt internally ; nares advanced, la- 
teral, oval, shaded above by a nude scale-like membrane ; rietus to 
eye, and slightly bristled ; wings very short, not surpassing the base 
of the tail, yet strictly Alaudine in all their details, with the primes 
ungradate, the tertials equal to primes, and all the centrais notched 
at the tips and emarginated on the outer web towards the tips, as in 
the Alaudines ; Ist quill eąual to 5th, and both rather less than 2, 3, 4, 
which are eąual and longest ; tail ample, scansorial, that is, distinctly 
rigid, and the separate plumes acutely wedged ; form of the tail Pa- 
rian, or slightly gradate from centre and from sides ; legs and feet 
strong and typically ambulant, with high scutellate tarse and medial, 
compressed, full, solid toes, having the laterals eąual, the centrai 
sufficiently long, and the hind least and not depressed ; nails simple, 
slender, fuUy curved ; hind long and nearly eąual to the digit. 

Exclusively monticolous ; found in the brushy uplands of the cen- 
trai region ; feed and breed on the ground ; food grylli and other in- 
sects and seeds ; stomach strongly muscular ; intestines of medial 
length and furnished with tiny cseca. Nešt made loosely of grass 
and saucer-shaped ; eggs bluish, thickly spotted. Type, H. sylvana, 
mihi. 

H. sylvana. — Above clear brown, picked out raarginally with clear 
rufous, as in the Larks ; below rufescent, with narrowing centrai 
stripes ; chin immaculate ; a dark mustache ; superciliary line pale ; 
tail-feathers internally and laterally albescent ; upper coverts pro- 
longed and pointed, as in the Larks ; bill sordid fleshy or hom ; 
legs clear, carneous ; iris brown ; sexes alike. Length, 7^ inches ; 
bill to gape, W ; tail, 2| ; wing, 3 ; tarse, \^ ; centrai toe and nail, 

• 5 . ViJnrl 3. 

T? ' nma, -Ę. 

Remark. — This singular bird has been thus particularly deseribed 
because of the difficulty of sparing details by anything likę an assured 
allocation of it. It seems to be an analogous form to Praticola, and 



34 

to belong to the Alaudince, near Brachonyx. Its tail in form reminds 
one of Dolichonyi. 

Parian^ ? 

Genus Accentor, Auct. 

These birds are found in the centrai and northern regions of the 
hills only, and chiefly in the northern. We have four species, all of 
which are I believe new. 

1. Acc. Nipalensis, mihi. — Head and neck dusky olive ; body above 
ferniginous, w'ith large centrai dashes of black ; shoulders and all the 
wing-coverts dusky, \vith white drops ; alars and caudals blackish. 
•vvith ochreous red margins ; breast and belly ochreous ; under coverts 
of the tail dusky, picked out with \vhite ; bill dusky, with a yellow 
horn base ; iris golden brown ; legs sordid bro\vn. Length, 6^ inches ; 
bill, if ; tail, 2| ; wing, 3į ; tarse, 1 ; centrai toe and nail, Į| ; 
hind, If . 

2. Acc. Cacharensis, mihi. — Very similar in colours to the lašt, 
but larger, and the ■B'ing proportionally longer ; head and neck, 
shoulders and wing-coverts dusky ; throat white, with black bars ; 
breast and belly deep clay-red ; back and upper tail-coverts rastj, 
•vvith large centrai blotches of blackish ; alars and caudals blackish, 
margined and tipt with rūsty red ; vent dusky, picked out ■n'ith 
■n'hitish ; bill yellow horn, with dusky tip ; legs fleshy. Length, 7 
inches ; biU, \^ ; tail, less 3 ; wing, Sį ; tarse, 1^ ; centrai toe and 
nail, |f:l"nd, 1^. 

3. Acc. immaculatus, mihi. — Least of the three ; not unlike them 
in colours, but the plumage more uniform and freer from spots and 
blotches ; head and neck dusky olive, passing gradually into em- 
browned ochreous red on the body above and below, as well as on 
the whole visible part of the closed -vving ; shoulders pale slaty blue 
and unspotted ; alars and caudals dusky brown, and nearly void of 
brighter margins or tips ; bill blackish ; legs fleshy grey ; iris straw- 
colour. Length, only 6 inches ; bill, Ą ; tail, 1^ ; wing, 2| ; tarse, į ; 
centrai toe and nail, | ; hind, ^. 

4. Acc. strophiatus, mihi. — Above and laterally sordid rūsty, -CT-ith 
black centrai blotches ; belo\v white, with similar marks, but smaller 
and paler ; \vings and tail black-brown ; the alars and their coverts 
margined with embrowned rūsty ; ears and lores margined toMvards 
the body all round with bright rūsty, and a large gorget of the šame 
on the top of the breast ; from nares to brow a white line, joining the 
red one above spoken of ; bill dusky horn ; legs fleshy brown ; iris 
brow'n; -vvings shorter and tail longer than in any of the others. 
Length, 6 inches ; bill, plūs i ; tail, 2| ; wing, 2į ; tarse, J-| ; centrai 
toe and nail, į ; hind, ■^. Weight less 1 oz. Breeds on the ground, 
making a saucer-shaped nešt of moss, \vell-compacted. These birds 
are much on the ground and have an ambulatory structure of legs 
and feet : I should place them among the Finches, near to the next- 
named, or Buntiugs, which also are exclusively monticolous I believe, 



I 



35 

and are found in the centrai and northem regions. They are con- 
stantly flushed from the ground in corn-fields and are comparatively 
familiar birds to the Accentors, -vv-hich avoid houses and cultivation. 

Genus Eniberiza. 

We have four species, three of which are the erythroptera, chlo- 
rocephala, and aureola of authors, and the fourth is I think new, as 
follows : — Eniberiza oinops, mihi. 

New subgenus, Ocyris, mihi. 

Bill very acute and perfectly conie, without any curve along the 
culmen or gonys ; mouth simply angulated, -vvithout palatai knob ; 
wings with 2-3 longest and equal. 

Type, E. oinops, mihi. — Above rūsty red, picked out with large 
blackish centrai dashes ; below white, "vvith narrower dark marks, and 
none on the lower belly and vent ; wings and tail black-brow'n ; -vving 
-with large ruddy margins ; alars internally and lateraUy albescent ; 
head and face rūsty red, with two longitudinal black marks on the 
crown and another circling round the ear from the eye nearly to gape ; 
bill dusky horn ; legs embro\vned fleshy ; iris browTi. Length, 5y 
inches ; bill, -į^ ; tail, 2| ; w'ing, 2| ; tarse, | ; centrai toe and nail, f. 
Weight i to f oz. Sexes alike. Stomach gizzard-like ; contents 
seeds and gravel. 

Pyrrhulin^. 

Genus Loxia. 

L. himalayana, mihi. — Structure typical and plumage very similar 
to that of the European tj^pe, and indeed I believe to all the known 
species ; size small, and most resembling the American bird ; most part 
of the head and neck and whole body below red, of a hue between 
roseate and blood, and more or less sordid ; ręst of the head, neck, 
back, wings and tail deep dusky brown, more or less sufFused, and 
emarginated -vvith the richer colour; wings long, reaching two- 
thirds dowTi the tail; 1-3 quills rather shorter than the second ; legs 
and feet strong ; tarse heavily scaled, less the mid-toe and naU ; 
lateral fore-toes equal and basally connected ; hind large, equal alone 
to the laterals, and, tvith its large nail, much exceeding them ; claws 
large, but not greatly curved. Female dusky brown above, slightly 
sufFused and margined with vemal greenish yellow ; below greenish 
yellow, -svith dusky centres to the plumes ; bill and legs in both 
blackish ; female smaller. Malė measures 5\ inches ; bill, ^ ; tail, 
2^; wing, 3į; tarse, \^; centrai toe and nail, J-^; hind, \^. In- 
habits the Cachar only, near the snows, and rare there. 

To the šame region are for the most part confined the other thick- 
billed Finches of the genera Coccothr austės, Corythus, Pyrrhula, and 
their allies ; but most of these pass into the centrai hilly region in 
spring in search of ripe fruits and berries, and in the winter some of 
them proceed to the plains in search of food and uarrath, or are car- 
ried there by dealers. The Himalayan Siskin is almost always found 



36 

in the centrai region, wliere indeed it is commoner than in the north- 
em ; and one of the roseate Finches is very common below in the 
winter, under the name of the Tooti or Surkha Tooti. This I believe 
is the Hoemorhous rosea and Coccothraustes rosea of authors : it is an 
anomalous or osculant form, \vhich cannot I think be referred to any 
known genus. I call it Pyrrhulinota, because it unites a semi- 
pyrrhuhne bill w'ith the wings, tail and feet of Linaria and Limta. 

Genus Pyrrhulinota, mihi. 

Bill Pyrrhulo-Linarian ; -tt'ings long and pointed, with the first ąuill 
usually longest ; tail deeply forked ; tarse rather shorter than the mid- 
toe and nail ; toes long, laterals uneąual, centrai long, hind least, but 
with the nail eąual to the inner fore ; nails simple. 

Type, the common Tooti or Surkha Tooti of Hindostan ; Cocco- 
thraustes roseata of Vieillot ? P. roseata, mihi. 

The other two rosy Finches of the hills are much less known be- 
]ow, though they also are found there, in the hands of dealers at 
least, and are called TOithout distinction Goolabi Tooti. They are 
the Fringilla rhodopepla and rhodochroa of Vigors, apud Gould ; but 
they are not I think true Fringilla, but nearer to Passer. I deno- 
minate them 

Fhingillin.*;. 
Genus Propasser. 

Bill Passerine, with the culmen and gonys more or less eurved or 
straight, and the tip distinctly notched ; wings short, first ąuill less 
than three next, and longest ; tail forked ; legs and feet ambulant ; 
tarse longer than mid-toe ; toes compressed, laterals eąual, centrai 
long, hind least ; nails simple. Types, rhodochroa and rhodopepla. 

We have in the northern region chiefly t\vo species of true Bull- 
finch or Erythrocephala, Gould, and Nipalensis, mihi, to which we 
mušt add a third species, styled epauletta by me, but which deviates 
too much from the typical form to remain under Pyrrhula ; I separate 
it as a new type, by the name of 

Pyrrhoplectes . 

Bill Pyrrhuline, but longer and less tumid, with the upper mandi- 
ble subterminally, and the lower subcentrally notched ; the gape 
angulated ; wings shorter and more gradate than in Pyrrhula, -vvith 
the fourth ąuill commonly longest ; tail even or divaricated, not 
forked ; legs and feet slenderer, longer, and more suited to action on 
the ground than in Pyrrhula. Type, Pyrrhula epauletta, As. Trans. 
vol. xix. 

Propyrrhula Rubeculoides , mihi. — Above, together with the lower 
breast, belly and vent, smoky brown ; face as far back as the eye, 
chin, throat and breast, bright red, of a sanguineous scarlet hue ; 
bill dusky horn, paler belovv ; legs dusky. Female fulvous, belovv 
with large centrai dashes of dusky brown, and the croup the šame. 



37 

I shall conclude this paper with the descrij)tion of a ne\v and 
splendid species of Buzzard, peculiar to the Cachar and Tibet. 

Falconid^. 
buteonin^. 
Genus Buteo ? 

Buteo leucocephalus , mihi. — General structure Buteonine, but the 
tarse two-thirds plumed to the front, and the nude part reticulate, 
not scutellate ; acropodia half reticulate and half scutellate ; colour 
medialbrown, with the head and neck raore or less perfectly albescent; 
chin to breast darker, and breast again paled crescent-wise ; tail with 
freąuent pale bufF bars ; bill blue ; its tips and the talons black ; legs 
and cere greenish yellow ; iris hoary ; size extremely large. Length, 
25| inches (foem.) by 58^ in expanse of ^ving ; closed wing, 17|; 
bill to gape, 2 ; tail, 11^ ; tarse (to sole), 3f ; centrai toe and nail, 
2| ; hind, If . Weight 3| Ibs. Caught beyond the sno\vs in Tibet. 

Another species. -vvith the tarse considerably plumed, leads to this 
bird from the Moor Buzzards. This second species has the general 
form and characters of the moor buzzard, but is distinguished at 
once by half the tarse being plumed ; the tarsi likewise are shorter, 
and so are the toes ; but the tarse is scutellate before and behind, as 
in that species and the ręst of the Buzzards. There is no sign of 
the Circine facial disc in the present bird, which is I believe new, 
and belongs to Buteo proper and not to Circiis. 

Buteo plumipes, mihi. — Throughout of a uniform dusky brown, 
as in the moor buzzard ; region of the lores only albescent ; cere 
and legs greenish yellow ; bill blue, -n-ith black tips and talons ; tail 
very vaguely rayed with a paler shade of colour and wings inter- 
nally. Of slender make, and with long and acute talons, whereas 
the white head is of very robust msdie, and has less acute but stronger 
talons. This is in make as in colours, a Circus ; that, a buzzard 
proper or an eagle. In plumipes the tarse is scutellate before and 
behind, reticulate to the sides and at base, and t\vo-thirds of the 
acropodia likewise are reticulate. ITie cere is large in both, and in 
both the nares are longitudinally cleft and irregularly ovoid in form. 
The one passes towards Buteo from Circus, the other towards Aąuila 
from Buteo. Length (foem.), 19^ inches ; bill, lį ; tail, 9 ; tarse, 3 ; 
centrai toe and nail, 2 ; hind, 1;^^. Procured in the centrai hilly re- 
gion. Manners not noted. 



38 



April 22, 1845. 

Richard C. Griffith, Esq., in the Chair. 

" Descriptions of new species of Helix, in the cabinet of H. Cu- 
ming, Esq.," by Dr. L. PfeifFer. 

Helix pondehosa, Pfr. Hel. T. imperforatd, subglobosd, tumidd, 
solidd, ponderosd, Iceviusculd (striis incrementi et concentricis con- 
fertissimis vix perspicuis), albd, basi epidermide nitidd, pallide 
corned indutd ; anfractibus 4į convesiusculis, ultimo subangulato, 
fasciis albis hydrophanis infra angulum obsolete notato ; columelld 
rectd, latd, perobliąud ; aperturd subauriformi, intus albd ; peri- 
stomate late reflexo. 

Diam. long. 23 ; transv. 17 ; altit. 13^ lin. 

From Banguey, province of North Ilocos, isle of Luzon : found on 
leaves of trees. (Cuming.) 

Differt ab Hel. latitante magnitudine, colore et sculptura minutis- 
sima. 

Helix semiglobosa, Pfr. Hel. T. subperforatd, semiglohosd,tenui, 
lutescenti-corned, supra minutissime granulatd ; suturd vix im- 
pressd ; anfractibus 6 planis, ultimo carinato, infra carinam Icevi- 
gato, nitido, fascid dilutd hrunned notato ; įimbilico angustissimo ; 
aperturd lunuri-eUipticd, intus fasciatd ; peristomate simplice, 
acuto, margine columellari late reflexo, umbilicum semitegente. 

Diam. 22; altit. 13 lin. 

From the isle of Zeyte : found on leaves of trees. (Cuming.) 

/3. Anfractu ultimo magis inflato, saturatius brunnescente (Catba- 
longa, isle of Samar). 

Helix obtusa, Pfr. Hel. T. imperforatd, subglobosd, tenui, striis 
incrementi et lineis impressis concentricis obsoletis subdecussatd, 
nitidd, leete castaned ; spira subelevatd, obtusd ; anfractibus 4 con- 
vexis, ultimo inflato ; columelld obliqud, acutd, albd ; aperturd dila- 
tatd, subauriformi, intus margaritaced ; peristomate simplice, ex- 
panso. 

Diam. 17^; altit. 13 lin. 

From Catanauan, province of Tayabos, isle of Luzon : found on 
leaves of bushes. (Cuming.) 

/3. Alba, minor (diam. 15 ; altit. 10 lin.). From Žigas, province of 
South Camarines, Luzon : found on leaves of trees. 

Helix filaris, Valenc, Mus. Paris. Hel. T. imperforatd, depresso- 
globosd, tenui, striis incrementi validis notatd, albidd, epidermide 
pallide corned decidud munitd ; spird parum elevatd, obtusd ; suturd 



39 

lineari, albo-margitiatd ; anfractibus 4 planiusculis, ultimo obiuse 
angulato ; columelld obligvd, margine granulosd ; aperturd dilatatd, 
lunari ; peristomate nigro, subincrassato, parum expanso. 

Diam. 19^; altit. \2\ lin. 

From the island of Marinduąue : found on leaves of trees. (Cu- 
ming.) 

lutermedia inter Hel. Valenciennesii et virginem. 

Helix coNSTRiCTA, Pfr. Hel. T. imperforatd, semiglobosd, nitidd, 
concentrice minutissime striatd, flavo-albidd, fasciis 2fuscis inter- 
ruptis ad peripheriam ornatd; anfractibus 4į conveziusculis, ul- 
timo basi subplanato, ad aperturam subith descendente, constricto ; 
aperturd lunari, intus nitide flavd ; peristomate acuto, albo, late 
reflexo, margine basali subincrassato ; ared columellari callosd, 
subexcavatd. 

Diam. llį; altit. 6^ lin. 

From Calapan, island of Mindoro : found on leaves of trees. (Cu- 
ming.) Affinis sequenti. 

Helix paradoxa, Pfr. Hel. T. imperforatd, globoso-depressd, 
nitidd, concentrici subtilissime et confertissime striatd, virescenti- 
Jlavd, apice nigro-violaceo, ared basali saturate castaned ; anfrac- 
tibus 5 planiusculis, ultimo irregulari, lateraliter subcompresso, 
prope aperturam tumido ; aperturd lunari-ellipticd ; peristomate 
albo, acuto, late reJlexo, margine superiore intus callo castaneo mu- 
nito, basi in dentem horizontalėm incrassato. 

Diam. long. 12į; transv. 10 ; altit. 7 lin. 

From Sorsogon, province of Albay, isle of Luzon : found on leaves 
of trees. (Cuming.) 

Afiinis H. Thersit., margine non carinato, colore et sculptura di- 
versa. 

Helix fodiens, Pfr. Hel. T. umbilicatd, subglobosd, tenui, dia- 
phand, rufo-corned, obliqui confertim rugosd; anfractibus 5^ con- 
vexis, ultimo subangulato ; umbilico pervio ; aperturd suborbicu- 
lari ; peristomate simplice, ad umbilicum late expanso. 
Diam. U ; altit. 7 5 lin. 

From Banguey, province of North llocos, isle of Luzon : found 
partially buried in earth, uader stones. (Cuming.) 

/3. Minor, pallidior, anfractibus 5, diam. 9^, altit. 6 lin. 
From Cagayan, isle of Luzon. (Cuming.) 

DifFert ab H. frutico tęsti rugosa et apertura magis dilatata, ab 
H. tourannensi rugis testae, spira non acuminata, et peristomate intus 
non labiato. 

Helix succinea, Pfr. Hel. T. depressd, obsolete subperforatd, 
tenui, pellucidd, nitidd, succined ; suturd mediocri ; anfractibtis 5 
celeriter crescentibus, vix convexiusculis ; aperturd lunari ; peri- 
stomate simplice, acuto, margine columellari subreflexo, perfora- 
tionem obsoletam tegente. 

Diam. 5 ; altit. 3 lin. 



40 

From Sorsogon, province of Albay, isle of Luzon : found on leaves 
of trees. (Cuming.) 

Helix gallinula, Pfr. Hel. T. umbilicatd, lenticulari, acute cari- 
natd, solidd,fiavescenti-grised,fasciis nonnullis rvfis et epidermide 
hydrnphand, maculas triangulares pallidas formante, ornatd; an- 
fractibus 4į planis, ultimo ad aperturam subith defleio ; aperturd 
horizontali, ellipticd ; peristomate simplice, marginibus callo lenui 
junctis, basali refiexo, ad umbilicum mediocrem pervium arcuato. 

Diam. 13; altit. A\ lin. 

From Bongabong, province of Nueva Ecija, isle of Luzon : found 
on trunks of trees. (Cuming.) 

/3. Minor, testd basi oblique rugulosd, aperturd lateraliterminus di- 
latatd. 

From Mt. St. Cristoval, province of Batangas, isle of Luzon. (Cu- 
ming.) 

y. Testd utrincue lineis impressis obliguis, circa umbilicum subcon- 
centricis notatd , fasciis obsoletis. 

From Daleguete, isle of Zebu. (Cuming.) 

Hf,lix horizontą lis, Pfr. Hel. T. umbilicatd, depressd, solidd, 
obligue striatd, carinatd, luteo-corned, rufo-fasciatd ; fasciis 2 
supra, 1 infra carinam ; anfractibus 5 planis, ultimo superiie con- 
vexo, basi planulato, ad aperturam subitbfere verticaliter deflexo ; 
aperturd horizontali, integrd, oblongd ; peristomate crasso, refiexo, 
carneo, marginibus parallelis. 

Diam. \5\; altit. 7 lin. 

From the island of Bantayon, Philippines: found on the trunks of 
trees. (Cuming.) 

Helix radula, Pfr. Hel. T. umbilicatd, depressd, sublenticulari, 
solidiusculd, striis incrementi confertis et lineis acute prominenti- 
bus concentricis exasperatd, pallide corned, carinatd ; anfractibus 
6| convexiusculis, lenfi crescentibus, ultimo basi inflato, lineis con- 
centricis infra carinam obsoletis ; umbilico mediocri,pervio ; aper- 
turd lunari-ellipticd ; peristomate simplice, vix incrassato, margi- 
nibus callo line ar i junctis. 

Diam. 10; altit. 5 lin. 

From Sinait, province of North Ilocos, isle of Luzon : found under 
stones in eartli. (Cuming.) 

Helix ACUTiMARGO, Pfr. Hcl. T. umbilicatd, depressd, supra pla- 
niusculd, basi convexd, temti, pellucidd, pallide corned, acute cari- 
natd, supra carinam striis nonnullis confertis, concentricis notatd ; 
anfractibus 6 lente crescentibus ; umbilico mediocri, pervio ; aper- 
turd securiformi ; peristomate simplice, acuto. 

Diam. 8 ; altit. 3 lin. — An adulta? 

From the mountains of the isle of Negros : found on the leaves of 
bushes. (Cuming.) 

Helix BiANGULATA, Pfr. Hel. T. subperforatd, scalceformi, tenui, 
corueo-rubelld, leviter striatd, nitidiusculd ; anfractibus 7 lente 



41 

crescentibus, ultimo bicarinato ; carind inferiore filari ad periphe- 
riam, svperiore per omnes anfructus adscendente ; aperturd lunari- 
ovali; peristomate simpUce, acuto, perforationem angustiasimam 
/ere occultante. 
Diam. 8 ; altit. 4| lin. 

From St. Frun, province of Cagayan, isle of Luzon : found in earth 
at the root of bushes. (Cuming.) 

Helix excentrica, Pfr. Hel. T. subperforatd, superne planiusculd, 
basi inflatd, tenui, cered, nitidd, striis excentricis subcostulatd, 
acuti carinatd ; anfractibus 4 supra planis, rapide crescentibus ; 
aperturd securiformi ; peristomate simplice, acuto, ad perforatio- 
nem angustissimam dilatato-refl€xo . 

Diam. 9 ; altit. 4į lin. 

From the isle of Siąuijor : found on the leaves of bushes. (Cuming.) 

Differt ab H. smaragdind, Grat., spira minus depressa, anfractu 
ultimo minus inflato, et aperturae forma. 

Helix spectabilis, Pfr. Hel. T. subperforatd, depressd, solidd, 
nitidissimd, corneo-luted, fascid 1 rufd percurrente ornatd; spira 
parūm elevatd; anfractibus 5į convexiusculis, ultimo infrafasciam 
angulato ; aperturd late lunari ; peristomate simplice, acuto, mar- 
gine columellari subreflexo, perforationem tegente. 
Diam. 9 ; altit. 5 lin. — An adulta? — Nanince spec. .' 
From Bangojon, isle of Samar : found on the leaves of bushes. 
(Cuming.) 

Helix eximia, Pfr. Hel. T. umbilicatd, depresso-globosd, obligue 
rugosd et confertissime granulosd, olivaceo-corned, fasciis 5 fusco- 
viridibus ornatd; anfractibus 4^ convexiusculis, rapide crescenti- 
bus, ultimo permagno, circa aream umbilicarem fuscam compresso- 
inflato ; aperturd lunari-ovali, intus margaritaced, lilaced ; peri- 
stomate simplice, anguste reflexo, umbilicum angustum semitegente. 

Diam. 21 ; altit. 14 lin. 

From Vera Cruz, province of Hondūras, Central America : found 
on leaves of trees. (Delatere.) 

Helix trigonostoma, Pfr. Hel. T. imperforatd, trochiformi, tenui, 
obligue striatuld, lineis nonnullis concentricis impressis notatd, 
albd, fasciis superne linearibus, basi latioribus, fusco-violaceis 
ornatd; spird late conicd; anfractibus 4^ planiusculis, ultimo 
spiram svperante, obsolete angulato; columelld brevi, callosd; 
aperturd subtriangulari ; peristomate simplice, margine supero 
pariim expanso, columellari reflexo, adpresso. 
Diam. 14 ; altit. 9 lin. 

From Vera Cruz, province of Hondūras, Central America : found 
on leaves of treės. (Delatere.) 

Affinis H. tenerce, Sow. DiiFert spira minus elevata, anfractibus 
planis, columella brevi et aperturae forma. 

Helix tenuis, Pfr. Hel. T. imperforatd, subglobosd, tenui,fuscd, 
rufo-zonatd, lineis obsoletis impressis, concentricis notatd, epider- 



42 

mide tenuissimd, sericind indutd ; spird obtusiusculd ; anfractibus 
5 celeriter crescentibus, vix convexiusculis, ultimo magno, inflato, 
ad columellam obliguam, subtortam excavato ; aperturd lunari- 
ovali; peristomate recto, simplice, basi subincrassato. 

Diam. 16 ; altit. 1 1 lin. 

Patria ignota. (E collectione Cumingiana.) 

Helix dilatata, Pfr. Hel. T. imperforatd, subglobosd, solidd, 
pallide luted, linais confertissimis brunneis, interruptis supra et 
infra fasciam concolorem medii anfractus ultitni pieta, apice albidd; 
spird parvd, obtusiusculd ; anfractibus 4 rapide crescentibus, ul- 
timo amplissimo ; columelld albo-callosd, arcuatd ; aperturd maži- 
md, obliąue ovali, intus lacted ; peristomate recto, intus incrassato. 

Diam. 17į, altit. 12 lin. 

Patria ignota. (E collectione Cumingiana.) 

Glandina obtusa, Pfr. Glan. T. ovatd, utringue attenuatd, apice 
obtusd, soliduld, pellucidd, pallide carned ; anfractibus 5i vix con- 
vexiusculis, ultimo spiram paulb superante ; suturd crenulato- 
marginata ; aperturd latiusculd ; columelld verticali, basi subitb 
truncatd ; peristomate simplice, marginibus callo tenuissimojunctis, 
destro medio vix dilatato. 

Long. 9\ ; diam. 5 lin. 

From the Real Liejos, province of Nicaragua, Central America : 
found on leaves of bushes. (Cuming.) 



43 



May 13, 1845. 

William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A skin of a Boa coTistrictor, fifteen feet in length, presented to the 
Society by Mr. Pontet, jun., was exhibited to the Meeting. 

" Descriptions of new species of Land Shells, from the coUection 
of Hugh Cuming, Esq.," by Dr. Louis Pfeiffer : — 

1. Helix GRANDIS, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, glohoso-turbinatd, 
solidd, ponderosd, striatd, nigricanti-rufd, epidermide griseo- 
fuscescente fasciatim obductd ; spira conicd, apice pallidd ; an- 
fractibus 6 vix convexiusculis, ultimo spird breviore, basi inflato, 
fortius striato ; columelld verticali, brevi, subtortd ; aperturd late 

lunari, intus margaritaced ; peristomate nigricante, late expanso, 
margine basali incrassato, reflexo, cum columellari valde dilatato, 
albido ungulum obtusum formante. 

Diam. 68; alt. 58 mill. 

Found at Bangui, province of North Ilocos, island of Luzon, by 
H. Cuming, Esq. 

2. Helix Gmeliniana, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, glohoso- 
depressd, soliduld, irregulariter rugoso-malleatd, carinatd, nitidd, 
pallide viridi, ad suturaiu et infra carinam ulbo-cingulatd ; spird 
subelevatd, apice obtusd, albidd ; anfractibus 4į vix convexįusculis, 
sensim accrescentibus, ultimo non descendente, basi planiusculd ; 
apertura angulat o -lunari ; peristomate subincrassato, margine su- 
pero breviter expanso, antrorsum arcuato, basali reflexo, columeU 
lari declivi, dilatato, albo-culloso. 

Diam. 23; alt. 13 mill. 

Found at Bayambong, island of Luzon, by H. Cuming, Esq. 

3. Helix Linn^ana, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, utrin- 
que convexiusculd , acute carinatd, pallide fulvd, superne rugoso- 
malleatd, basi minute et obliąue rugulosd ; anfractibus 5\ lente ac- 
crescentibus, planulatis, ultimo basi subinflato, antice vix descen- 
dente ; umbilico majusculo, cylindrico ; aperturd angulato-lunari, 
ad carinam canaliculatd; peristomate incrassato, carneo, margini- 
bus callo junctis, supero brevi, expanso, basali arcuato, reflexo, 
columellari breviter descendente, subdilatatd. 

Diam. 62; alt. 28 mill. 

Locality unknown. Mus. Cuming. 

4. Helix Chemnitziana, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, depressd, 
solidd, superne radiatim plicato-malleatd, undiąue granulosd, sub 
epidermide oUvaceo-rufd, acute carinatd; spird subelevatd, obtusd; 

No. CXLV1I. PROCEEDIVGS OF THE ZoOLOGICAL SoCIETY. 



44 

anfractibus 5 planis, vltimo basi convexo ; apertm'd suhtriangularl, 
intus nitidd, carned ; peristomate canieo, margine supero subex- 
pauso, basali reflexo, dente unico valido instructo, columellari 
stricto, dilatato, adpresso, in<equaliter pluridentato. 

Diam. 57 ; alt. 26 mill. 

Locality unknown. Mus. Cuming. 

5. Helix Bainbridgii, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicutd, depressd, sub- 
discoided, solidd, striatd, nndigue gramdatd, cinnamomed, basi 
pallidd ; spira vix elevaid, obtusd ; anfractibus 5^ planis, ultimo 
rotundato, basi vix convexo ; aperturd perobliqud, lunalo-subtrian- 
gulari, intus nitidd, carned; peristomate subincrassato, carneo, 
marginibus callo junctis, supero late expanso, basali reflexo, dente 
unico, valido, complanato instructd, columellari perdilatato, umbi- 
lician mediocrem semi-occultante. 

Diam. 64; alt. 26 mill. 

Found at Demerara by Mr. Bainbridge. Mus. Cumiug. 

6. He"Iix Martiniana, Pfr. Hel. testd obteste perforatd, discoided, 
acute carinatd, solidd, striatd et ?7iinutissime granulatd, olivaceo- 
fuscu ; spird depressd ; anfractibus 5 planulatis, ultimo non de- 
scendente, basi inflato, antice profundė scrobiculato ; aperturd 
depressd, late angulato-lunari, intus lacted ; peristomate albo, in- 
crassato, marginibus callo teitui junctis, supero expanso, basali 
reflexo, dentibus 2 conjunctis, columellari dilatato, dentibus 2 in- 
eegualibus armato. 

Diam. 34; alt. 14 mill. 

From the island of Jamaica. Mus. Cuming. 

7. Helix Schroeteriana, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, 
lenficulari, acute carinatd, solidd, obsolete granulatd, luteolu, 
uirinaue rufo-latefasciatd ; spird subelevatd; anfractibus 5 planu- 
latis, ultimo antice deflexo, basi infiato, antice profunde scrobicu- 
lato ; aperturd subhorizontali, ellipticd ; peristomate incrassato, 
late expanso, reflexo,fusco-carneo, marginibus callo junctis, supero 
leviter arcuato, basali dilatato, umbilicum angustum semitegente, 
intus 3-4-dentato ; dentibus 2 majoribus basi junctis, 1-2 minori- 
bus prope columellam. 

Diam. 31 ; alt. 14 mill. 

From the island of Jamaica ; Mr. P. Gosset. Mus. Cuming. 

Intermediate between H. tridentina, Fėr., and H. Martiniana, Pfr. 
The position of the teeth is the šame, but from the former it is at 
once to be distinguished by the sharp keel, from the latter by the 
deflexion of the lašt whorl. 

8. Helix Bruguieriana, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, turbinato- 
globosd, solidd, nigro- castaned, epidermide hydrophand, fuscd stri- 
gatd, sursmn pallescente obductd ; spird conoided, apice obtusd, 
purpured, nitidd; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, ultimo non descen- 
dente, basi vix convexo, denudato ; columelld intrante, obligud, 
strictiusculd, planatd, albd ; aperturd lunato-ovali, intus lacted ; 



45 

peristomate simpUce, bi'evissime reflexiusculo, intus nigro-margi- 

nato. 
Diam. 29 ; alt. 24 mill. 
Collected on the island of Tablas by H. Cuming, Esq. 

9. BūLiMus GiLvus, Sow. Bul. testd imperforatd, ovatd, soliduld, 
striatd, sub epidermide gilvd rufescens ; spird apice obtusd, nudd, 
pallidd ; anfractibus 6 convexis, ultimo spird paulb breviore ; colu- 
melld strictiusculd , albd, subexcavatd; aperturd obliąud, lunato- 
ovali, intus lacted ; peristomate subincrassato, breviter reflexo, 
margine dextro arcuato, columellari adpresso. 

Long. 54; diam. 38 mill. 

Collected in several varieties on the island of Bohol, by H. Cu- 
ming, £sq. 

Geomelania, nov. gen. 

Testą imperforata, turrita ; apertura integra, effusa ; peristoma sint- 
plex, reflexum, ad basin appendiculo porrecto instructum. 

10. Geomelania jamaicensis, Pfr. Geom. testd truncatd, turritd, 
arcuatim costatd, nitidd, albd; anfractibus 6 convexis, ultimo i 
longitudinis subceguante ; aperturd ovali, intus nitidd ; peristo - 
mate simplice, margine dextro sinuoso, basi in appendiculum lingui- 
formem porrecto , columellari adpresso. 

Long. 12; diam. 4 miU. 

Found at Jamaica, " Savanah la Mar," under stones in earth, by 
M. Attanasio. Mus. Cuming. 

11. ToMOGERES TURBINATUS, Pfr. Tom. testd rimtttd, compresso- 
turbinatd, tenui, lavissime striatuld, pallide corned, nitiduld ; spird 
turbinatd, acutiusculd ; anfractibus 5 convexis, ultimo spiram vix 
cequante, d, latere compresso, basi subangulato, antice adscendente, 
subtūs constricto, scrobiculato ; aperturd verticali, subauriformi, 
f ere clausd ; peristomate late expanso, tenui, margine dextro ar- 
cuato, interne lamind validd, superne bifidd, munito, basali oblicue 
descendente, tridentato ; parietė aperturali lamellis 3 integualibus 
armato. 

Diam. maj. 11, min. 7į ; alt. 10 mill. 

Hab. In Brasilia. 

This interesting shell is nearly allied with Tomogeres clausus, Spix, 
but easily to be distinguished by the substance of its shell, by the 
raised spire and the thin peristome, characters quite constant in all 
specimens known. 

" Deseriptions of eighty-nine new species of Mitra, chiefly from 
the coUection of H. Cuming, Esq.," by Loveli Reeve, Esq. : — 

Mitra fastigium. Mitr. testd abbreviato-ovatd, subventricosd, 
solidiusculd, spird brevi, acuminatd ; lavigatd, basim versus exiliter 
sulcatd; luted; columelld cuadriplicatd, basi truncatd; labro sim- 
plici, superne sinualo. 



46 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 28. f. 221. 

Hab. ? 

A small, solid, compact cupola-shaped shell. 

Mitra Bulimoides. Mitr. testd elongatd, basi subtruncatd, spird 
acuminatd; tenuiculd,subpellucidd,quasi cornedįalbido-fuscescente ; 
columelld ąuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 28. f. 224. 

Hab. ? 

A smooth transparent liomy shell. 

Mitra rhodia. Mitr. testd elongatd, spird acuminatd į laviusculd, 
transversim suhtilissime striatd ; nigerrimo-fuscd; columelld tripli- 
catd, aperturd brevi. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 28. f. 225. 

Hab. ? 

Not much unlike the preceding species in form, but of a different 
colour and texture. 

Mitra c(eligena. Mitr. testd ovatd, spird breviusculd, suturis 
profundis ; transversim sulcatd, suleis subpunctatis ; luteo-fusces- 
cente, albipunctatd, anfractuum parte superiori balteo angusto 
lutescente cingulatd; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 28. f. 226. 

Hab. ? 

The entire surface of this species is speckled with small white spots. 

Mitra Avriculoides. Mitr. testd ovatd, crassd, solidd, bashn 
versus striatd, spird brevi, obtusd; rubido-castaned, anfractuum 
parte superiori, balteo unico albo angusto cingulatd; columelld 
quinqueplicatd ; labro intus svperne sinuato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 28. f. 228. 

Hab. ? 

A dark chestnut-brown Auricula-shaped shell, encircled with a 
conspicuous narrow vvhite beit. 

Mitra duplilirata. Mitr. testd elongatd, spird valde acuminatd, 
angustd, tereti, basi tortuoso-recurvd ; transversim sttbtiliter du- 
pliliratd, liris interstitiisąue granulosis ; albidd, aurantio-fusco liic 
illic concentrice flammatd ; columelld guadriplicatd, basi subcana- 
Uculatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 29. f. 229. 

Hab. ? 

This species has a peculiar tapering form, and by the aid of a lens 
it may be observed that the transverse ridges are all duplicate. 

Mitra discoloria. Mitr. testd ovatd, basi granulatd, spird acu- 
minato-turritd ; anfractibus superne prominentibus, longitudinaliter 
conspicue costatis, costis latiuscuUs, obtusis, transversim impresso- 
lineatis ; fasciis roseis et albis alternatd, fasciis roseis inter costas 
ustulato-nigricantibus ; columelld guadriplicatd, aperturd parvd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 29. f. 230. 



47 

Hab. ? 

An extremely prettily painted species. 

Mitra cokiacea. Mitr. testd ovatd, utrinque attenuatd, spird bre- 
viusculd, acute acuminatd ; anfractibus superne rotundatis, trans- 
versim impresso-lineatis, interstitiis granosis ; anfractuum parte 
superiori albidd, infra fuscescente ; columelld quinqueplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 29. f. 231. 

Hab. Island of Corrigidor, Philippines (found among coarse sand 
at the depth of five fathoras) ; Cuming. 

A species of very peculiar character. 

Mitra verrucosa. Mitr. testd ovatd, subventricosd, spird brevi- 
usculd, acuminatd; longitudinaliter concentrice plicatd, plicis tu- 
berculis parvis prominentibus mucronatls undicuj armatisf alhd, 
fuscescente pallide f asciatd ; columelld quinqueplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 29. f. 232. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found in sandy mud in deep 
■vvater) ; Cuming. 

The tubercles with ■which the entire surface of this shell is covered 
are quite sharp and prickly. 

Mitra elegans. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, spird acuminatd, su- 
turis subprofundis ; longitudinaliter subtilissime costatd, costis 
angustis, interstitiis eleganter clathratis ; albicante, aut pallidis- 
sime carneo-fuscescente, lined rubrd unicd aut pluribus cingulatd, 
apicefusco ; columelld guadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 29. f. 233. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (found among coral sand and 
shells at the depth of four fathoms) ; Cuming. 

This species is well characterized by the very elegant style of its 
sculpture and by the sharp red lines with -vvhich it is encircled. 

Mitra decora. Mitr. testd subfusiformi, basi contractd, spird 
acuminato-turritd, suturis profundis ; transversim impresso-sulcatd, 
liris intermediis granulosis, plicisque angustis concentricis subdi- 
stantibus longitudinaliter ornatd ; albd, balteo aurantio-fusco, an- 
fractu ultimo balteis duobus, cingulatd; columelld quadriplicatd, 
umbilicatd, subcanaliculatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 29. f. 234. 

Hab. ? 

The form, colour and sculpture of this species are each of peculiar 
interest. 

Mitra mutabilis. Mitr. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, spird turritd, 
interdum elevatd, interdum breviusculd, suturis subprofundis ; an- 
fractibus superne depressis, longitudinaliter concentrice costatis, 
costis angustis liris subtilibus transversis clathratis ; albidd, oli- 
vaceo-viridi f asciatd, apice fusco ; columelld quadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 29. f. 235. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low water, 
and at the depth of about ten fathoms) ; Cuming. 

An extremely variable species both in form and colour. 



48 

Mitra militaris. Mitr. testd s%ibfusifornii, basi contractd, spird 
acuminatd, suturis subprofundis ; longitudinaliter costatd, costis 
obtusiusculis, interstitiis transversim impresso-lineatis ; anfractibus 
superne luteis, ultimo zond latd coccineo-rubrd cingulato ; eolu- 
melld ąuadriplicatd, umbilicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 29. f. 236. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the sands) ; Cuming. 

Distinguished in part by the rich, broad, crimson-red band which 
encircles the lašt wliorl. 

Mitra tuberosa. Mitr. testd obtuso-conicd, crassd, obesd, spird 
brevi, basitruncatd ; longitudinaliter plicato-costatd, costis rudibus, 
subdistantibus, superne tuberculato-nodosis ; transversim lineari- 
sulcatd, suleis pertusis ; luteo-olivaced, autfuscd, superne albd, basi 
fuscd, albipunctatd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 30. f. 237, a and b. 

Hab. Island of Zebu, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

A small stout species, somewhat after the fonn of the Mitra pa- 
triarchalis. 

Mitra forticostata. Mitr. testd abbreviato-ovatd, spira sub- 
turritd ; anfractibus superni angulatis, infra angulum longitudina- 
liter costatis, costis solidis fortissimis, distantibus, basim versus 
subobsolete granosis ; nigerrimo-fuscd ; columelld cuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 30. f. 238. 

Hab. New Holland. 

Resembling Mitra ficulina, but of a much more solid and angular 
structure. 

Mitra lota. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, spircB suturis impressis, 
transversim siibtilissim't' impresso-striatis, longitudinaliter concen- 
trice costatd, costis basim versus granosis ; rufulo-auranlid, viridi- 
fusco variegatd ; columelld triplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 30. f. 239. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

The painting of this species is of very irregular character. 

Mitra consanguinea. Mitr. testd ovatd, solidiusculd, obesd, basim 
versus contractd, spird obtuso-rotundatd ; transversim subtilissime 
punctato-striatd, longitudinaliter confertim plicato-costatd, costis 
inferne granosis ; rubidd, anfractibus maculis parvis rotundis in 
medio uniseriatim cinctis ; columelld ąuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 30. f. 241. 

Hab. ? 

AUied in some measure to the Mitra pardalis. 

Mitra cremans. Mitr. testd obeso-ovatd, spird brevi, suturis 
šubimpressis ; leevi, basim versus granosd, longitudinaliter subob- 
liąuc plicntd ; nigerrimd,flammis rvfo-aurantiis Jtic illic variegatd ; 
columelld triplicatd. 



I 



49 

Coiich. Icoii., Milra, pi. 30. f. 242. 

Hab. St. Nicolas, island of Zebu, Philipj/ines (found uiider stones 
at low water) ; Cuming. 

Tliis species may be known by its confused flame-like painting. 

Mitra leucodesma. Mitr. testd obeso-ovatd, spird brevissimd, 
longitudinaliter pUcato-costatd ; Icevi, apice crenulatd, basi granu- 
latd ; nigerrimo-fuscd, anfractibus mncularum albarum zond unicd 
in medio cingulatd ; columelld ąuadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 30. f. 243. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

Painted in a manner similar in some degree to the Mitra microzo- 
nias, from which it is materially distinct in form. 

Mitra lauta. Mitr. testd obeso-ovatd, solidiusculd, spira obiuso- 
rotundatd, longitudinaliter subobsolete plicato-costatd, costis leevi- 
bus, interstitiis impresso-striatis ; costis, aurantio-rufis, interstitiis 
nigerrimis, anfractuum medio albo ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 30. f. 244. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (found under stones at Iow 
■vvater) ; Cuming. 

A stout, very prettily painted species. 

Mitra luculenta. Mitr. testd ovatd, Itevi, longitudinaliter sub- 
obsolete plicato-costatd, costis basim versus granosis ; anfractibus 
zonis cceruleo-nigris et albis altei-natim conspicue pieta, columelld 
triplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 30. f. 245. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

This species may be recognized by the decided character of the 
painting, -vvhich consists of alternate blue-black and white zones. 

Mitra avenacea. Mitr, testd oblongo-ovatd, transversim undigue 
liratd, liris angustis, elevatiusculis ; flavescente-spadiced, juxta 
suturas albicante subindistincte maculatd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 31. f. 246. 

Hab. Islands of Buriąs, Ticao and Capul, Philippines (found on the 
reefs and in sandy mud at the depth of about six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

A solid, cylindrical, closely-ridged shell. 

Mitra pica. Mitr. testd ovatd, tenuiculd, subventricosd, spird 
breviusculd, acutd ; anfractibus lavibus, aterrimis, superne et in- 
ferne niveis ; columelld triplicatd ; aperturd subampld. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 31. f. 247. 

Hab. ? 

May be distinguished by the jagged white band with -vvhich its 
black whorls are encircled next the suturės. 

Mitra citkara. Mitr. testd ovatd, crassiusculd, suturis impressis ; 
longitudinaliter creberrimi costatd, costis angustis, obtusis, inter^ 
stitiis transversim clathratis ; purpiireo-plumbed , zonuld pallidd 
angustd cingulatd; columelld quadriplicatd. 



50 

Coach. Icon., Mitra, pi. 31. f. 248. 

Hab. ? 

Of a peculiar purple lead-colour. 

MiTEA NYMPHA. Mitr. testd subfusi/ormi, spird acuminatd ; an- 
fractibus transversim punctato-striatis ; incarnato-fuscescente ,albo 
maculato-variegatd, anfractu ultimo fascid albidd subindistinctd 
cingulato ; columelld guadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 31. f. 249. 

Hab. ? 

A solid punctured shell, of a fleshy-brown or pale salmon-colour, 
variegated with \vhite spots, particularly around the suturės. 

Mitra callosa. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, spird breviuscvld, sxi- 
turis subimpressis ; IcBvigatd, basi Uratu ; jilumbco-fuscd, punctis 
/uscis kic illic variegatd ; columelld f uscd, quinqueplicatd, callosi- 
tate albd svperne armatd, plicis albis ; labro subflexuoso. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 31. f. 251. 

Hab. Pasacao, island of Luzon, Philippines (found on the sands) ; 
Cuming. 

Distantly allied to the Mitra ebenus. 

Mitra jegra. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird acuminatd, transversim 
undigue crebriliratd, liris Icevibus, interstitiis puncturatis ; fusces- 
cente, roseo-albicante pallide et indistincte fasciatd et maculald ; 
columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 31. f. 252. 

Hab. .' 

Likę the Mitra cylindracea in form, but of a different sculpture. 

Mitra modesta. Mitr. testd subfusiformi-ovatd, basi contractd, 
spird turritd; anfractibus rotvndatis, longitudinaliter costatis, in 
terstitiis transversim cancellato-impressis ; nived, rosaceo basim 
versus pallidissime tinctd ; columelld guadriplicatd, aperturee fauce 
rosaced. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 31. f. 254. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the reefs at low water) ; 
Cuming. 

A chaste pink-white shell, with a highly-relieved lattice sculpture. 

Mitra semen. Mitr. testd ovatd, utringue attenuatd, Itevigatd, po- 
litd ; castaneo-fuscd lineis albidis undatis longitudinaliter pictd ; 
columelld triplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 32. f. 256. 

Hab. Puerto Galero, island of Mindoro, Philippines (found on the 
sands at lo\v w'ater) ; Cuming. 

Covered with characteristic longitudinal wavedlines. 

Mitra milium. Mitr. testd ovato-fusiformi, crassiusculd, lineis 
elevatiusculis undigue creberrime decussatd ; nifescente-fttscd ; co- 
lumelld guadriplicatd ; aperturd subangustd, labro incrassato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 32. f. 257. 

Hab. ? 



51 

Belonging to a small group of a peculiar narrow contracted struc- 
ture, with thickened lip, of which the Mitra gratiosa, recurva, exilis 
and mirifica may be ąuoted as examples. 

Mitra lachryma. Mitr. testu ovatd, utringue attenuatd, tenuiculd, 
spird brevi, subobtusd ; anfractibus superne longitudinaliter subti- 
Ussime costatd, transversim obsolete elevato-striatd ; albd, maculd 
grandi aurantio-fuscescente dorso peculiariter pictd; columelld 
bi- vel tri-plicatd, pUcisfere obsoletis, labro effuso. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 32. f. 258. 

Hab. ? 

A small white transparent-looking shell, which may be immediately 
recognised by the large bro\vii stain on the back of the lašt \vhorl. 

Mitra cimelium. Mitr. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, spira turritd, 
longitudinaliter costatd, costis superne tuberculatis ; albd, costis 
infra tuberculis lineis In-evibus nigerrimo-fuscis transversim vivide 
pictd ; columelld quadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 32. f. 260. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low 
Avater) ; Cuming. 

The lower portion of the ribs of this species are crossed in a very 
peculiar manner with short brown parallel lines. 

Mitra TURRiGER. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird angulato-turritd ; 
anfractibus superne angulatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis an- 
gustis, ad angulum muricato-tuberculatis, interstitiis transversim 
impressis ; albidd, fascid castaned latiusculd inter costas pictd, 
columelld ąuadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra. pi. 32. f. 262. 

Hab. Island cf Ticao, Philippines (found in sandy mud at the depth 
of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

A prickly sharply-turreted species, encircled -vvith a brown band, 
■\vhich only appears in the interstices between the ribs. 

Mitra celata. Mitr. testu cylindraceo-ovatd, basi contractd, 
paululum elongatd, spircB suturis subprofundis ; anfractibus longi- 
tudinaliter costatis, costis angustis, crebris, interstitiis impresso- 
cancellatis ; lutescente-fuscd, subindistincte albifasciatd ; columelld 
triplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 32. f. 265. 

Hab. Cagayan, province of Misamis, island of Mindanao, Philip, 
pines (dredged from sandy mud at the depth of thirty fathoms) ; 
Cuming. 

The upper portion of this shell has a peculiar cylindrically short- 
ened structure, whilst the base is inclined to become elongated. 

Mitra ltjcida. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird turritd, basi subelon- 
gato-contractd ; anfractibus longitudinalit r costatis, costis superne 
tumidis, transversim elegantissimc liratis ; lucido albicante ; colu- 
melld quinqueplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 33. f. 266. 



52 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

A delicate transparent species, of a peculiar elongated fusiform 
growth. 

Mitra typha. Mitr. testd subelongatd, spird acuminatd ; transver- 
sim subtilissinie striatd, corned, translucidd,fascid latd ferrugined 
cingulatd ; columelld triplicatd. 
Conch. Icon.. Mitra, pi. 33. f. 267. 

Hab. Loay, island of Bohol, Philippines (found under stones at lovv 
■vvater) ; Cuming. 

A minute homy-looking shell, encircled ■vvith a conspicuous orange- 
brovvn band. 

MiTHA ToaxATA. MHr. testd oblongo-ovatd, spird acutd, an/rac- 
tibus convexis, transversim undicue liratis, liris tribus supremis 
minoribus ; lutescente-fuscd, epidermide fuscd indutd ; columelld 
ąuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 33. f. 269. 

Hab. Island of Guimaras, Philippines. 

The ridges of this species are remarkable for their close regularity 
and precision. 

Mitra vultuosa. Mitr. testd ovatd, spird breviusculd ; anfracti- 
bus convexis ad sutiiras depresso-planis, transversim costatis, cos- 
tis crebris suleis longitudinalibus angustis exsculptis ; aurantio- 
fuscd; columelld quadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 33. f. 270. 

Hab. Island of Capul, Philippines (found on the reefs) ; Cuming. 
The longitudinal grooves impart a nodulous character to the trans- 
verse ribs. 

Mitra granata. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, crassd, transversim 
undique liratd, liris parvis subtiliter granatis ; lutescente-fuscd, 
apice albicante ; columelld ąuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 33. f. 271. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low 
vvater) ; Cuming. 

Crossed with finely-grained ridges. 

Mitra Pacifica. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, crassiusctild, spird 
turritd ; anfractibus superne augulatis, longitudinaliter liratd, liris 
numerosis, angustis, transversim impresso-sulcatis ; albd, fascid 
fuscd inter liras solum cingulatd; columelld ąuadriplicatd, plicd 
supremd valde maximd, aperturd breviusculd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 33. f. 272. 

Hab. Lord Hood's Island ; Cuming. 

Allied in form to the Mitra exasperata. 

Mitra turgida. Mitr. testd ovoided, medio turgidd, basi contractd, 
spird brevi, acuminatd; transversim undiąue liratd, suleis subir- 
regularibus longitudinaliter impressd ; columelld triplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 33. f. 273. 



53 

Hab. Island of Capul, Philippines (found under stones tit low 
water) ; Cuming. 

The sculpture of this species is of a somewhat sirailar character to 
that of the Mitra tornata. 

Mitra amabilis. Mitr. testd ovatd, crassiusculd, spird obtiiso- 
depressd ; anfractibus subrotundatis , longitudinaliter costatis, 
transversim impresso-sulcatis ; cinereo-grised varie albifasciatd ; 
columelld ąuadriplicatd ; aperturd breviusculd, intus fuscd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 33. f. 274. 

Hab. Islands of Ticao and Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

A pretty species, handed alternately with ^vhite and ashy grey. 

Mitra purpurata. Mitr. testd ovatd, utrinąue attenuatd, spird 
breviusculd, subturritd ; anfractibus ad suturas plano-angulatis, 
longitudinaliter costatis, costis numerosis, angustis, prominentibus, 
interstitiis impresso-cancellatis ; fusco-purpured, zond angustd 
albd cingulatd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 33. f. 275. 

Hab. Island of Capul, Philippines (found under stones at low 
w'ater) ; Cuming. 

The whorls of this shell being flatly angulated at the suturės, give 
a turreted character to the spire. 

Mitra puella. Mitr. testd rotundato -ovatd, spird brevi, subob- 
tusd, suturis impressis ; anfractibus transversim subtilissime stri- 
atis, anfractus ultimi parte inferiori minute nodiferd; aterrimd, 
anfractuumparte superiori maculis niveis pyriformibus, concentrice 
dispositis, conspicue ornatd ; columelld triplicatd ; labro intus den- 
ticulato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 34. f. 276. 

Hab. Island of St. Thomas, West Indies ; Gruner. 

The pyriforra white spots which encircle the upper portion of each 
whorl exhibit a striking contrast with the jet-black ground of the 
shell. 

Mitra gratiosa. Mitr. testd elongatd, subcylindraced, liris pro- 
minentibus minutis creberrime decussatd ; fuscd; columelld guingue- 
plicaid, labro subincrassato. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 34. f. 277. 

Hab. Gallapagos Islands (found among coral sand at a depth of 
about seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

A narrow cylindrical shell, with beautifully decussated sculpture, 
and of an uniform brown colour. 

Mitra mirifica. Mitr. testd elongatd, gracili, subcylindraced, 
basi recurvd, liris minutissimis creberrime decussatd; rosaced, 
subpellucidd, zonuld angustd albidd cingulatd; columelld sexplicatd, 
labro subincrassato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 34. f. 278. 



54 

Hab. Island of Capul, Philippines (found under stones at low 
\vater) ; Cuming. 

The general asjiect of this shell is very similar to that of the pre- 
eeding species ; upon examination it ■vvill be found however of a 
thinner and more slender structure, \vhilst the sculpture is of a 
smaller pattern, and the colour altogether difFerent. 

Mitra inermis. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, longitudinaliter cre- 
bcrrime plicatd, basi sulcatd ; rufescente-fuscd,fascid albtdd,fusco 
sublilissime undulatd, cinctu ; columelld quadriplicutd . 
Conch. Icon.. Mitra, pi. 34. f. 279. 

Hab. Puteao, province of Albay, island of Luzon (found on the 
sands) ; Cuming. 

Encircled w'ith a white band, traversed with fine brown zigzag 
lines. 

Mitra brumalis. Mitr. testd elongatd, subcylindraced , undigue 
subtilissime decvssatd; hitescente, auranlio-fusco pallidissime hic 
illic tinctd ; columelld gitadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 34. f. 280. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

A solid obtuse shell, \vith the lip slightly efFused. 

Mitra dedalą. Mitr. testd subfusiformi-ovatd, spira turritd ; 

longitudinaliter costatd, costarum interstiliis fortiter clathratis ; 

cinereo-viridescente, zond albd conspicud cingulatd ; columelld 

guadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 34. f. 281. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found in sandy mud at the 
depth of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

The colour of this shell is a peculiar livid ashy grey. 

Mitra suturata. Mitr. testd elongato-ovatd, basi subrecurvd, 
sjnrce suturis profvnde impressis ; transversim undigue angisvlcatis, 
suleis profundis, puncturatis, liris intermediis subgranosis ; pallide 
stramincd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 34. f. 282. 

Hab. Gindulman, island of Bohol, Philippines (found under stones 
at Iow water) ; Cuming. 

The entire surface of this shell is encircled \vith close finely granu- 
lated ridges, the interstices between \vhich are deeply grooved and 
punctured. 

Mitra tūsa. Mitr. testd ovatd, spira suturis profunde itnpressis, 

longitudinaliter subtiliter costatd, transversim imprcsso-striatd ; 

anfractuum parte siiperiori albidd, maculis grandibus subgvadratis 

fuscis or nata, parte inferiori totd fuscd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 34. f. 2S3. 

Hab. Puerto Galero, island of Mindoro, Philippines (found on the 
sands at low water) ; Cuming. 

Distinguished by the dark chocolate-bro\vn spots upon the upper 
part of the shell, whilst the lower part is entirely stained with the 
samc colour. 



55 

Mitra micans. Mitr. testd subfusiformi-ovatd, Icevigatd, politd, 

eburned, aurantio palUde fasciatd, columelld quadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 34. f. 285. 
Hab. South Pacific Ocean. 

A small white orange-banded shell, with a surface as hard and 
shining as polished ivory. 

Mitra armiger. Mitr. testd elongatd, subfusiformi, spird turritd; 
anfractibus supervi angulatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis ad 
angulum nodosis, inferne evanidis, transversim impresso-striatis ; 
rubidd, albizonatd, costis superne albis ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 35. f. 288. 

Hab. ? 

A pretty species, the sculpture of which is of a very decided cha- 
racter. 

Mitra chelonia. Mitr. testd ovatd, spird breviusculd, acutd; 
Icevigatd; nigricante-fuscd, zonuld luted unicd, cingulatd ; colu- 
melld triplicatd, labro superne sinuato. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 35, f. 289. 

Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (dredged from sandy mud at the 
depth of ten fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Beionging to that well-known division of the genus of which the 
Mitra ebenus is the type. 

Mitra sculptilis. Mitr. testd. elongatd, subcylindraced, basi pau- 
lulilm recurvd, spirce suturis subimpressis ; longitudinaliter crebri- 
liratd, interstitiis transversim f ortiter clathratis ; albicante,fusces- 
cente pallide maculatd, anfr actus ultimi parte inferiori fuscescente 
basi albicante ; columelld quinqueplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 35. f. 290. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low 
■vvater) ; Cuming. 

Distinguished by its very closely latticed sculpture. 

Mitra spicata. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird acuininato-turritd ; 
anfractibus longitudinaliter crebricostatis, superne acutangulis, 
costis ad angulum tuberculato -nodosis, anfractu ultimo medio exi- 
liter noduloso, costis f ere obsoletis ; pallide fulvd ; columelld qua- 
driplicatd. 

.Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 35. f. 291 . 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the sands) ; Cuming. 

The upper ■vvhorls of this species are longitudinally finely ribbed, 
but there is very slight indication of ribs upon the lovver. 

Mitra hebes. Mitr. testd fusiformi, spird acuminatd, lineis pro- 
funde impressis transversis et longitudinalibus undique creberrime 
decussatd, albicante, columelld quadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 35. f. 292. 

Hab. ? 

The entire surface of this species is decussated with narrow deeply- 
eut lines. 



56 

Mitra anai.ogica. Mitr. testd ovato-ohlongd, basi contractd, sitl- 
catd ; spira anfractibus longiUidinaliter plicato-costatis, anfractu 
ullimo lavigato ; nigricante fuscd, zonuld luted cingulatd ; colu- 
melld iriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 35. f. 293, 

Hab. ? 

This species has very much the appearance of a gigantic Mitra 
Savignii, from which it however diflFers in its proportions. 

Mitra bilineata. Mitr. testd ovatd, solidiusculd, spird acuminatd ; 
longitudinaliter subobsolete plicatd, Icevigatd, poliid ; nigerrimo- 
fuscd, apicem verstis albicante, lineis duabus luteis cingulatd ; co- 
lumelld guingueplicatd. 
Conch. Icon.. Mitra, pi. 35. f. 294. 

Hab. ? 

A hard polished blackish brown shell, encircled with two distant 
yellow lines. 

Mitra recurva. Mitr. testd fusiformi, basi attenuatd, subrecurvd; 
longitudinaliter granoso-Uratd, transversim impresso-striatd ; ro- 
saceo-purpurascente ,fusco minutissime hic illic punctatd ; columelld 
guadripUcatd ; labro incrassato. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 36. f. 297. 

Hub. Island of Capul, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

The minute granules with which the surface of this shell is longi- 
tudinall}' sculptured have a semitransparent pearl-like appearance. 

Mitra incarnata. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, spird breviusculd, 
transversim elegantissime crebriliratd, longitudinaliter angisulcatd ; 
incarnatd ; columelld sexplicatd, aperturd longiusculd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 36. f. 299. 

Hab. Cagayan, province of Misamis, island of Mindanao, Philip- 
pines (dredged from sandy mud at the depth of five and twenty 
fathoms) ; Cuming. 

The sculpture of this delicately tinted shell is very elaborate. 

Mitra articulata. Mitr. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, subventri- 
cosd ; anfractibus lavibus, longitudinaliter subobsolete plicatis, 
medio Isviter tuberculatis ; pallide rosaceo-coccined, zonuld albd 
fusco articulatd cinctd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 36. f. 302. 

Hab. ? 

I have found no specimen approaching comparison \s'ith the one 
above described, from the coUection of Thomas Norris, Esq. 

Mitra festa. Mitr. testd pyramidali-ovatd, longitudinaliter ob- 
tuso-costatd, costarum interstitiis transversim cancellatis ; eburned, 
anfractu ultimo fascid latd olivaceo-cinered, fusco indist inde punc- 
tatd, cingulatd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon. Mitra, pi. 36. f. 303. 

Hab. Puerto Galero, island of Mindoro, Philippines (found on the 
sands) ; Cuming. 



57 

A solid ivor)'-\vhite sliell, encircled ^vith a dark band, Tvhich is 
concealed in the upper part of the shell by the superposition of the 
whorls. 

Mitra pinguis. Mitr. testd subobeso-ovatd, longitudinaliter sub- 
obligue noduloso-costatd, transversim impresso-striatd, striis cre- 
berrimis, anfractus ultimi parte inferiori sulcatd; albidd, fascid 
unicd fuscescente cingulatd ; columelld ąuadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 36. f. 304. 

Hab. Puerto Galero, islaiid of Mindoro, Philippines ; Cuming. 
The lašt w'horl of this shell exhibits a peculiarity of structure 
•vvhich is worthy of observation ; above the brown band it is very 
closely impressly striated across; below it, it is merely distantly 
grooved. A clifFerence between the transverse sculpture of the upper 
and lower portions of the w'horls is rarely met with. 

Mitra peculiaris. Mitr. testd elongatd, anfractibus leevibus, con- 
cavis, carind unicd prominente superne ornatis ; albidd, fascid latd 
luteo -fuscescente cingulatd; columelld biplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 36. f. 305. 

Hab. Puerto Galero, island of Mindoro, Philippines (found under 
stones at low water) ; Cuming. 

This species may be easily distinguished by the hollow character 
which is imparted to the vhorls by the very prominent keel round 
the upper part. 

Mitra roborea. Mitr. testd pyramidali, spird acuminatd ; nigri- 
cante-fuscd, liris albidis angustis undique funiculatd ; columelld 
biplicatd, plicis subindistinctis ; aperturd parvd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 37. f. 306. 

Hab. ? 

An interesting dark pyramidal shell, encircled throughout with 
\vhite cord-like ridges. 

Mitra radius. Mitr. testd gracili-fusiformi, spird acuminatd, basi 

contractd, subelongatd ; anfractibus longitudinaliter concentrice 

plicato-costatis, interstitiis cancellatis ; pallide carned, anfractu ul- 

timo fascid fuscescente busim ve7-sus cingulato ; columelld biplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 37. f. 309. 

Hab. Isiand of Corregidor, Philippines (found among coarse sand 
at the depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

A light elegant shell, in vvhich the ribs are of a peculiarly concen- 
tric gro'wth. 

Mitra glandiformis. Mitr. testd ovatd, utringue attenuatd, spirte 
suturis profunde impressis ; longitudinaliter costatd, costis Icsvibus, 
interstitiis profunde clathratis ; cinereo-griseo alboqiie variegatd, 
basi albicante ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 37. f. 310. 

Hab. ? 

In most examples of this species the white rather predominates. 

Mitra cineracea. Mitr. testd pyramidali-ovatd, spird turritd. 



58 

basi subrecurvd ; anfractibus supernt angulatis, longitudinaliter 
costatis, costis ad angulum subnodosis, interstitiis liris parvis 
transversis cancellatis ; cinereo-grised , fascid albidd subinterruptd 
cingulatd, basi albidd ; columelld ąuadriplicatd, aperturd parvd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 37. f. 311. 

Hah. Cagayan, province of Misamis, island of Mindanao, Philip- 
pines (found under stones at low water) ; Cuming. 

A sharply turreted shell, in which the prominent parts of the ribs 
are white upon a dark ashy ground. 

Mitra limata. Mitr. testd ovatd, crassiusculd, spird mediocri ; 
IcBvigatd, politd, transversim undique sulcaid, suleis puncturatis ; 
albidd, fascid f uscescente albifloccatd cingulatd ; columelld guadri- 
pticatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 37. f. 312. 

Hab. Island of Bohol, Philippines (found under stones on the reefs 
at low water) ; Cuming. 

The grooves of this species are more deeply punctured towards 
the upper part of the whorls. 

Mitra exilis. Mitr. testd elongatd, basi subrecurvd, spird sub- 
obtusd; liris minutis undigue granoso-decussatd ; pallide violaceo- 
purpurascente, anfractu ultimo fascid latd saturatiore cingulato, 
infra albicante ; columelld ąuadriplicatd, plicis parvis ; labro in- 
crassato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 37. f. 313. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at lo\v 
■water) ; Cuming. 

An interesting small species, with a decussated granular surface, 
likę that of a thimble. 

Mitra mica. Mitr. testd elongatd, subcylindraced, basim versus 
contractd ; liris granulosis undigue creberrime decussatd ; fuscd, 
zond albidd cingulatd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 37. f. 314. 

Hab. Island of Guimaras, Phihppines (found in coarse sand at the 
depth of six fathoms) ; Cuming. 

The colour of this shell is a dull earthy bro\vn. 

Mitra armillata. Mitr. testd py ramidali, spird turritd ; anfrac- 
tibus superne plano-angulatis, longitudinaliter concentrice costatis, 
costis angustis, numerosis, ad angulum nodosis, transversim im- 
pressis ; purpureo-fuscd, zonuld lutescente cingulatd; columelld 
guadriplicatd, aperturd brevi. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 37. f. 315. 

Hab. Island of Annaa, Pacific Ocean (found on the reefs) ; Cuming. 

A prettily sculptured species, in vvhich the ribs are disposed some- 
what concentrically. 

Mitra Tornatelloides. Mitr. testd rotundato-ovatd, spird brevi, 
obtusd ; transversim undigue sulcatd, stdcis subindistincie punctu- 



59 

ratis ; sanguineo-fuscescente, zonuhi trnnsverm strigisque longitu- 
dinalibus undatis albis vivide riotatd ; columeltd įuadriplicatd, 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 38. f. 316. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

Tlie general aspect of this shell is very likę that of a well-kno\vn 
species of Tornatella. 

Mitra gausapata. Mitr. testd ovatd, spira subacuminatd ; an- 
fractibus superne plano-compressis, tuberculato-costatis, trans- 
versim undique liratis ; nigerrhno-fuscd, anfractuum ared superd 
luted ; columelld tripUcatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 38. f. 317. 

Hab. Gallapagos Islands (dredged from the depth of about ten 
fathoms) ; Cuming. 

The whorls are characterized by a peculiar narrow depression 
round the upper part, beneath which they are for a short distance 
tubercularly ribbed. 

MiTE.i AMANDA. Mitr. testd subpyramidali, spira acuto-turritd ; 

anfractibus longitudinaliter crebricostatis, transversim impressis ; 

fasciis angustis rubido-fuscis albisąue undiąue cingtilatd ; columelld 

ąuadriplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 38. f. 318. 

Hab. Islands of Buriąs and Negros, Philippines (found among coral 
sand at the depth of four fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Encircled throughout with narrow •white and reddish brown bands. 

Mitra crocea. Mitr. testd ovatd, spirte suturis impressis ; an- 
fractibus superne plano-angulatis ; longitudinaliter crebricostatis, 
transversim basim versus sulcatis ; pallide croced, aperture fauce 
aurantio tinctd ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 38. f. 320. 

Hab. Island of Capul, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

Of a beautiful clear yellovv colour, with orange mouth. 

Mitra rosacea. Mitr. testd ovatd, spird breviusculd; liris gra- 
natis undigue cingulatd ; nived, maculis grandibus pallide rosaceis 
bįfasciatim ornatd ; columelld ąuingueplicatd ; aperturd oblongo- 
ovatd; labro crenulato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 38. f. 321. 

Hab. Island of Corrigidor, Philippines (found among coral sand at 
the depth of ten fathoms) ; Cuming. 

An extremely delicate semitransparent pink-stained white shell. 

Mitra m(esta. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, transversim sulcatd, la- 
vigatd; fuscescente, anfractuum parte superiori pallide luted; 
columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 38. f. 323. 

Hab. Island of Corrigidor, Philippines (dredged among coral sand 
at the depth of ten fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Tlie columella and mouth of this species are brightly enamelled. 



60 

Mitra ^thiops. Mitr. testd ovatii, crassd, spird acutiU Uris 
parvis transversis et longiludinalibus, concentricis, undigue decus- 
satd; nigerrimd, vel olivaceo-nigrd ; columelld planatd, guadri- 
plicatd, callositate superne munitd ; labroplanato, intus denticulato, 
superne sinuato. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 38. f. 324. 

Hab. Islands of Ticao and Luzdh, Philippine Islands (found under 
stones at low ^vater) ; Cuming. 

Belonging to that interesting group of -n-hich the Mitrce Ziervogel- 
iana and Woldemarii form part. 

Mitra zelotypa. Mitr. testd ovatd, anfractibus superne rotunda- 
tis, longitudinaliter costatis, transversimfortitercancellato-liratis; 
Ivteo albogue vndigue /asciatd ; columelld guadriplicatd, aperturce 
fattce violascente. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra. pi. 38. f. 325. 

Hab. ? 

A very distinct species, from the collection of H. Cuming, Esq., 
concerning -vvhich he possesses no Information as to its locality. 

Mitra infausta. Mitr. testd ovatd, solidiusculd, longitudinaliter 
subundato-costald, transversim impresso-striatd ; incarnato-stra- 
mined, lineis impressis rubido-fusco hic illic exiliter tinctis ; colu- 
melld triplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 39. f. 326. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

The transverse impressed striae are chiefly stained with reddish 
brown where they pass over the ribs. 

Mitra Graia. Mitr. testd ovatd, solidd, spird brevi, acuminatd; 
leevigatd, albd, opacd, epidermide luted indutd ; columelld triplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 39. f. 327. 

Hab. Island of Paros, Grecian Archipelago ; Miller, R.N. 

A stout solid shell, of a peculiar opake marble-white, covered with 
a yello\v epidermis. 

Mitra candida. Mitr. testd ovatd, subfusiformi, transversim 
crebriliratd, lirarum interstitiis longitudinaliter subtilissime stri- 
atis ; candida ; columelld triplicatd. 
Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 39. f. 328. 
Hab. La Guaj'ra, South America. 

A w'hite closely-ridged species, iu the collection of His Majesty the 
king of Denmark, by whose permission it has been forvvarded to me 
for illustration. 

Mitra rustica. Mitr. testd oblongo-ovatd, spird turritd; anfrac- 
tibus superne angulatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis subdistan- 
tibus, ad angulum miiricuto-tuberculatis, transversim punciuratis ; 
albidd, inferne cinered ; columelld guadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 39. f. 329. 

Hab. ? 



61 

The tipper edge of the ash-colour is slightly marked between the 
ribs with one or two brown dots. 

Mitra corallina. Mitr. testd suhfusiformi, politd, basi subre- 
curvd ; an/ractibus transversim obsolete striatis, longitudinaliler 
plicato-costatis ; electro- vel corallio-rubrd, costis albicantibus ; 
coliitnelld cuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 39. f. 330 a and b. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (found on the sands) ; Cuming. 

This is a beautiful species, soma examples having the appearance 
of bright amber, whilst others resemble red coral. 

Mitra iubens. Mitr. testd elongatd, subfusiformi, basi con- 
tractd, spira turritd ; an/ractibus superne angulatis, liris parvis 
longitudinalibus et transversis creberrime clathratis ; albidd, apice 
basicue rosaceis ; columelld guadripUcald. 
Conch. Icon.. Mitra, pi. 39. f. 331. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found under stones at low 
water) ; Cuming. 

The ridges of this very delicate and pretty shell are slightly nodu- 
lous, and prickly on the angle. 

Mitra patūla. Mitr. testd ovatd, tenuiculd, ventricosiusculd, Ice- 
vigatd; cinered, fusco hic illic variegatd et nebulatd; columelld 
ąuadriplicatd ; aperturd ampld ; labro tenui, superne sinuato. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 39. f. 333. 

Hab. ? 

Very distinct from any form of the genus I have met with. 

Mitra alveolus. Mitr. testd abbreviato-ovatd, spira suturis pro- 
/unde impressis ; longitudinaliler subtiliter pUcato-costatd, basi 
transversim sulcatd ; an/ractibus in/erne aterrimis, superne albis, 
nigro tessellatis ; columelld cuadriplicatd. 

Conch. Icon., Mitra, pi. 39. f. 334. 

Hab. ? 

A characteristic tessellated species, from the collection of Thomas 
Nonis, Esq. 



(i-2 



May 27, 1845. 

William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Gould exliibited to the Meeting four new species of Birds 
from Australia, ■v\'hich he characterized as foUovvs : — 

Ardea (Kerodias) picata. Ard. capite superiore, occipite, piu- 

mis occipitalibus, corpore superiore, caudd, ulisque cceruleo-nicris ; 

mento, nuehd,peclore, et quibusdam plumis apectore dependentibus 

albis. 

Upper part of the head, occiput, occipital plumes, the ■whole of the 

plumage of the body, wings and tail bluiah slaty black ; chin, neck, 

chest and some of the lanceolute feathers dependent therefi-om vvhite j 

some few of the lanceolate feathers on the neck and breast have one 

\veb w'hite and the other web bluish slaty black; the remainder of these 

lanceolate feathers are the šame colour as the body ; irides yellow ; 

bill, legs and feet greenish yellow. In young specimens the whole 

of the under surface is \vhite. 

Totai length, 17 inches ; bill, 3^ ; wing, 10; tail, Z\; tarsi, S^. 
Hab. Port Essington. 

CoLLTJHiGiNCLA PARVULA. Col. corpore svpertore, caudd, alisįi/e 
olivaceo-brunneis ; subtus pallide cervind ; medio plumarum guls 
et pectoris vittd latd brunned omato. 

AU the upper surface, wings and tail olive-brown ; a faint line 
over the eye and the chin Avhite ; all the under surface pale buff, the 
feathers of the throat and breast with a broad stripe of brown dovvn 
the centre ; irides dark brownish red ; bill blackish grey ; tarsi bluish 
grey. 

Totai length, 7 inches; bill, 1 ; wing, 4; tail, Z\; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. Port Essington. 

This is the smallest species of the genus yet discovered. 

Melithreptus mklanocephalus. Mel. toto capite, guld, et ma- 
culd semilunari apud latera pectoris saturate nigris ; corpore su- 
periie flavo-olivaceo pectore albo. 

The \vhole of the head and throat, and a semilunar mark on either 
side of the chest, deep glossy black ; all the upper surface yellowish 
olive, becoming brighter on the rump ; wings and tail bro\vnish grey, 
with lighter margins ; breast \vhite ; remainder of the under surface 
greyish m hite ; bill black ; irides reddish brown ; feet brown ; bare 
skin over the eye pearly white, slightly tinged with green. 

Totai length, 5į inches ; bill, -^^ ; w'ing, 3 ; tail, 2|- ; tarsi, į. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land. 

Hemii'odivs scintillans. Hem. corpore supenti pallide castanco. 



63 

singulis pliimis fasciis latis hrunneo-nigris ornatis ; marginibug 

plumarum cinereis ; intra margines lineis angustis nigris et ulbis 

ornatis; tectricibus alarum et tertiariis pallide castaneo-rvbris 

balteis irregularibus ziczac fasciatis ; interspatiis balteorum cine- 

reo-albis ; mento genisgue albis maculd semilunari brunned ad 

apicem singulce pluniee ; pectore et corpore inferiore pallide cervino- 

albis ; plumis pectoris ordine macularum saturate grisearum ad 

marginėm ornatis. 

Upper surface light chestnut-red, all the feathers crossed by broad 

bars of brovvnish black and margined with grey, vvithin which are 

two narrow lines of black and white ; U'ing-coverts and tertiaries 

light chestnut-red, crossed by irregular zigzag bars of black, the in- 

terspaces margined extemally with greyish white ; chin and sides of 

the face white, with a narrow crescent-shaped mark of brown at the 

tip of each feather ; sides of the breast chestnut, each feather tipped 

with \vhite, within ■which is an indistinct mark of deep black ; chest 

and under surface pale bufiy vvhite, the feathers of the chest vltb a 

row of dark grey spots on each margin, giving that part a speckled 

appearance ; primaries brown, narrowly edged with white ; irides 

reddish orange ; feet yellovv ; bill hom-colour. 

Totai length, malė, 5 inches ; bill, ^ ; wing, 3^ ; tarsi, i^. Fe- 
male, 6 inches ; bill, | ; wing, 3į ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. Houtmann's Abrolhos, oiF the westem coast of Australia. 
Remark. — Likę the restof the genus, the malė is much inferior in 
size to the feraale. The species is very nearly allied to, but much 
smaller than, Hemipodius varius. 

" Description of twenty-two new species of Land-Shells, belong- 
ing to the collection of Mr. H. Cuming," by Dr. L. Pfeiifer: — 

1. Helix Gruneri, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, superne 
planiusculd, minutissime punctato-striatd, rufd; anfractibus b\ 
sensim crescentibus, planiusculis, ultimo rotundato, antice vix de- 
flexo ; umbilico angusto, pervio ; aperturd subverticali, depressd, 
late lunari ; peristomate incrassato, reflexo, marginibus callo tenui, 
superne dentem arcuatum, validum, callosum formante junctis. 

Diam. 38, alt. 18 mill. 

Locality unknown. A beautiful shell, next allied to H. unguicula, 
De Fėrussac, differing by the strong and arcuated tootli on the body 
of the penultimate whorl. 

2. Helix Okeniana, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, orbicttlari, 
utrinąue convexiusculd, obtuse carinatd, undigue regulariter gra- 
nulatd, superne fuscd, basi pallidd ; anfractibus 5į rotundato- 
planatis, ultimo antice deflexo, basi profunde biscrobiculato ; aper- 
turd subhorizontali, ellipticd, coarctatd ; peristomate carneo-fusco, 
incrassato, marginibus callo junctis, supero expanso, basali reflexo, 
tridentato ; dentibus aguidistantibus, 2 minoribus prope columellam, 
tertio majore superne sulcato. 

Diam. 37, alt. 17 mill. 

Found on the island of Jaraaica at Savannah la Mar, bv M. Atta- 



64 

našio. To be distinguished from H. lucerna, MulL, by having three 
teeth at the basai margin of the aperture. 

3. Helix Neogranatensis, Pfr. Hel. testu imperforatd, depressdr 
carinatd, tenui, undique minute granulosd, saturate rufd; spird 
via; elevatd ; anfractibus 4į planiusculis, ultimo basi convexo, an- 
tice deflexo, constriclo ,\ aperturd perobliqud, lunato-rotundatd ; 
peristomate carneo, simplice, expanso, reflexiusculo, marginibus 
callo tenui junctis, busali obsoletissinie unidentato, columellari 
brevi, dilatato, adpresso. 

Diam. 34, alt. 15 mill. 

Found in the mountain Quendeu at New Granada. 

4. Helix cinerascens, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, globoso-tur- 
binatd, tenuiusculd, stramined, fasciis 2 latis et ared basali nigri- 
cantibus ornatd, epidermide tenui, hydrophand, cinered, obductd; 
spird breviter turbinatd, apice obtusd ; anfractibus 5į convexius- 
culis, ultimo basi inflato ; columelld subarcuatd, carneo-fuscd ; 
aperturd rotundato-lunari, intus albd; peristomate breviter ex- 
panso, subincrassato, castaneo-limbato. 

Diam. 41, alt. 37 mill. 

Found by H. Cuming, Esq. at the island of Masbate. 

5. Helix Turbo, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, turbinatd, solidius- 
culd, distincte striatd, sub epidermide tenuissimd, decidud, flaves- 
cente albd, medio rufo-fasciatd; spird brevi, conoided, obtusd; 
anfractibus 5 convexis, ultimo obsoletc angulato, basi vix convexo ; 
columelld strictd, dilatatd, albidd ; aperturd irregulariter lunari ; 
peristomate expanso, margine columellari dilatato, reflexo, rimam 
formante, cum basali angulatim juncto. 

Diam. 43, alt. 35 mill. 
Hab. Isle of Mindoro. 

6. Helix unicolor, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, acute cari- 
natd, tenui, fuscd, superne subtiliter striatd, subths lineis nonnullis 
spiralibus elevatis munitd ; spird depresso-conoided ; anfractibus 5 
jilanijtsculis, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo antice non descendente, 
basi convexo, ad umbilicum angustum abrupte angulato ; aperturd 
rhomboided ; peristomate saturate fusco, marginibus callo tenuis- 
simo junctis, supero dilatato, expunso, basali ascendente, stricto, 
columellari brevi, dilatato, umbilicum semi-occultante, cum basali 
angulatim juncto. 

Diam. 32, alt. 16 mill. 

Locality unknown. Constantly distinguished from H. Xystera, 
Valenc, by its narrow umbilicus, elevated spire, and the number of 
its whorls. 

7. Helix omphalodes, Pfr. Hel. testd late umbilicatd, depressd, 
solidd, leviter striatuld, sub epidermide fiavescente, decidud albd, 
ad peripheriam et sut%iram rufo-cingulatd ; spird vis convexd ; an- 
fractibus 5 planiusculis, ultimo antice vix descendente, basi paulh 

convexiore, circa umbilicum magnum, spiralėm, intus castancum 



65 

snbcompresso ; aprrturd perobligud, lunato-ovali ; peristomate hre- 

viter reflexo,fi(sco, marginibus conniventibtis. 
Diam. 41, alt. 16 mill. 
Locality unknovvn. 

8. Helix involuta, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, depressd, su- 
perne convexhisculd, basi planiusculd, medio impressd, tenuissimd, 
striatuld, nitidissimd, corned, fusco-radiatd ; anfractibus jūane in- 
volutis, ultimo antice obligue depresso ; apertnrd depressd, lunato- 
oblongd; peristomate simplice, recto, marginibus utrinque centro 
testą insertis, dextro antrorsum arcuato-dilatato. 

Diam. 18, alt. 7i mill. 

Found on the mountains of Quendeu in New Granada. 

9. Helix campanula, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, globosd, solidd. 
subtiliter et regulariter obligue striatd, castaned ; spird semiglo- 
bosd, apice obtuso, pallido ; anfractibus 4į convexiusculis, ultimo 
antecedente vix latiore, antice vix descendente, medio paUide cin- 
gulato ; aperturd perobligud, lunato-ovali, intus livescente ; peri- 
stomate fusco, subincrassato, breviter reJlexo, marginibus callo 
junctis, basali introrsum obsolete albo-unidentato, extrorsum dila- 
tato, umbilicum angustum, profundum semi-occultante. 

Diam. 27, alt. 21 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

10. Helix labiata, Pfr. Hel. testd aperte perforatd, depressd, 
fenui, striatuld, superne lineis concentricis obsolete decussatd, basi 
Imvigatd, nitidd,fulvd ; spird planiusculd; anfractibus 6 subpla- 
nulatis, ultimo dilatato, depresso ; aperturd late lunari; peristomate 
acuto, intus calloso-labiato , margine supero antrorsum rotundato, 
basali plane arcuato, columellari vix rejlexiusculd. 

Diam. 40, alt. 20 mill. 

Locality unkno\vn. Distinguished from H. citrina, Linn., by the 
concentrical strise, the nuraber of its whorls, and the callus \vithin 
the aperture. 

11. Helix Hanleyi, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, depressd, len- 
ticulari, acute carinatd, tenui, subtilissime decussatd, nitidd, sul- 
phured, ad suturam et carinam albo-fasciatd ; spira parilm elevatd ; 
anfractibus 4 subplanulatis, ultimo antice angulatirn deflexo, con- 
stricto ; aperturd parvuld, horizontali, oblongd ; peristomate sim- 
plice, undigue expanso et reflexo, marginibus f ere contiguis. 

Diam. 19, alt. 9 mill. 

/5. Testd superne nigricanti-purpured, ad aper turam albo-fasciatd, 
basi albidd, infra carinam castaneo-fasciatd. 

Found by Mr. Cuming at Sinait, island of Luzon. This fine shell 
is not unlike some varieties of the Hel. bifasciata, Lea, but constantly 
to be distinguished from that species by the angular deflection of its 
lašt whorl and by the shape of its small aperture. 

12. Helix AMCENA, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, globoso-depressd, 
lineis longitudinalibus et spiralibus sub lente decussatd, albidd. 



66 

fascia unicd spadiced supra peripheriam et lined rufd, suhirali 
ornatd ; anfractibus 4 vix convexiuscuUs, uUimo obsolete angulato, 
antice defleio, basi parum convexd ; aperturd transversc lunari- 
oblongd, intus concolore ; peristomate simplice, marginibus sub- 
parallelis, dextro expanso, basali antice reflexo, ad columellam 
dilatato, adpresse reflexo. 
Dinm. 18, alt. lO^- mi'll. 

Found by Mr. Cuming at Catanauan, island of Luzon. This spe- 
cies is likewise similar to several unkeeled varieties of Hel. bifasciata, 
but by examining a large number of specimens of tbis and the other 
ones, I found the above characters to be invariably constant. 

13. Helix Metcalfii, Pfr. Hel. testu late umbilicatd, depressd, 
discoided, acute carinatd, striatuld, pallide vel rufescenti-corned, 
utrinque juxta carinam albam castaneo-unifasciatd ; spira vix ele- 
vatd; anfractibus 6 vix convexiusculis, ultimo antice vix descen- 
deiite ; aperturd subtriangulari ; peristomate simplice, margine 
supero antrorsum arcuatim dilatato, depresso, basali ad columellam 
leviter arcuato. 

Diam. 21, alt. 7 mill. 

/3. Minor, flavida, lineis angustis nigricantirufis juxta carinam. 
Diam. 17, alt. 5į mill. 

y. Unicolor, fusco-cornea. Diam. 15, alt. 5 mill. 

Found by Mr. Cuming on the Philippine Islands and at Sibonga, 
island of Zėbu ; /3. at Tanhay, island of Negros ; y. on the island of 
Siquijor. Distinguished from all species belonging to the šame 
group by its flatteued shape. 

14. Helix tristis, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, ovato-globosd, 
tenui, striatd, lineis concentricis obsolete decussatd, olivaceo-fuscd, 
ru/o 5-fasciatd; spird parculd, conoided ; anfractibus 4 convexi- 
tisculis, ultimo inflato ; aperturd lunato-ovali, intus nitidd ; peri- 
stomate simplice, recto, margine columellari dilatato, reflexo, ad- 
presso. 

Diam. 21, alt. 18 mill. 

This species is said to be found in Sicily, but there may be a 
mistake. 

15. Helix Adamsii, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, orbiculato-con- 
vexiusculd, leviter striatuld, nitidissimd,fulvescenti-luted,unicolore 
velfasciis saturate fulvis et castaneis multimode ornatd et radiatd; 
spird convexiusculd, obtusd; anfractibus 3|— 4 vix convexiusculis, 
ultimo basi planiore ; aperturd rotundato-lunari ; peristomate sim- 
plice, acuto, margine columellari suboblicuo, dilatato, albo. 

Diam. 12. alt. 61 mill. 

Hab. Pitcairn's Island and Opara. CoUected by Mr. Cuming. 

The late patriarch of the island pointed out this shell to Mr. Cu- 
ming, and at his request I have the pleasure to dedicate it to the 
venerable man's memory. 

• 16. Helix Bahamensis, Pfr. Hel. testd anguste umbilicatd, de- 



1 



67' 

pressd, tenui, corned, costulato-striatd ; spird brevi, convexiusculd ; 
anfractibus 4^ vix conveiiusculis, ultimo antice defl€xo ; aperturd 
subhorizontali, transversi ovali ; peristomate simplice, tenui, mar 
ginibus approximatis, supero breviter eipanso, basali rejlexo, intus 
dente triangulari, valido munito, columellari dilatato, reflexo, um- 
bilicum angustum, periium semitegente. 

Diara. 17, alt. 7^ mill. 

Hab. Bahamas. 

17. Helix Beemudensis, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, lenticulari, 
tenuiusculd, carinatd, leviter ruguloso-striatd, pallide fulvescente, 
cingulo castaneo supra et latiore infra carinam ornatd ; anfractibus 
7 vix convexiusculis, lente accrescentibus ; umbilico angusto , pervio ; 
aperturd subtrapezid ; peristomate simplice, recto, margine colu- 
mellari verticali, brevi, reflexiusculo, cum basali angulum rectum 

formante. 
Diam. 19, alt. 10|-mill. 
Hab. Bermuda. 

18. Helix Pennantiana, Pfr. Hel. testd angusie umbilicatd, or- 
biculato-conoided, acute carinatd, tenui, striatuld, irregulariter et 
leviter malleatd, unicolore carned, apice rufescente ; anfractibus 
5^ vix convexiusculis, ultimo antice vix descendente, basi planius- 
culo ; aperturd perobliqud, angulafo-lunari, intus albd ; peristomate 
roseo, late expanso, margine basali refleio, columellari brevi, 
strictiusculo, dilatato, umbilicumfere tegente. 

Diam. 37, alt. 20 mill. 
Hab. Philippine Islands ? 

Nearly allied to H. labium, Fėr., from which it may easily be di- 
stinguished by its sharp keel and sculpture. 

19. BuLiMus Leopardus, Pfr. Bul. testd imperforatd, ovatd, soli- 
diusculd, longitudinaliter confertim costulato-striatd, fulvd, strigis 
et maculis albidis epidermidis hydrophance eleganter variegatd ; 
spird brevi, conoided, sursum pallescente ; anfractibus 5 convexis, 
rapide accrescentibus, ultimo spiram superante ; columelld elongatd, 
introrsum acutd ; aperturd amplissimd, rotundato-ovali, intus albd ,- 
peristomate late expanso, reflexiusculo, castaneo-limbato. 

Loiig. 47, diam. 30 mill. 

Hab. Isle of Mindanao, Philippine Islands. 

20. BuLiMus EGREGius, Pfr. Bul. tcstd perforotd, fusiformi, soli- 
duld, striis longitudinalibus confertis et lineis spiralibus remotio- 
ribus subdecussatd, nitidd, flammis castaneis pellucidis et fulvis, 
opacis egregic pictd ; anfractibus 6 vix convexiusculis, ultimo spi- 
ram turritam ceguante, basi compresso ; columelld subangulato- 
arcuatd ; aperturd oblongd, utrinąue acutd, intus lividd; peristo- 
mate vivide rubro, late expanso, breviter reflexo, basi canaliculato, 
marginibus callo tenui junctis . 

Long. 41, diam. 15 mill. 

Locahty unknown. Distinguished from B. goniostoma, Sow., by 
its size, colouring and widely expanded peris tome. 



68 

21. BuLiMTJS CANALicuLATUs, Pfr. Bul. testd umbiUcatd, obligue 
fusiformi, ruguloso-striatd, nitidd, albido, carneo et spadiceo mar- 

moratd ; spird turrito-conicd, acutd; anfractibus 7 vix convexius- 
culis, ultimo spird vix longiore, basi valde constricto-carinato ; 
columelld arcuatim antrorsum elongatd ; aperturd ovali, basi cana- 
liculatd ; peristomate simplice, tenui, margine dextro vix eipansi- 
usculo, columellari dilatato, reflexo. 

LoDg. 37, diam. 14 mill. 

Hab. Bolivia. 

22. BuLiMus CASTANEUS, Pfr. Bul. testd vix perforatd, ovato- 
acuminatd, solidiusculd, longitudinaliter confertim striatd, lineis 
spiralibus distantioribus decussatd, unicolore castaned ; spird brevi, 
conicd, aculiusculd ; anfractibvs 4į vix convexiusculis, ultimo in- 
flato, 2—Z longitudinis suboeąuante ; columelld tenui, subsimplice ; 
aperturd ovali, intus saturate fuscd, nitidd; peristomate vix in- 
crassato, brevissime refiexo, marginibus callo tenui junctis, colu- 
mellari vix dilatato. 

Long. 70, diam. 39 mill. 

Hab. Nova Granada ; Vegas on the river Quendeu. 
Nearly allied to Bul. Gibbonius, Lea ; distinguished by its trans- 
verse strise, closed umbilicus, peristome, etc. 

" Description of a new species of Amphipeplea," by Dr. L. PfeifFer. 

The shell I am describing belongs to the genus of fresh\vater 
shells distinguished by Nilsson from Limnteus under the name of 
Amphipeplea, and sufficiently characterized by the shape and habits 
of its animal, perfectly agreeing with our new species, according to 
Mr. Cuming's Information, who first discovered it, and by -vv-hose 
name I am pleased to illustrate the species. 

Amphipeplea Ctjmingiana, Pfr. Amph. testd ovato-globosd, tenu- 
issimd, longitudinaliter confertim striatuld, nitidissimu, pellucidd, 
pallide corned; spird brevissimd, mucronulatd, callo tenui semi- 
obtectd; columelld nulld; margine anfractuum interno arcuato, 
appendice membranaceo (deciduo) munito ; aperturd amplissimd, 
semi-ovali, margine supero breviter arcuato, patente. 

Long. 30, diam. 22 mill. ; apertura 26 mill. longa. 

Found at Naga, province of South Camerines, island of Luzon, by 
H. Cuming, Esq. 

Mr. Thompson of Belfast read a paper to prove that the Larus 
capistratus, Temm., is not a distinct species from L. ridibundus, and 
exhibited a series of specimens of both forms in different statės of 
plumage obtained in the neighbourhood of Belfast. The difFerences 
between these supposed species are — 

Ist. In size ; but a female specimen of L. ridibundus, \vith black 
hood, bill and legs arterial blood-red, ■vvas exhibited, agreeing in the 
size of body, tarsi, &c. ■with L. capistratus. 

2nd. The colour of the tarsi and toes attributed to L. capistratus, 
and as distinguishing it from L. ridibundus, is a mere transition shade. 



69 

through which all individuals of the latter pass before the arterial 
blood-red hue is attained. 

3rd. The disposition of black or brown on the head, its taking the 
form of a mask, as in L. capistratus, or as a hood, as in L. ridibundus, 
is either transitional or accidental*, and the shade of colour com- 
monly varies from the " broccoli-brovvn " of the former to the deejier 
tint of the ordinaiy L. ridibundus. 

A specimen of the L. capistratus, purchased at the sale of Bullock's 
collection by Dr. Leach, and beUeved to have been one of the first 
birds seen by Temminck, to ■which he gavę this name, is now in the 
British Museum. By the kindness of Mr. George R. Gray, 1 made a 
critical comparison of this bird with the specimens now exhibited, 
and, excepting in the smaller size of the toea and webs of feet, there 
was no difference between it and some of them ; and from the adult 
female, L. ridibundus, in full summer plumage it differed in the most 
trivial manner only. 

* I have known it to be both transitional and accidental, i. e. for birds 
to exhibit the mask the frst summer of their attaining adult plumage, and 
otbers the hood in their first assumption of the black hood. 



71 



June 10, 1845. 

Rev. John Barlovv in the Chair. 

" Descriptions of twenty-two new species of Helix, from the col- 
lections of Miss Saul, — Walton, Esq., and H. Cuming, Esq.," by 
Dr. Louis PfeifFer : — 

1. Helix PACHYSTYLA, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforūtd, clobosd, soUdd, 
ponderosd, striatd, lineis concentricis decussatd, albd, epidermide 
sordide viridi, nigricanti-radiatd indutd ; spira brevi ; anfractibus 
5 celeriter accrescentibus, ultimo globoso, antice breviter deflexo ; 
columelld obligud, dilatatd, callosd, albd, obsolete et late uniden- 
tatd ; aperturd irregulariter lunato-rotundatd, intus lacted; peri- 
stomate recto, intus subincrassato, margine basali rejiexiusculo. 

Diam. 43, alt. 37 mill. 
Locality, New Zealand. 

Similar to H. pomum, Pfr., from which it may be distinguished by 
its transverse strise, and by being quite imperforate. (Coli. Metcalfe.) 

2. Helix eūryomphala, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, orbiculato- 
convexd, tenui, pellucidd, virenti-corned, superne regulariter costu- 
lato-striatd, lineis concentricis obsolete decussatd, basi remotius 
striatd, nitidissimd; spird parum elevatd, obtusd ; anfractibus 6 
convexiusculis, ultimo dilatato, subdepresso, antice non descendente ; 
umbilico magno, pervio ; aperturd oblique lunato-ovali, intus mar- 
garitaced ; peristomate recto, simplice, marginibus conniventibus. 

Diam. 37, alt. 17 mill. 

Locality, Cuba. 

To be distinguished from H. laxata, Fer., by the number of its 
whorls, forming a more elevated spire, by the lašt whorl not deflected 
and less dilated, &c. (Coli. Cuming.) 

3. Helix micans, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, globosd, tenui, 
fragili, striatuld, lineis confertissimis obsolete decussatd, diaphand, 
albidd ; spird parvuld ; anfractibus 4 planiusculis , rapide accres- 
centibus, ultimo injlato ; columelld tenui, intrante, excavatd ; aper- 
turd rotundato-lunari ; peristomate simplice, recto, margine dextro 
antrorsum subarcuato. 

Diam. 28, alt. 19 miU. 

Found at S. Juan, province of Cagayan, island of Luzon, on bushes, 
by H. Cuming, Esq. 

This shell might easily be taken for an enormous species of Vitrina. 

4. Helix Forbesii, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, discoided, tenui, 
oblique confertim striatd, unicolore rufd ; spird planiusculd ; an- 
fractibus b convexis, ultimo basi convexiore, antice vix descen- 

Nos. CXLVIII. & CXLIX.— Proceedings of the Zool. Soc. 



72 

dente, obtune angulato, superne ohsolete impresso ; umbilico magito, 
spirali ; aperlurd perobligud, rotundato-lunari ; pcristomate shn- 
plice, acuto, albido-carneo, bitus subincrassato, margine supero lale 
expanso, basali rejlexo, columellari subdilatato. 

Diam. 41, alt. 14 mill. 

Locality unknovvn. (Coli. Walton.) 

5. Helix rubicunda, Pfr. Hel. testd perforatd, depresse turbi- 
natd, rugoso-striatd, obsolete et minutissime granulutd, subepider- 
mide corned, decidud rubicundd; anfractibus 5\ subpianulatis , 
ultimo medio obtuse angulato, basi convexiore ; aperturd obligiie 
lunari ; peristomate simplice, recto, margine dextro antrorsum 
subdilatato, columellari dilatato, reflexo, perforationem semi-occul- 
tante. 

Diam. 27, alt. 15 mill. 

Locality uiikno\vn. (Coli. Walton.) 

6. Helix SaulijE, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, globoso-depressd, 
solidiusculd, obligue striatd, fulvidd, medio fascid unicd albd, 
utringue rufo -marginai d ornatd ; spira brevi, obtusd ; anfractibus 
4 vix convexiusculis, ultimo basi subplanato, antice subith defiexo, 
circa umbilicum angustum, pervium rufo ; aperturd perobligud, 
lunato- ovali ; peristomate breviter reįlexo, marginibus conniventi- 
bus, callo tenuijunctis, columellari castaneo, valde dilatato, umbili- 
cum f ere occultante. 

Diam. 32, alt. 20 mill. 

Locality unknown. (Coli. Cuming. et Saul.) 

7. Helix RHOMBOSTOMA, Pfr. Hel. testd tmperforūtd, trocMformi, 
tenuiusculd, obligue striatuld, lineis confertissimis concentricis 
subdecussatd, nitiduld, albido-fulvescente,fasciis castaneis plurimis 
crnatd ; spira brevi, conicd, apice acutd; anfi-actibus 5 plaiiius- 
culis, ultimo acute carinato, basi vix convexo, antice paritm deflexo, 
d. latere subcompresso ; aperturd rhombed ; peristomate violaceo, 
margine supero ezpanso, superni impresso, columellari stricto, di- 
latato, plano, adpresso. 

Diam. 28, alt. 15 mill. 

Locality unknown. (Coli. Saul. et Metcalf.) 

8. Helix planissima, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressissimd , 
lenticulari, tenui, utringue obligue rugoso-costatd, albidd, subtus 
interdum corneo-fasciatd ; anfractibus 5į cotivexiusculis, acute 
carinatis (carind compressd, prominente, serratd), ultitno antice vix 
descendente, basi conveiiore, circa umbilicum mediocrem, spiralėm 
subangulato ; aperturd depressd, angulato-lunari ; peristomate sim- 
plice, margine basali plane arcuato, reflexo. 

Diam. \\\, alt. 4| mill. 

Locality unkno\vn. (Coli. Walton.) 

Similar to //. amanda, Rossm., from which it may be distinguished 
by its thin and flattened shell, its umbilicus, and the peristome not 
thickened. 



73 

9. Helix FiLicosTA,Pfr. Hel.tesldsubohtecteperforatd,depresso- 
globosd, regulariter costatd (costis filiformibus), tenuiusculd, car- 
neo-albidd, lineis fuscis obsoletis cinctd; anfractibus 4į convexis, 
ultimo antice deflexo ; aperiurd lunato-orbiculari ; peristomate 
acuto, intus subincrassato , labiato, marginibus conniventibus , callo 
introrsum diffuso roseo junctis, dextro vix ezpanso, columellari 
diiatato, refiexo, roseo. 

Diam. 14. alt, 9 mill. 

Locality unknown. (Coli. Saul.) 

10. Helix retifera, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, obtuse trochi- 
formi, striato-plicatuld, lineis nonnullis concentricis elevatis reti 

culatd, carinatd, diaphand, pallidh corned ; spird elevatd, obtusd 
anfractibus 6į planiusculis, ultimo basi subplanulato, striato 
umbilico mediocri, pervio ; aperturd depressd, securiformi ; peri- 
stomate simplice, acuto, margine supero brevi, hasali plane arcuato. 

Diam. 7, alt. 4 mill. 

Locality unknown. (Coli. Metcalf.) 

1 1 . BuLiMUs Grayanus, Pfr. Bul. testd gracili, turritd, soliduld, 
longitudinaliter subtilissimi striatd et lineis impressis spiralibus 
subdecussatd, cinnamomed; spird turritd, apice valde attenu- 
atd; anfractibus 6 vix conve.riusculis, ultimo f longitudinis sub- 
(ecuante, antice deflexo, soluto, dorso et basi carinato, lateribus 
scrobiculato ; aperturd angustd, oblongd, basi canaliculatd ; peri- 
stomate simplice, undigue expanso, dentibus 7 marginėm non attin- 
gentibus armato ; 3 in latere dextro, 4 in sinistro, summo tuber- 
culiformi, secundo valido, lamelUformi. 

Long. 35, diam. 11 mill. 
Locality, Brazils. 

Nearly allied to Bul. odontostoma, Sow., but quite distinct from 
the two varieties figured by Fėrussac. (Coli. Cuming.) 

12. BuLiMus coARCTATus, Pfr. Bul.testdrimūto-perforatd.ovato- 
acutd, solidd, albidd, lineis interruptis, fuscis cingulatd; spird 
conicd, acutd; anfractibus Gį-planulatis, ultimo convexiore, spiram 
ceguante ; aperturd angustd, oblongd, coarctatd ; columelld incras- 
satd, tuberculatd; peristomate lati expanso, margine dextro in- 
trorsum incrassato, acute prominente, medio sinuolato, cum colu- 
mellari diiatato, r eflexo, patente angulatim juncto . 

Long. 34, diam. 17 mill. 

Locality unkno\vn. 

Nearly allied to B. signalus, Desh. 

13. BuLiMus Deshayesii, Pfr. Bul. testd umbilicatd, turritd, so- 
lidd, striatuld, violascenti-albd, strigis et maculis violascenti-fuscis 
irregulariter signatd ; suturd subcrenulatd ; anfractibus 9 vix 
convexiusculis, ultimo ^ longitudinis subteąuante ; columelld sub- 
rectd ; aperturd ovali, intus violaced ; peristomate simplice, recto, 
margine columellari diiatato, f ornicatim refiexo, rimam umbilica- 
rem non occultante. 



74 

Long. 45, diam. 15 mill. 

LocSity unknown. (Coli, Cuming.) 

14. BuLiMus Thompsonii, Pfr. Bul. testu imperforatd, ovafo- 
oblongd, soliduld, longitudinaliter siriatd, fusco-olivaced ; spird 
conicd, apice obtusd, rubrd ; anfractibus 6, sujiremis planulatis, 
purpureo-strigatis, ultimo spiram (Eąuante ; suturd alho-marginatd, 
crenulatd; columelld rectd (^non tortd), leviter arcuatd ; aperturd 
oblongo-ovali, intus Ikndd ; peristomate subiiicrassato, recto, intus 
nigro-limbalo, marginibus callo castaneo junctis, basali cum colu- 
melld basin attingente subangulatim juncto. 

Long. 70, diam. 31 mill. 
Locality, Quito. (Coli. Cuming.) 
Nearly allied to B. Taunaysii. 

15. BuLiMus SiauiJORENSis, Pfr. Bul. testd imperforatd, ovato- 
oblongd, tenui, fulvd, epidermide pallide fuscd elegantissime mar- 
moratd et flummatd ; spird conicd, obtusd, apice nudd, rufescente ; 
anfractibus 6 vix convexiusculis, ultimo spird vix breviore, sub- 
angulato ; columelld subtortd, longitudinaliter biangulatd, intror- 
svm aculd ; aperturd oblongo-subpyriformi, intus albidd ; peristo- 
mate tenui, breviter expanso, margine dextro deorsum dilatato, 
basali cum columellari angulum obsoletum formante. 

Long. 52, diam. 25 mill. 

Locality, island of Siąuijor (Philippines) . Collected by Mr. Cu- 
ming. 

16. AcHATiNA sEMiscuLFTA, Pfr. Achttt. tcstd tcnut, ovato-clongatd, 
longitudinaliter regulariter striatd, fuscescenti-albidd, strigisful- 
gurantibus rufis pictd; spird conicd, apice obtusiusculd, lineis 
confertis concentricis regulariter granulosd ; anfractibus 7-| con- 
vexiusculis, ultimo spiram subacuante, usque ad peripkeriam lineis 
impressis distantioribus decussato ; columelld subrectd, abrvpti 
truncatd ; aperturd ovali-acutd ; peristomate simplice, recto. 

Long. 55, diam. 2,3 mill, 

Locality, Africa, Loanda, coast of Benguela. (Coli. Cuming.) 

17. AcHATiNA RETicuLATA, Pfr. Ackat. tcstd oblongo-acutd, so- 
lidd, ponderosd, longitudinaliter confertim plicatd, suleis concen- 
tricis profunde reticulūtd, albidd, castaneo-marmoratd et maculatd ; 
spird elongatd, acutd, superne minuti granulatd ; suturd subcrenu- 
latd ; anfractibus 8 parum convexis, ultimo -f- longitudinis sub- 
teguante ; columelld crassd, albd, arcuatd, abrupte truncatd ; aper- 
turd utrinque attenuatd, oblongo-ovali. 

Long. 160, diam. 70 mill. 
Locjdity, Africa. (Coli. Cuming.) 

18. AcHATiNA PAPYRACEA, Pfr. Ackūt. tcstd ovato-oblongd, tenui, 
striis longitudinalibus et concentricis obsolete decussatd, diaphand, 
fulvd, castaneo obsolete marmoratd ; spird conicd, apice obtusd ; 
suturd marginatd ; anfractibus 5į vix convexiusculis, ultimo spi- 
ram vix superante ; columelld subrectd, basin aperturaferc attin- 



75 

gente, oblicue truncatd, lined purpured ornatd; aperturd ovali, 

intus margaritaced. 
Long. 66, diam. 30 mill. 
Locality, bauks of the river Nun in Africa. (Coli. Cuming.) 

19. AcHATiNA FosiFORMis, Pfr. Achūt. testd ovūto-fusiformi, tenui, 
longitudinaliter confertim costulatd, lineis transversis minute reti- 
culatd,fulvidd, saturatius strigatd ; spird conicd, acutiusculd, apice 
rubescente ; suturd marginaid; anfractibus 7-8 convexiusculis, 
ultimo spiram paulu superante, basi attenuato ; columelld leviter 
arcuatd, abrupte truncatd, rubelld; aperturd angustd, oblongd; 
peristomate simplice, repando, margine rubicundo. 

Long. 87, diam. 35 mill. 

Locality, mountain of Coban, Vera Cruz, Central America. (Coli. 
Cuming.) 

This species, as well as the next following, may perhaps belong to 
the genus Glandina. 

20. AcHATiNA cosTULATA, Pfr. Acliūt. testd ovato-fusiformi, tenui, 
longitudinaliter confertim et regulariter costulatd, diaphand, fulvo- 
rubelld, strigis parvis saturatioribus ornatd; spird pyramidali, 
acutd ; suturd sulco parallelo crenulato-marginatd ; anfractibus 8 
vix convexiusculis, ultimo spiram vix eecuante ; columelld subrectd, 
abrupti truncatd; aperturd oblongd, utrinque attenuatd, intus 
margaritaced. 

Long. 72, diam. 31 mill. 

Locality, mountains of Q,uendeu, New Granada. (Coli. Cuming.) 

21. Glandina nigricans, Pfr. Glan. testd ovato-oblongd, solidi- 
usculd, minutissimi striatuld,nitidissimd, nigricante, strigis remotis 
angustis fulvis ornatd, basi corneo-luted ; spird conicd ; suturd 
virenti-marginatd ; anfractibus 7 planulatis, ultimo |- longitudinis 
aąuante ; columelld arcuatd, callosd, oblique truncatd, basin aper- 
turce non attingente ; aperturd angustd, semiovali, intus concolore. 

Long. 35, diam. 16 mill. 

Locality, Vera Cruz, in Central America. (CoU. Cuming.) 

22. Glandina monilifera, Pfr. Glan. testd fusifonni-ovatd, tenui, 
pellucidd, regulariter costulato-striatd, costulis in medio anfractds 
ultimi evanescentibus, fulvo-rosed, lineis remotis rufis pallide mar- 
ginatis ornatd; spird brevi, conicd; suturd eleganter et confer- 
tim granulosd ; anfractibus 7 planiusculis, ultimo f longitudinis 
subteguante, ventroso ; columelld via; arcuatd, basi abrupte trun- 
catd; aperturd angustd, semiovali. 

Long. 29, diam. 14i miU. 

Locality, mountains of Coban, Vera Cruz, Central America. (Coli. 
Cuming.) 

A number of Birds'-skins from Australia were presented to the 
Society by Jeremiah Olive, Esq. 

The Secretary exhibited to the Meeting a specimen of Sand Grouse, 



76 

Tyrrhaptes paradoxus, and five specimens of Mammals (all of \vhich 
\vere new to the Society's collection), from the Altai Mountains of 
Siberia, viz. : — 

Meriones opimus, 

'Aspulax Zokar, 

Mustela Allaica, 

Dipus Jaculus, 

Mygate moschata. 

Mr. Gould laid iipon the table a series of Tems, and characterized 
a new species : — 

Sterna gracilis. St. siimmo capite et nuchd posteriore saturate 

nigris ; lateribus nuchm et parte inferiore seriaceo-ulbis ; pectore 

et abdomine leviter rosaceis ; rostro carnicolore, apice brunneo- 

nigro ; pedibus aureo-fuscis. 

Crown of the head, nape and back of tlie neck dcep black ; sides 

of the neck and all the under surface silky \vhite, with a blush of rosy 

red on the breast and abdomen ; back, M'ings and tail light grey, 

becoming darker on the primaries ; irides brownish red ; bill flesh- 

colour, except at the tip, where it is washed with blackish brown ; 

feet orange-red. 

Totai length, 13 inches ; bill, 2i ; wing, 8į ; tail, 6^; tarsi, |. 
Hab. The Houtmann's Abrolhos, oflf the western coast of Australia. 



June 24, 1845. 
No business was transacted. 



77 



July 8. 1845. 

William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Gould exhibited to the Meeting five new species of Mam- 
mals : — 

Mus LiNEOLATUS. M. vellere longo, molli fusco-cmereo corpore 
subtus cinerascenti-albo indistincte fluvo-lavato ; auribus mediocri- 
bus extus pilis nigris postici cinerascentibus vestitis ; pedibus albis ; 
caudd albd suprd. nigrescentibus . 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin. ... 5 4 

cauda 4 5 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 2 

auris O 1\ 

tarsi digitorumąue 1 2|- 

Hab. Open plains, Darling Downs, New South Wales. 
Fur long and very soft ; the hairs of the back of a deep slate-grey, 
with the exposed portion of a dirty yellowish hue, and the points 
black ; long interspersed black pointed hairs are abundant on the 
back, and give a deep general tint to that part ; sides of the body 
greyish yellovv, under parts grey-white, faintly sufFused with yel- 
lowish ; the hairs on these parts of a deepish grey, excepting at the 
l)oint ; hairs of the moustaches rather small and black ; eye encircled 
■with black ; ears of moderate size and well-covered -vvith minute hairs ; 
those on the outer side black, excepting on the hinder part, where 
they assume a greyish white tint, likę those on the inner side of the 
ear ; feet rather small and white ; the fore-ones greyish at the wrist, 
and the tarsi indistinctly suffused with yello'wish ; tail about equal 
in length to the head and body, well-clothed -svith smallish hairs, 
which do not perfectly hide the scales ; those on the upper surface 
chiefly brownish black, slightly pencilled with whitish in parts ; on 
the sides and under part white. 

Mus GRACiLiCAUDATUS. M. vellere longo molli cinerascenti-fusco ; 
corpore subtils albo, indistinctl flavo-lavato ; auribus parvulis pilis 
obsctiris plerumgue obsitis ; pedibus sordidi albis; caudd fusco- 
nigrd, subtus sordide albd. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin. ... 5 O 

caud(B 3 5 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 2^ 

auris O 5 

tarsi digitorumgue 1 1 

Hab. Oakley Creek, Darling Downs, east coast of Australia. 
This species greatly resembles the Mus lineolatus, but difFers in 
No. CXLIX. — Prooeedings or the Zoological Society. 



having the ears smaller, and clotlied internally with dusky hairs in- 
stead of white ; the incisor teeth rather broader ; the tarsi smaller ; 
the fore-feet much smaller ; the tail more sparingly clothed -vv'ith 
hairs, which are of a less pure \vhite on the under side, and the darker 
hairs of the upper surface extending somewhat on to the sides of 
the tail, and in not presenting that strongly-marked line of separa- 
tion betvveen the colouring of the upper and under surface. The fur 
is rather less soft, less tinted with yellow on the upper parts, and 
more so on the sides of the body. 

Mus ALBOCINEREUS. M. vellere longo permolli, pallide cinereo, in 
dorsum pallide fusco tincto ; corpore subtus, caiidd, pedibusgue 
albis ; caudd supra indistincte nigro penicillatd ; auribus medio- 
cribus pilis albescentibus vestitis. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin. ... 3 9 

caudfB 3 6 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 \\ 

auris O 5^ 

tarsi digitorumque O 10 

Hab. Moore's River, in the interior of Western Australia. 
This mouse is rather larger than the Mus musculus, and consider- 
ably stouter in proportion ; has the head large, the ears moderate ; 
the tail nearly equal to the head and body in length ; the tarsi very 
slender ; the fur very long and soft, and its general hue pale ashy 
grey ; on the hinder part of the back a slight brownish tint, produced 
by a very fine and indistinct pencilling of dusky or pale greyish yel- 
low ; the lower part of the sides of the body and the whole of the 
under parts white, but not quite pure, having a faint greyish hue ; the 
head grey-w'hite, pencilled with black ; the sides of the muzzle w-hite ; 
the ears Avell-clothed with minute greyish white hairs ; the feet white, 
and if we except some scattered blackish hairs on the upper surface, 
the tail also vvhite. 

Hapalotis murinus. Hap. vellere permolli, corpore supra pallide 
flavo, nigrogue penicillato, lateribus corporis flavis ; guld abdomi- 
nis, caudd, pcdibusque albis ; caudd suprd, indistincte nigro peni- 
cillatd ; auribus mag?iis, subovatis, pilis minutis albis vestitis. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin. ... 5 6 
caudcc 3 9 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 3 

auris O 10 

tarsi digitorumąue 1 Oj 

Hab. Plains near the Namoi, New South Wales. 
This animal is remarkable for the extreme softness and delicate 
colouring of its fur, -vvhich on both the upper and under parts of the 
body is of a slate-grey tint next the skin, but on the under parts of a 
pure white colour externally, except on the mesial line of the abdo- 
men, where there is a slight yellow tint ; on the upper parts and 
sides of the body the exposed portions of the hairs are of a delicate 



79 

ochreous yellow, but on the back there is a considerable admixture 
of black, the points of the hairs being of that colour ; ears rather large 
and nearly of an oval form, tolerably well-clothed with small hairs, 
of a white colour, excepting on the fore-part of the outer surface, 
\vhere they assume a dusky greyish hue ; tail nearly equal in length 
to the body, tolerably well-clothed -vvith hairs, but not so thickly as 
to hide the scales ; these hairs, though short, are longer, more nume- 
rous and much less harsh than is usual in the true Rats ; on the sides 
and under part of the tail they are pure white, and on the upper 
surface some are white and others blackish, but chiefly white on the 
apical portion ; sides of the muzzle \vhite ; hairs of the moustaches 
moderate, black at the root, but greyish at the point. 

PoDABRus MACROURUS. Pod. cmeTeus nigvo petiicUlatus ; lateribus 
corporis flavescentibus, guld, abdomine pedibusgue albis ; capite 
suproi lined nigrd longitudinali notato ; oculis nigro cinctis ; auri- 
bus mediocribus intus pilis flavis, extus nigrescentibus ob sitis ; 
caudd crassissimd ad apicem attenuatd, pilis rainutis, suprd. nigro 
flavoque variegatis, subtūs albescentibus, vestitd. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin. ... 3 9 

cauda 3 2 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 0| 

amis O 5 

■ tarsi digitorumęue O 8^ 

Hab. Open plains, Darling Downs, New South Wales. 
Fur very soft, and both on the upper and under parts of the body 
of a slate-grey colour next the skin ; general hue of the upper parts 
of the body ashy grey, much pencilled with black ; on the sides of 
the body there is but little of the black pencilling, and hence the 
general hue is paler ; and on these parts, as well as on the sides of 
the head, is a faint yellow tint ; under parts of the body white, very 
indistinctly sufFused with yellow on the mesial portion of the abdo- 
men ; between the \vhite of the under parts and the greyish hue of 
the sides of the body is a narrowish space of an almost uniform pale 
yellow hue, and the šame tint is observ-able on the outer side of the 
legs ; feet white, obscurely tinted with pale yeUow ; on the upper 
surface of the head is a mark, narrow on the muzzle, but becoming 
expanded behind, which is almost entirely black, and immediately 
around the eyes the hairs are also black ; ears of moderate size, their 
posterior margiu nearly straight, clothed intemally with small pale 
yellowish, and externally with black hairs, excepting on the hinder 
part, where they are pale ; tail very thick at the base (about 3 i Knes 
in diameter), becoming gradually slender to the apex, and clothed 
throughout with very minute hairs, between which the scaly skin is 
visible ; those on its upper part and sides partly black and partly 
yellow, and on the under surface dirty \vhite. The specimen de- 
scribed is a malė. 



$0 



July 22, 1845. 

Harpiir Gamble, Esq., M. D., in the Chair. 

Mr. Gould exhilnted to the Meeting three new species of Birds 
from Australia : — 

Strix tenebricosus. Str. disco faciali fuliginoso-griseo, circum 

oculos muilo saturatiore ; corpore superiore fusco-nigro purpureo 

splendente, singulis autem plumis maculd albd ad apicem ornatis ; 

alis cauddcue ejusdem coloris sed pallidioribus ; corpore inferiore 

fusco-nigro, stramineo lavato. 

Facial disk sooty grey, becoming much deeper round the eyes ; 

upper surface brownish black, with purplish reflections and ■with a 

spot of vvhite near the tip of each feather ; ■wings and tail of the šame 

hue, but paler ; the feathers of a uniform tint, without bars ; tail- 

feathers faintly freckled with naiTOW bars of white ; under surface 

brownish black, \vashed ^ith buff, and \vith the white marks much 

less decided ; legs mottled brown and \vhite ; irides dark brown ; bill 

horn-colour ; feet yellowish. 

Totai length, 16 inches ; bill, 1| ; \ving, 12; tail, 5į ; tarsi. 3. 
Hab. The brushes of the river Clarence, in New South Wales. 

CoLLURiciNCLA RUFOGASTER. Col. OMTii corporc supcriorc, alis, 

cauddgue oUvaceo-brunneis ; guld pallide stramineo- albd fusco- 

striatd; corpore inferiore f errugineo-ruf o. 

AU the upper surface, wings and tail olive-brown, with the excep- 

tion of the inner webs of the primaries, which are dark bro\vn ; throat 

pale buffy white, streaked with brown ; all the under surface rūsty 

red ; irides black ; bill and feet fleshy-brown. 

Totai length, 1\ inches; bill, 1^ ; wing, 3| ; tail, Z\\ tarsi, lį. 
Hab. The brushes of the Clarence River, in New South Wales. 

DoNACOLA FLAViPRYMNA. Doti. cūpitc cervitio ; dorso alisgue cas- 

taneo-brunneis ; corpore inferiore stramineo; tectricibus cauda 

superioribus cerinis ; tectricibus caudce inferioribus nigris. 

Head pale fawn colour ; back and vvings light chestnut-brown ; 

under surface bufF ; upper tail-coverts •wax-yellow ; under tail-coverts 

black ; tail brovvn. 

Totai length, 4į inches ; bill, į ; wing, 2į ; tail, 1|- ; tarsi, į. 
Hab. The aorth coast of Australia. 

Prof. Owen communicated his observations on the living Echidna 
exhibited at the Menagerie of the Society in May 1845. The animal 
when received at the Gardens ■was active and apparently in sound 
health. It was placed in a large but shallow box, with a deep layer 



81 



of sand on one half of the bottom ; the top covered with close cross- 
bars. The animal raanifested more vivacity than might have been 
expected from a ąuadruped which, in the proportions of its limbs to 
the body, as we]l as in its internal organization, makes the nearest 
approach, after the Ornithorhynchus, to the Reptilia. In the act of 
walking, which was a kind of waddling gait, the body was alternately 
bent from one side to the other, the belly was lifted entirely off the 
ground, and the legs, though not so perpendicular as in higher mam- 
mals, were less bent outwards than in Lizards. The broad and short 
fore-paws were turned rather inwards ; the hind-feet had their claws 
bent outwards and backwards, resting on the inner border of the sole 
The animal was a malė, and the taršai spur, smaller and sharper than 
in the Ornithorhynchus. projected backwards and outwards, almost 
hidden by the surrounding coarse and close hair. The small eyes 
gleamed clear and dark ; the ball was sensibly retracted when the 
animal winked. which it did freąuently. It commenced an active ex- 
ploration of its prison soon after it was encaged : the first instinctive 
action was to seek its ordinary shelter in the earth, and it turned up 
the sand rapidly by throwing it aside with strong strokes of its 
powerful fossonal paws, and repeating the act in manv places. until 
lt had assured itself that the šame hard impenetrable bottom every- 
where opposed its progress downwards. The animal then began to 
explore every fissure and cranny, poking its long and slender nose 
into each crevice and hole, and through the interspaces of the cross- 
bars above. To reach these it had to raiše itself almost upright. and 
often overbalanced itself, falling on its back, and recovering its \e<^s 
by performing a summerset. I watched these attempts of the animal 
to |scape for more than an hour, and it was not until it had got ex- 
perience of the strength of its prison, that the Echidna began to 
notice the food which had been placed there. 

This consisted of a saucer of bread and milk and some raeal- 
worms. The milk was sucked or rather licked in by rapid protrusion 
and retraction of the long red cylindrical tongue. The tongue came 
more than once in contact with the larvse, which were sometimes 
rolled over by it, but no attempt was made to swallow them. 

The moist dark end of the nose felt cold to the touch. The tem- 
perature of the animal at the cloaca was 85° Fahr., or nearly ten 
degrees lower than that of the anus of a rabbit. 

The Echidna oiFered little resistance when seized by the hind-leg 
and lifted ofF the ground, and made not the slightest demonstration 
ot defendmg himself by striking with his hind spurs : the only action 
when irntated was to roll itself into a ball, likę a hedgehog— the 
bristles bemg then erect. This was the position chosen for sleep • 
but our Echidna showed little of that sluggishness which the French 
naturalists ascribe to their live specimen on ship-board (Vovaffe de 
la Favorite, p. 159). \ } s 

Fhe blood-discs manifested the true mammalian type in their num- 
ber size and form : they were flat, circular, averaging ^'^ih of an 
inch diameter ; a few large ones were rather lcss than WWth • the 
smailest was y^^th. ^°°^ 



82 

The chcular form of the blood-discs of the Echidna was noticed 
by Dr. John Davy in some blood of that animal vvhich had been 
transmitted to him in brine from Van Diemen's Land. More satis- 
factory observations had been made by Dr. Hobson and Mr. E. Bed- 
ford, on the recent blood of both the Omithorhynchus and Echidna. 
I have cited these observations in my article ' Monotremata' (Cyclop. 
of Nat. Hist.) ; they show that the blood-discs of the OmithorhjTi- 
chus are likewise discoid, circular, and about ^ „'^ „ th of an inch in 
diameter ; and the observations now made on both ovoviviparous 
genera demonstrate that the Monotremata resemble the other Mam- 
malia in the form, proportional number, and florid colour of the blood- 
discs, \vhich correspond in size with those of the Armadillo and the 
Quadrumana, but are larger in proportion to the size and weight of 
the bod)"^ than in the larger apes and the human species. 

The Echidna having died unexpectedly a short time after its ar- 
rival, has afforded a favourable opportunity of investigating certain 
obscure parts of its anatomy, the results of which Prof. Owen would 
communicate at some future opportunity. 

Prof.Owen next exhibited the skull of a Wombat (PAasco/omys Vom- 
batus, Auct.) from Van Diemen's Land, and the skull of a Wombat, 
transmitted by Govemor Grey, from Continental (South) Australia, 
and pointed out the following differences in proof of their specific 
distinction. They are of equal size, but the skull of the specimen 
from South Australia is broader in proportion to its length. In the 
Continental species, which he proposed to call Phascolomys latifrons, 
the upper incisors present a transverse semi-oval section, the convex 
enamelled surface being directed forwards and outwards. This sur- 
face is feebly striated longitudinally. The lower incisors are nar- 
rower than in Phasc. Vombatus, and triedral, the enamelled anterior 
or under surface is flat, the outer surface longitudinally impressed 
and almost devoid of ecamel. The first lovver molar (premolar) is 
relatively larger, the lašt relatively smaller, in Phasc. latifrons : the 
avmphysis of the jaw is ncirrower and deeper. The intermaxillary 
Tjut of the skull is higher in proportion to its width, less convex 
externally ; the nasal bones are relatively broader, forming the whole 
upper surface of the anterior third of the skull. The inter-orbital 
part of the skull is relatively much broader, and is produced on 
each side into a well-marked supra-orbital ridge and post-orbital 
process, both of \vhich are almost obsolete in Phasc. Vombatus. 
The temporal fossse are not bounded, as in Phasc. Vombatus, by two 
nearly jjarallel and remote longitudinal ridges, but are continued 
by a convex, rather irregular tract, to near the middle of the upper 
region of the cranium. A very remarkable feature in the skull 
of the Phasc. latifrons is the supra-tympanic cell excavated be- 
neath the base of the zygoma: this cell, in Phasc. Vombatus, is 
transversely oblong, simple, one inch by half an inch in size ; in 
Phasc. latifrons it extends in\vards one inch and a ąuarter, and ex- 
pands to an antero-posterior diameter of one inch and a half, and 
a vertical diameter of one inch, having an oblong outlet one inch 



1 



83 

in length and half an inch in depth, slightly contracted in the midfJle. 
This difference in the size of the supra-tympanic cell is obviously 
not the eiFect of age, as the skuU of the Phasc. Vombatus compared 
is that of an old animal with strong temporal ridges. In Phasc. la- 
tifrons the articular surface for the condyle of the lower javv is 
broader and less convex ; the anterior boundary of the zygomatic 
space is less angular ; the palatai surface of the intermaxillaries is 
deeper ; the curve of the lower border of the lower jaw is much 
deeper ; the inner angle of the condyle is less produced ; the coronoid 
process is higher and narro^ver, and the post-symphysial depression 
is Edmost obsolete. 

The Secretary saw with much pleasure the decisive proofs which 
Professor Owen had shown of the existence of two species of Woinbat ; 
he had many years before been himself convinced of the fact, having 
observed that they difFered in size and colour, and that one had a 
sharp prick ear, -vvhile the ear of the other was low and elliptical. 



85 



August 12, 1845. 
William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in tlie Chair. 

" Descriptions of new species of Murex," by Loveli Reeve, Esq. : — 

MuREX BiPiNNATUs. Mur. testd elongato-fusiformi, spird acumi- 
^ ■ nato-turritd ; anfractibus septenis, transversim eximie Uratis et 

elevato-striatis, liris striis interstitiiscue subtilissimi scabroso- 
crenulatis ; anfractibus primis sex tuberculato-nodosis, ultimo tri- 
varicoso, varicibus ultimis duobus pulcherrime fimbriato-pinria- 
■ tis ; nived, rosaceo tinctd, columelld pallide rosed; aperturd parvd, 

labri externi limbo minute denticulato ; canali latiusculo, subelon- 
gato. 

Hab. ? 

• The Murex bipinnatus approaches the Murex davus in general form, 

. but the detail of structure and sculpture is distinct throughout. The 

iį spire exhibits a mass of prominent nodules, each whorl taking the 

\ form of a heptagon, with as many as seven on its circumference. 

I The lašt two varices are ornamented with a handsome laminated 

frill structure. 

MuREX SiNENSis. MuT. testd elongato-ovatd, subfusiformi, tenui, 
spirte suturis subimpressis ; anfractibus transversim Uratis et stri- 
atis, inter varices nodiferis ; trifariam varicosd, varicibus fron- 
dosis,/rondibus regularibus, curvatis, pulcherrbnė floi-idis , inciso- 
serratis ; albicante, fusco tinctd, lineis transversis fuscis ; labro 
. infra medium fortiter erecto-dentato. 

Hab. China. 

This species appears to have been confounded for some time past 
Avith the young of the Murex ramosus or elongatus. It is uniformly 
of a thin structure, and the fronds are of a delicate open flowery 
growth. 
'►J 

1 c_ MuREX Steeri^e. Mur. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, crassd, trans- 
, i_) , ,, . versim granoso-liratd, inter varices fortiter tuberculatd ; trifa- 
riam varicosd, varicibus incrassatis,frondosis, frondibus crispato- 
ramosis, subcompressis, breviusculis, fronde parvd interveniente ; 
fuscd liris nigricantibus, frondibus purpureo-roseis, columelld et 
aperturm fauce albis, labro externo incrassato, intus denticulato ; 
canali breviusculo. 

Hab. ? 

This shell might easily be mistaken for an accidental stunted 

grovvth of the Murex palma-rosa, were it not for the eonstancy and 

marked peculiarity of its characters. The fronds are short and some- 

what erect, with a row of small fronds sprouting up at their base ; 

No. CL. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



TVP£ 



86 

they are also laterally pinched as it ■were, and do not spread in the 
šame flowery bifurcate manner as in the Murex palma-rosa. 

MuREX EUBiGiNosus. Mur. testdfusiformi, interdum suhabbreviatd, 
transversim granoso-liratd et striatd, inter varices fortiter tuber- 
culatd ; trifariam varicosd, varicibusfrondosis,frondibusfoliaceis, 
brevibus, alternis parvis, recumbentibtts ; rubiginosd, liris frondi- 
busque nigricante-fuscis ; columelld mbiginoso-luted, aperturte 
faucc albd. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

This shell, of \vhich I have seen several characteiistic specimens, 
is quite distinct from any hitherto described. 

MuREX cEAssiVARicosA. Mur. testd subabbreviato-fusiformi, cras- 
siusculd, transversim granoso-liratd et striatd ; trifariam varicosd, 
varicibus incrassatis, rotundatis,frondosis,frondibus parviStfolia- 
ceis, alternis minoribus ; livido-ferrugined, apertura fauce albd. 

Hab. ? 

A new species, of vvhich I liave seen several examples, distinguished 
amongst other characters by the stunted thickened growth of the 
varices. 

5;,t1 MuREX ocuLATUs. Mur. testd fusiformi-oblongd, crassiusculd, un- 

U ^ ^ dique leviter scabrosd, transversim liratd et striatd, inter varices 

bituberculatd ; trifariam varicosd, varicibus lamellis brevibus sub- 
complicatis tuberculatis ; albidd, rufo-fuscescente tinctd, varicibus 
maculis quadratis rtthentibus alternatim pictis, columelld rubente- 
luted, aperturtie fauce albd, labro nigerrimo-fusco, superiie preeci- 
pue, maculato, apice rubente ; canali breviusculo, compresso, re- 
curvo. 

Hab. ? 

Although this shell has so many characters in common \vith the 
Murex pomum, it exhibits a constant peculiarity of colour, forra and 
sculpture. In colour it is peculiarly tinged and spotted \vith red ; in 
form it is more graceful and slender, and in sculpture it is smoother 
and presents two tubercles between each varix. I have seen nume- 
rous examples of this species, and'can distinguish them at a glance 
from the Murex pomum. 

CA I MuREK ALABASTER. Mur. tcstd trigono-fusiformi, spircs testą lon- 

" |C>-M. ,a gitudinem aąuante, anfractibus transversim liratis et striatis, liris 

lavibus, superne angulatis, nodulis duobus tribusve suhconspicuis 

ad angulum armatis ; trifariam varicosd, varicibus laminato-alatis, 

tuberculo erecto profunde canaliculato ad angulum munitis ; intus 

extusque eburned; canali breviusculo. 

Hab. Island of Cagayan, province of Misamis, islaud of MIndanao, 

Philippines (found on the beach) ; Cuming. 

Mr. Sowerby referred this extraordinary shell with some doubt to 
the Murex acanthropterus ; its proportions are however so utterly 
difFerent that I have no hesitation in describing it as a nevv species. 

Tl?e i«-i . MuREX AMBiGUUs. Mur. tcstu globosd, subpyriformi, transversim 



87 

liratd, liris irregularihus erectis, interruptis ; octofariam varicosd, 
varicibus frondosis, frondibus alternis vel paucioribus elato-ramo- 
sis, spinosis, basalibus longioribus ; albd, frondibus lirisque aterri- 
mis, labri columellari parte superiori nigro tinctd ; canali brevi- 
usculo. 

Hab. ? 

Three species appear to have been confounded hitherto under the 
common title of Murex radix, which, though closely approximating, 
may be separated without difficulty with a little caieful discriraina- 
tion. The true Murex radix is a round, particularly solid, heavy 
shell, •with a short though sharply acuminated spire with never less 
than ten varices, in vvhich the fronds are numerous, somewhat late- 
rally compressed, comparatively short and sharp-pointed. The spe- 
cies described by Dr. Philippi under the title of Murex nigritus has 
but eight or nine varices, and the fronds are not branched ; those on 
the upper angle of the -vvhorl being tubercularly sąuamate, those in 
the middle flat and very obscure, •vvhilst those at the base are long 
and horn-shaped. In the species under consideration the shell is of 
somewhat light structure, and the fronds are large, open and flowery. 

MuREx TRiFORMis. MuT. tcstd trigono-ovūtd, crassiusculd, trans- 
versim liratd et corrugatd, tuberculis duobus aut pluribus inter 
varices ; trifariam varicosd, varicibus laminato-fimbriatis, superrie 
excavato-sinuatis ; ferrugineo-fuscd ; aperturd ovatd, superne si- 
nuatd. 
Hab. New Holland. 

This shell, •vvhich Mr. Sowerby thought to be a variety of the 
Murex acanthropterus, is of a rude solid structure and dark rūsty 
brown colour. 

. MuREX PELLUcimis. Mur. testd trigono-fusiformi, tenui, trans- 

'^ veršini liratd, pulcherrimi sguamatd, inter varices tuberculatd; 

trivaricosd, varicibus obliguis, latissime et eximie alatis ; pellucido- 

albd ; aperturd parvd, labro intus nodoso. 

Hab. Island of Bantayan, Philippines (found upon a coral bottom 

at the depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Mr. Sowerby has rather incautiously referred this shell to the Mu- 
rex trigonularis of Lamarck, which Mr. Gray considers to be merely 
a worn specimen of the Murer acanthropterus, and M. Kiener one 
of the Murex phyllopterus. The shell under consideration differs 
essentially from both of these, and the characters which it presents 
are not at all in accordance with Lamarck's description of Murex 
trigonularis. 

' * MuREX ossEUS. Mur. testd oblongo-ovatd, subfusiformi, lavius- 
culd, inter varices fortiter tuberculatd ; trivaricosd, varicibus fim- 
briato-laminatis, superne f alcatis ; albd, castaneo-fusco hic illic 
tinctd ; aperturd peculiariter parvd, ovatd. 

Hab. ? 

Murex pinniger is perhaps the nearest allied species to this, though 
of very diiferent form . 



88 

' '564,4 <i2_ MuRKx Gambiensis. Mur. tesld fusiformi, infernt attenuatd, so- 

|0)47c;7^ lidiusculd, transversim obsoletl striatd, tuberculo magno prominulo 

inter varices ; trivaricosd, varicibus plicato-laminatis , superne fal- 

catis, ad basini alatis ; albd, fusco hic illic punctatd ; aperturd 

parvd, cancUi longiiisculo. 

Also allied to the Murex pinniger, but of a more elongated form 

and different style of colouring. 

^" MuREX Martinianus. Mur. testd trigono-clavteformi, transversim 

t874-i2-'' ■ ^ liratd, liris nodulosis, ineequalibus ; trifariam varicosd, varicibus 

rarispinosis, spinis breviusculis ; luteo- vel griseo-ccerulescente, 

canali fuscescente ; aperturd ovatd, labro dente planulato, erecto, 

munito ; canali longissimo, recto, superne sjyinoso. 

Hab. ? 

This shell was supposed to have been the Murex rarispina of La- 
marck, but it having been satisfactorily shown by both Kiener and 
Deshayes that Mr. Sowerby's Murex formosus is that species, I pro- 
pose to distinguish it by the above ne\v title. 

MuREx FTTNicuLATUs. Mur. testd clavaformi, transversim liratd, 
:.!..> liris ad summitatem funiculatis, costis tribus vel quatuor plic<B' 

formibus longitudinalibus inter varices ; trivaricosd, varicibus 
spinosis, spinis brevibus, acutis, sursum inclinatis ; fuscescente- 
albd, funiculis transversis castaneis ; aperturd ovatd, columelld 
labrogue intus noduliferis ; canali elongato. 

Hab ? 

An interesting species, well-characterized by the fine dark ches- 
nut-brown cords with which it is encircled throughout at equal 
distances. 

"T /'C i>o MuREX NiGRisPiNOSUS. Mur. testd elongato-clav^/ormi, transver- 
)t coti/j sim liratd et striatd, liris inagualibus, subnodosis, spira brevius- 
culd; trifariam varicosd, varicibus spinosis, spinis erecto-clon- 
gatis ; canali elongato, ad extremitalem leviter recurvo, spinoso, 
spinis longis, subcurvatis purpurascente-albd , fasciis tribus vel 
guattior fuscescentibus subindistincte cingulatd, spinis purpureo- 
nigricantibus . 

Hab. ? 

This shell approximates to the Murex tribulus, but its characters 
present an agreeable modification throughout, which may be con- 
sidered of specific importance. The spines are constantly tipped with 
black. 

I! 8. M , MuREX BELLiTs. Mur. testd claveeformi, transversim liratd, liris 

^7Ą'~^C> tuberculato-nodosis ; trivaricosd, varicibus roiundis, tuberculato- 
liratis, spind brevi acutd ad basim ; albicante, castaneo-fusco 
supra et infra maculatd, liris castaneo conspicue funiculatis, colu- 
melld labrogue rufo aurantio tinctis ; canali subelongato. 

Hab. ? 

Allied to the Murex chrgsostoma in ret^pect to its rufous orange 
mouth, but of a different colour and sculpture throughout. 



89 



August 26, 1845. 

William Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

" Remarks on the genus Achatinella, Swainson, and descriptions 
of six new species from Mr. Cuming's coUection." By Dr. L. PfeifFer. 

Upon examining the long series of forms ^vhich occur in the vast 
family of the Helicea, I have ascertained that there are several groups 
which Nature herself seems to have characterized as genera, though 
it would be very difficult to draw out such a generic definition as 
would exclude all other nearly allied species. One of these natūrai 
groups is the genus Achatinella, proposed by Swainson in Brandt's 
Journal, 1828, which appears to be peculiar to the Sandwich Islands, 
and has been united to the genus Bulimus by most recent authors, as 
by myself in my ' Symbolae.' However, the greater the number of 
species we become acquainted ■vvith, the more convenient it appears 
to unite them together as a distinct genus. I may therefore be per- 
mitted to gi ve a short account of the species now knovvn. 

1. Achatinella lugubhis (Turho), Chemn. Described by La- 
marck under the name of Monodonta seminigra, and figured by 
Swainson in the Zool. lUustr. under the name oi A. pica. Of 
course the name of Chemnitz mušt be retained. 

2. Achatinella perversa, Swains. Synon. Helix decora, Fėr., 
1. 155. f. 5 — 7 ; Bulimus decorus, Pfr. Symb. 

3. Achatinella acuta, Swains. Hel. spirizona, Fėr., t. 155. 
f. 14, 15. 

4. Achatinella bulimoides, Swains. Hel. lorata, Fer., t. 155. 
f. 9—11 ; BuL loratus, Pfr. Symb. 

5. Achatinella livida, Swains. Hel. vulpina, Fėr., t. 155. f. 1, 
2 ; Bul. vulpinus, Pfr. Symb. 

6. Achatinella rosea, Swains. A very distinct species, to which 
none of Fėrussac's figures may be referred. 

7. Achatinella pulcherrima, Swains. This species might 
perhaps be considered as a dextrous variety of A. livida. 

8. Achatinella turritella (Hel.), Fėr., t. 155. f. 13 ; Bul. tur- 
ritella, Pfr. Symb. 

9. Achatinella tristis (Hel.), Fėr. Mus. ; Bul. tristis, Pfr. Symb. 

10. Achatinella ventulus (Hel.), Fėr. Mus. ; Bul. ventulus, 
Pfr. Symb. 

''11. Achatinella radiata, Pfr. Ach. testd ovatd, soliduld, leviter 
striatd, nitidd, viridi et luteo radiatd, strigis intercurrentibus ni- 
gricantibus į spird conicd, obtusiusculd ; sutiird marginatd ; an- 



90 

fractibus 5^ vix convocciusculis, ultimo spird paulh breviore ; colu- 
melld dente brevi calloso rūbelio munitd ; aperturd oblongo-ovali ; 
peristomate intus fusco-rubello-labiato. 

Long. 19, diam. 10 mill. 

Ins. Sandwich. (Mus. Cuming.) 

12. AcHATiNELLA PiCTA, Pfr. Ach. testd sinistvorsd, ovato-elon- 
gatd, striatuld, carned, maculis et flammis nigro-fuscis eleganter 
pictd; spird turritd, gracili, acutiusculd; suturd simplice ; ati- 
fractibus 6 convexis, ultimo y longitudinis subceguante ; colu- 
melld valde tortd, dente planulato, acute prominente, albo munitd; 
aperturd oblongd ; peristoynate simplice, acuto. 

Long. 12i, diam. 7 mill. 

Ins. Sandwich. (Mus. Cuming.) 
t^l3. AcHATiNELLA BREVis, Pfr. Ach. testd ovatd, brevi, solidd, 
oblique striatuld, nitidd, fuscu ; spird conicd, acutiusculd ; anfrac- 
tibus 6 convexiusculis , ultimo \ longitudinis vix superante, sub- 
globoso ; columelld breviter arcuatd, acute dentatd ; aperturd ro- 
tundato-lunari ; peristomate simplice, albo. 

Long. 11, diam. 6į mill. 

Ins. Sandwich. (Mus. Cuming.) 

v/ 14. AcHATiNELLA PYRAMis, Pfr. Acli. tcstd ovūto-pyramidatd, 
Itevissimi striatd, diaphand, virenti-corned ; spird pyramidatd, 
apice acuto ; suturd lineari, anguste marginatd ; anfractibus 8 
planis, ultimo f longitudinis subaguante ; columelld brevissime 
arcuatd, plicd dentiformi complanatd, acutd, munitd ; aperturd 
ovali. 

Long. 12, diam. 5\ mill. 

Ins. Sandwich. (Mus. Cuming.) 

L 15. AcHATiNELLA CLARA, Pfr. Ach. tcstd oblongd, longitudinaliter 
plicatulo-striatd, pellucidd, pallide corned; spird turritd, apice 
obtuso ; suturd lined rufd marginatd ; anfractibus 8 planiusculis , 
ultimo \ longitudinis vix eBcuante ; columelld vix arcuatd, dente 
parum prominente munitd ; aperturd ovali. 
Long. 12, diam. 4| mill. 
Ins. Sandwich. (Mus. Cuming.) 
I .'■ 16. AcHATiNELLA coRNEOLA, Pfr. Ach. testd ovato-oblongd, Ice- 
vissime striatuld, pellucidd, nitidd, corned ; spird turrit o -conicd, 
apice obtusiusculo ; suturd subsimplice ; anfractibus S planiuscu- 
lis, ultimo f longitudinis subceguante ; columelld valde arcuatd, 
dente acutl prominente, albo, complanato instructd ; aperturd ir- 
regulariter ovali ; peristomate intus callo tenui, nitido, albo sub- 
labiato. 
Long. 15, diam. 7 mill. 
Ins. Sandwich. (Mus. Cuming.) 

17. ACHATINELLA GRAVIDA {Hcl.), F6r., t. 155. f. 3, 4. 

18. AcHATiNELLA LUTEOLA {Hcl.), Fcr., t. 155. f. 12. Thcse two 
species \ have not been able to find out of the great number of 
varieties and species I had the opportunity of examining. 



^ 



91 



September 9, 1845. 
No business was transacted. 

September 23, 1845. 
"VVilliam Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Edward Fitton, Esq., exhibited to the Meeting a fine malė speci- 
men of the White-winged Crossbill {Loxia leucoptera), in red plu- 
mage, which he had picked up dead upon the shore at Exmouth on 
the 17th instant. It appeared to have been injured on the back of 
the head, and to have crept into a crevice of one of the loose frag- 
ments of rock on the shore, where it was found by Mr. Fitton, partly 
covered with wet sand. 

The wind at the time Avas south-west, and had been blowing hard 
from north-west to west and south-\vest for some days. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited a full-grown Herring, ha^ang a lobe of fe- 
male, or hard roe, on one side, and a lobe of malė, or soft roe, on the 
other. This degree of malformation has not hitherto been recorded 
as found in the herring, but has been observed in the perch, mack- 
erel, carp, cod, whiting and sole. 



No. CLI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Socibt^^. 



93 



October 14, 1845. 

William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President. in the Chair. 

" On the size of the Red Corpuscles of the Blood in the Vertebrata, 
■vvith copious Tables of Measurements." By George GuUiver, Esq., 
F.R.S. 

, The foUowing Tables contain a synopsis of my former observa- 
tions*, corrected when necessary and extended by many more since 
made and now first published. They include altogether no less than 
485 species, here systematically arranged, so as to exhibit a sum- 
mary, aad yet more complete vievv than anj"^ yet extant, of the size 
of the blood-corpuscles in the different subdivisions of vertebrate 
animals. In this respect I hope the Tables may be useful, as well 
as for reference in connection ■vvith physiological ąuestions now often 
arising. I have introduced no measurement not made by myself. 
The observations on the forra and size of the corpuscles, unless other- 
■wise expressed, refer to the majority of them as existing in any por- 
tion of the blood of the adult animal spoken of ; for there may be a 
few differing greatly from the average. In the blood-corpuscles of 
the Oviparous Vertebrata, for example, there are often many grada- 
tions of form, from the well-marked and prevailing ellipse, to the 
longer or shorter oval or even circular figure ; and in any mammal 
some of the corpuscles are a third larger and some a third smaller 
than the mean size. 

Mammalia 

Various sizes of the corpuscles. — The corpuscles of the Elephant 
are the largest yet known ; then follow those of the Sloth and of the 

* On the Corpuscles of Marsiipiata, of the Camelidce, and of Moschus Javanicus, 
Annals Nat. Hist., Uec. 1839, Phil. Mag. šame date, and Dublin Med. Press, Nov.27, 
1839; on the Blood-Corpuscles of Mammalia and Avės, in an Appendis to the 
English version of Gerber's Anatomy, 8vo. Lond. 1842 ; on the Nuclei of the Blood- 
corpuscles of Vertebrata, Note to Dr. "VVillLs's tr. of "VVagner's Physiology, p. 240 
et seq., 8vo. Lond. 1844, and Phil. Mag., Aug. 1842; on the Pus-like Globules of 
the Blood, Phil. Mag., Sept. 1842, and Note to Wagner's Physiology, p. 250-252 ; 
on the Blood-corpuscles of the CamelidcB and of the Mušk Deer, Med. Chir. Trans. 
v. xxiii. and Lancet, v. ii. 1840-41, p. 101 ; on the Corpuscles of the Snowy Owl 
and Passenger Pigeon, Proc. Zool. Soc, June 9, 1840 ; Corpuscles of Crocodilidce, 
ibid. Nov. 10, 1840 ; Corpuscles of Paradoxures, ibid. Nov. 24, 1840 ; Corpuscles 
of FertB, ibid. May 25, 1841 ; Corpuscles of Marsupials, ibid. June 8, 1841 ; Cor- 
piiscles of the Įbes and of Ophidian Reptiles, ibid. Aug. 9, 1842; Corpuscles of 
S(ruthionid(B, ibid. Oct. 11, 1842; Additional Measurements of Blood-corpuscles, 
ibid. Dec. 13, 1842, Feb. 13 and Sept. 10, 1844 ; Corpuscles of the Stanley Mušk 
Deer, ibid. May 9, 1843; Corpuscles of the Sloth, ibid. June 11, 1844; ou pe- 
culiar shapes assumed by the Blood-corpuscles of Mammals, Phil. Mag., Nov. 1840 ; 
on the Buffy Coat of the Blood, Edin. Med. and Surg. Journ., No. 165. 

No. CLII, — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



94 

Whale. The Napu Mušk Deer has the most minute corpuscles ; 
those of the Stanley Mušk Deer are nearly as small ; those of the 
Ihex of Candia are larger ; and the next increase of size is in those 
of the Goat. Before my obsei'vations, the corpuscles of the last- 
named animal were the smallest known. 

Size ofthe corpuscles in relation to that ofthe animal. — The smallest 
British mammal, the Harvest Mouse, has corpuscles quite as large 
as those of the Horse ; in the Common Mouse they are larger than in 
the Horse or Ox. But although there is no relation between the 
size of the corpuscle and that of the animal in different orders, in the 
šame order the larger species have generally larger corpuscles than 
the smallest species. Thus, in the large Ruminants the corpuscles 
are distinctly larger than in the smallest Ruminants, and the šame 
fact is observahle of the Rodents. In these examples the gradation 
in the size of the corpuscles may not exactly follow that of the ani- 
mals, but none of the very small species have corpuscles so large as 
those of the largest species. 

Size of the corpuscles in the šame animal at different periods of life. 
— In very young embryos the corpuscles are much larger than in the 
adult, and in such embryos each corpuscle has a nucleus, which dis- 
appears at a later period of intra-uterine life, -vvhen the corpuscles 
are yet larger than those of the mother. At a still later period they 
become so uneąual in size that it is difiicult to say whether they be 
larger or smaller in the foetus than in the adult. In a kid twelve 
days old, bred betvveen an ibex and a goat, I found the corpuscles 
larger and more variously sized than those of either of its parents. 

The thickness of the corpuscles is variable ; but it is commonly 
somewhat more than a fourth of the diameter. 

Size of the corpuscles in different Orders. — The Monkeys have cor- 
puscles pretty uniform in size, generally just perceptibly smaller 
than those of Man ; in some of the Monkeys of the new world the 
corpuscles are slightljf smaller than in the Monkeys of the old world, 
and in the Lemurs somewhat smaller still. In the corpuscles of the 
different subdivisions of the Feree there is such a \vell-marked diver- 
sity of size, that the fact* might be used as a help to classification. 
The families, set do\vn in the order of the size of their blood-discs, 
stand as follows : Seals, Dogs, Bears, Weasels, Cats, Viverras. It 
is commonly most easy to distinguisli a viverra, by the comparatively 
small size of its blood-corpuscles, from a seal, dog or bear. Among 
genera of doubtful afhnities, if regard vi^ere paid to the blood- 
corpuscles, the Hysenaf \vould be arranged with the Canida, Basaris 
with the Ursidcc, and Cercoleptes with the Viverrida. It is curious 
that the Fox has slightly smaller corpuscles than the Dog. In the 

* It has recently been enlisted into the service of natūrai history by Mr. Jesse, 
in his interesting AnecJotes of Dogs. 

t It is reuiarkable that the cxtent of the streaked muscular fibra of the gullet 
of the Hyffina is the šame as in the Viverrida, which difFer in this respect from 
the Canidie, and still more from the UrsidcB. See Proc. Zool. Soc., Sept. 10, 1839, 
and June 11, 1842. It would be interesting to esamine the cesophageal muscular 
sheath of the Kinkajou. 



95 

Ruminants the smallest corpuscles are found ; yet some of tlie largest 
species have corpuscles larger tlian those of many Carnivora, and of 
the Horse. The Camelida are the ouly mammals with oval hlood- 
discs, likę those of the lower Vertehrata in shape, but uniformly 
smaller ; and in structure the corpuscle of the Camels is exuctly the 
šame as the corpuscle of other Mammalia, being destitule of a nu- 
cleus corresponding to that which is so obvious in the corpuscle of 
lower animals. Among the Rodents, the corpuscles of the Capybara 
are as large or slightly larger than those of Man ; the Harvest Mouse 
has smaller corpuscles than any other Rodent, and in the order 
generally their size is about the šame as in the Lemurs. Of the Eden- 
tata, the T\vo-toed Sloth has the largest corpuscles, after those of the 
Elephant, of any mammal ; those of the Armadillo are about the šame 
in size as those of the Monkeys. The corpuscles of the Marsupiata 
agree generally in form and size with the corpuscles of the corre- 
sponding placentai mammals. In the Monotremata, according to 
the observations of Dr. Davy, Dr. Hobson, and Dr. E. Bedford, the 
corpuscles are of the šame form and about the šame size as in Man. 
An examination which I made of the corpuscles of the Echidna -vvas 
to the šame efFcct, but I had not an opportunity of applying a micro- 
meter to them. 

OviPAfioos Vertebrata. 

In birds and reptiles, -vvith a few exceptions, the corpuscles are 
oval, the long diameter being commonly rather less than twice the 
short diameter. These proportions used to be considered as univer- 
eal, but they are not so ; for the long diameter of the corpuscles of 
birds and reptiles may either be nearly thrice or scarcely one and a 
half of the short diameter ; and it is remarkable that these difFerences 
of form are occasionally presented in the corpuscles of nearly aUied 
genera, as more particularly explained in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 1840, 
pp. 43 and 132 ; and 1842, p. 110. In osseous fishes, as Professor 
Wagner has noticed, the corpuscles are generally not much longer 
than broad ; I commonly found a few amcmg them of a circular shape, 
and he observed the majority of them of this figure in the blood of 
the Cyclostomes. In some species of other orders the corpuscles are 
about twice the length of their breadth ; in the Pike they are some- 
\vhat angular and pointed at the ends ; and on the whole the corpus- 
cles of fishes are extremely variable in shape. The diameter of the 
circular corpuscles of mammals is very frequently about the šame as 
the short diameter of birds' corpuscles. They are largest in the 
Amphibia generally ; and largest of all in the Amphibia vvith perma- 
nent gills, as discovered some years ago by Professor Wagner. My 
measurements of the corpuscles of the Siren agree -vvith his vie\v. 

Nucleus. — This exists permanently in the blood-corpuscle of the 
lower Vertebrata, but only for a short time in that of mammals, not 
excepting even the Camelidte. It is only during the earlier period of 
intra-uterine life that the corpuscle of mammals has a nucleus corre- 
sponding to the permanent one in the corpuscle of lower animals. In 
birds, the nucleus, \vhen exposed by a vveak acid, is commonly longer 
in proportion to its breadth than the envelope ; but there are some 



96 

exceptions, and the nucleus becomes globular or nearly so when in 
contact with water. In the blood-corpuscle of mammals the centrai 
spot, so often mistaken for a nucleus, is not visible in the best focus 
and light ; then if the object-glass be so slightly removed from the 
corpuscles as not to destroy their clear contour, a dark spot appears 
in their centre ; if the glass be next so far moved towards the cor- 
puscles as to place them slightly within the focus, the dark spot will 
become bright ; and -vvhen altogether invisible in a bright light, the 
spot may be ingtantly brought into view simply by diminishing the 
light. 

Note. — The follo\ving measurements are all in vulgar fractions of 
an English inch ; but for the sake of convenience, the numerator is 
omitted throughout, as it is invariably 1, and the denominators only 
are printed. The measurements of the blood-discs are given as they 
lie flat, unless vvhen a T indicates a measurement of their thickness. 
By L.D. the long diameter and by S. D. the short diameter is de- 
noted. The measurements refer exclusively to average sizes. The 
nuclei ■vvere measured after exposing them by the action of dilute 
acetic acid on the enveloj^es. 

MAMMALIA. 



Horao I 3200 

T... 12400 



SiMi^ Catarrhini. 



Simia Troglodytes 

Pithecus SatjTus 

Hylobates Hoolock 

— leucogenys 

— Rafflesii 

Semnopithecus Maurus 
Cercopithecus Mona .. 

— sabseus 

— fuliginosus 

— ruber 

— pileatus 

— pygerythrus 

— Petaurista 

griseo-viridis 

jEthiops 

Macacus radiatns 

Rhesus 

niger 

cjTiomolgus 

Šilėnus 

nemestrinus 

sylvanus 

melanotus 

Cynocephalus Anubis . . 
leucopbaBus 



3412 
3383 
3368 
3425 
3539 
3515 
3468 
3342 
3530 
3395 
3578 
3401 
3478 
3429 
3454 
3563 
3429 
3583 
3429 
3430 
3493 
3338 
3389 
3461 
3555 



SiMiiE Platyrrhini. 
Ateles subpentadactylus 3620 



Ateles ater 

Belzebuth .. 

Cebus Apella 

capucinus .. 

Callithrix sciiireus 
Jacchus vulgaris .. 
Midas Rosalia 



Lemurid^. 



Lemur albifrous . 

Catta 

Anjuanensis 

nigrifrons 

Loris tardigradus . 
gracilis .... 



Cheiroptera. 



Vespertilio murinus . 

noctula 

Pipistrellus .... 

Plecotus auritus .... 



Insecth^ora. 



Talpa Europaea 

Erinaceus Europaeiis 
Sores tetragonurus ., 



Plantigrada. 



Meles ^^llgaris ... 
Arctonyx collaris , 



3602 
3589 
3467 
3454 
3713 
3624 
3510 



3976 
3892 
4003 
4440 
3691 
3461 



4175 
4404 
4324 
4465 



4747 

4085 
4571 



3940 
3609 



97 



MAMMALIA — (continued) . 



I 



Ursus inaritiraus 

Arctos 

Americanus 

Americanus, var. .. 

ferox 

labiatus 

Helarctos Malayanus 

Mellivora Capensis 

Procyon lotor 

Nasua fiisca 

rufa . .'. 

Basaris astuta 

Cercoleptes caudivolvulus 

Carnivora. 

Paradoxurus leucomystax 

Bondar 

biuotatus 

Pallasii 

Canis familiaris 

— Dingo 

— Vulpes 

— fulvus 

— argentatus 

— cinereo-argenteus . . 

— lagopus 

— aureus 



— mesomelas . 

— Lupus 

Lycaon tricolor . 
Hysena vulgaris . 

— crocuta .... 
Herpestes griseus 

— Javanicus ? . 

— Smithii .... 
Viverra Civetta . 

— tigrina 

Felis Leo 

— concolor . . . . 

— unicolor . . . . 

— Tigris 

— Leopardus . 

— jubata 

— par'dalis .... 

— domestica . 

— Bengalensis . 

— Caracal .... 

— cervaria . . . . 

— Servai 

Galictis vittata .... 
Mustela Zorilla . 

Furo 

vulgaris . . . . 

Putorius .... 

Lutra vulgaris .... 
Phoca vitulina .... 



3870 
3723 
3693 
3782 
3530 
3728 
3562 
3824 
3950 
3789 
3878 
4033 
4573 



4236 
5693 
4660 
5485 
3542 
3395 
4117 
3920 
3888 
3761 
3888 
3860 
14000 
3645 
3625 
3801 
3735 
3820 
4662 
4790 
4466 
4274 
5365 
4322 
4465 
4481 
4206 
4319 
4220 
4616 
4404 
4419 
4684 
4220 
4129 
4175 
4270 
4134 
4205 
4167 
3502 
3281 



Cetacea. 

Delphinus Phocaena 

Balaena Boops '. 

Pachydermata. 

Sus Scrofa 

Babyroussa , 

Dicotyles torąuatus 

Tapirus ludicus , 

Elephas Indicus , 

Rhinoceros Indicus 

Equus Caballus , 

T... 

Asinus 

Burchellii 

Hemionus , 

Ruminantia. 

FL.D, 
Camelus Dromedarius... i S.D, 

L T... 

fL.D 
Bactrianus ■< S.D, 

[t.., 

Auchenia Vicugna -į j^'j^' 

— p-<^» {s:d 

Glama , 

Moschus Javanicus , 

Stanleyauus , 

Cervus Wapiti 

— Hippelaphus 

— Axis 

— Dama 

— Alces 

— Barbarus 

— Elaphus 

macrourus? 

Mexicanus 

Marhal 

porcinus 

Reevesii 

Capreolus 

Virginianus , 

Camelopardalis Giraffa , 

Antilope Cervicapra 

Dorcas 

T... 

Gnu 

Sing-Sing 

Philantomba 

pieta 

Bubalis 

Capra Caucasica 

— Hircus 



3829 
3099 



4230 
4316 
4490 
4000 
2745 
3765 
4706 
13422 
4000 
4360 
4421 



3254 
5921 

15337 
3123 
5876 

15210 
3555 
6444 
3361 
6294 
ibid. 

12325 

10825 
4138 
3777 
5088 
4515 
3938 
4800 
4324 
5074 
5175 
4978 
5391 
6330 
5184 
5036 
4571 
5108 
4922 

16000 
4800 
5150 
5116 
4875 
5600 
7045 
6366 



98 



MAMMALIA — (continued) . 



Capra Hircus, var. 
Ovis Musmon .... 

- Aries 

- Tragelaphus 
Bos Taurus 

- Taurus, var. 

- Bisoii 

- Bubalus .... 



6430 Synetheris prehensilis 
5045 'iCapromys Foiu-nieri ... 
5300 ilMvopotamus Coypus 
6355 
4267 
4571 
4062 
4586 
14000 



Caffre 4703 

frontalis 4299 

■Sylhetanus 4222 



RODENTIA. 

Pteromys nitidus 

- volucella 

Sciurus vulgaris 

- niger? 

- maximus 

- cinereus 

- capistratus 

- Palmarurn 

- Listeri 

Atctomys ? pruinosus 

- Empetra 

Dipus jEgyptius 

Mus giganteus 

decumanus 

Rattus 

musculus 

sylvaticus 

messorius 

Alexandrinus ... 

Arricola amphibia ... 

riparia 

Ondatra Zibethica ... 

Hystrix cristata 

Erithizon dorsatum ... 



3777 
3892 
4000 
3841 
3633 
4000 
3930 
3847 
3948 
3484 
3503 
4172 
3892 
3911 
3754 
3814 
3839 
4268 
3900 
3790 
4199 
3550 
3369 
3380 



Castor Fiber 

Cavia Cobaya ■ 

Dasyprocta aurata 

Acouchi 

CcElogenys subniger 

Hydrochserus Capybara 

Lepus cuniculus 

[Lepus timidus 



Edentata. 

Bradypus didactylus 
Dasypus sex-cinctus 
villosus 



Marsupiata. 
Didelphis Virginiana . 

DasyiuTis riverrinus 

I Maugei 

' ursinus 



Perameles Lagotis . . . . 
Hypsiprj-ranus setosus . 
Macropus Bennettii.... 

ocydromus 

Derbvanus? .... 



T.. 



Halmaturus BiUardieri ... 

Phalangista Tulpina 

nana 

fuliginosa 

Petaurista sciureus ;; 3661 

Phascolom vs Wombat 3466 



3444 
3483 
3355 
10667 
3325 
3538 
3857 
3777 
3481 
3190 
3607 
3560 



2865 
3457 
3315 



3557 

12000 
4056 
4034 
3534 

10910 
3902 
4000 
3535 
3442 
3405 

10910 
3623 
3617 
3856 
3688 







AVĖS. 






Rafaces. 
Gypaetus barbatus 


L.D. 


S.D. 1 




L.D. 


S.D. 


1913 

1880 
1761 
1825 


3425 
3691 
3892 


1852 
1852 


3691 
3691 




Sarcorhamphus Gr>phus 


Aąuila chrjsaetos 

Bouelli 


1812 ; 3832 
1866 1 3598 
1852 I 3485 
1830 1 3691 
1891 3461 
1829 3390 
1909 1 3390 
1806 3585 
1916 3862 
1891 3490 


Vultur auricularis 

Nuclei... 


1835 Į 3461 
Kuto Jln<;i;c 






1829 

1794 
1806 
1684 
1829 


3399 

3337 
3425 
3166 
3572 


Helotarsus typicus 

Haliaetus albicilla 

leucocephalus 


T. 9600 
Kolbii 








Polyborus vulgaris 


Tinnunculus 



i 



99 



AVĖS — {continued). 



Falco subbuteo 

Milvus vulgaris 

Gypogeranus serpen- 1 

tarius J 

Sumia Nyctea 

Nuclei . . . 

Otus brachyotus 

Bubo raaximus 

Bubo Virginianus 

Syrnium Aluco ..: 

Strix flammea 

Nuclei ... 

Omnivor^. 

Cracticus hypoleueus . . . 

Barita Tibicen 

Garrulus pileatus 

glandarius 

Nuclei... 

cristatus 

Nucifraga Caryocatactes 

Corvus coras 

frugilegus 

Nuclei . 
monedula 

Nuclei . 
Pica 

T. 11600 

Nuclei . 

Gracula religiosa 

Fregilus graculus 

Pastor roseus 

cristatellus 

tristis 

Sturnus vulgaris , 

Nuclei .. 

predatorius 

Coracias garnila 

Molothrus sericeus 

Buceros Rhinoceros ? . 

Insectivores. 

Troglodytes Europaeus. 

Regulus cristatus 

Motacilla alba 

Nuclei . 
Sylvia Phragmites .... 
Philomela luscinia .... 

Nuclei . 
Curruca atricapiUa .... 
Erythaca rubecula .... 
Accentor modularis .... 
Turdus ^^scivo^us .... 



L.D. S.D. 



1827 
1931 

1722 

1555 
3200 
1763 
1720 
1837 
1930 
1882 
4000 



2116 
2118 
2041 
2064 
4000 
2041 
1875 
1961 
1894 
4572 
2243 
4000 
1953 

4245 
2075 
2106 
2106 
2133 
1993 
2115 
3764 
2133 
2000 
2133 
1690 



2359 

2284 
2182 
4000 
2003 
1895 



3507 
3677 

3301 

4042 
10666 
4076 
3566 
4000 
3801 
3740 
10666 



4000 
3892 
4167 
3878 

10666 
3512 
4172 
4000 
3196 
9140 
4167 

10665 
3365 

11138 
4167 
4505 
4630 
4050 
4167 
3892 

11333 
4175 
3478 
4567 
3230 



4133 
4133 
3600 
10666 
3550 
4400 



Turdus canorus . . . . 
Merula \'ulgaris .... 
Orpheus polyglottis . 

— nifus 

Muscicapa grisola . 
Lanius escubitor .... 
Vanga destructor . . . . 



GrANIVOR/E. 

Dolichonys oryzivorus 

Ploceus testor 

Cardinalis Dominicana. . 

— cucullata 

Amadina fasciata 

— punctvilaria 

Pyrgita domestica 

Nuclei .. 

— simplex 

Fringilla Coelebs 

— Chloris 

— amandava 

— cyanea 

Linaria minor 

Parus cseruleus 

— caudatus 

Nuclei .. 



' migratorius . 



4000 


12000 ' 


2359 ! 4133 


2305 4133 , 


2342 4000 1 


2247 4000 ; 


2203 


4133 


2348 


4133 





major 

Alauda arvensis 

Nuclei . . . 

Emberiza citrinella 

Nuclei . . . 

cristata 

Plectropbanes nivalis ... 
Loxia coccothraustes ... 
T. 9141 
Nuclei . . . 

curvirostra 

enucleator 

Javensis 

Astrild 

caerulea 

Malacca 

Vidua paradissea 

Nuclei ... 

Zygodactyli. 

Corj'tbaiK Buffonii 

Cuculus canorus 

Plyctolopbus Eos 

sulphureus 

rosaceus 

Nuclei ... 

galeritus 

PhUippinorum ... 

Macrocercus Aracanga... 



L.D. S.D. 



2305 
2097 
2223 
2231 
2179 
1989 
2019 



2400 
2213 
2140 
ibid. 
2001 
2133 
2140 
4364 
2273 
2253 
2232 
2243 
2144 
2416 
2313 
2136 
4800 
2133 
2125 
4000 
2286 
4000 
2310 
2133 
2042 

4570 
2365 
2247 
2286 
2273 
2290 
2359 
1998 
3555 



3892 
4256 
3732 
3646 
4173 
5325 
3892 



4167 
4575 
3643 
ibid. 
4364 
4133 
3500 
9200 
4000 
4133 
3600 
4800 
3741 
4848 
4128 
4570 

10666 
3892 
4128 

12000 
4000 

12000 
4167 
4740 
3790 

10666 
4000 
4083 
3677 
4740 
3740 
4167 
3740 

10666 



1902 

2028 
1981 
2203 
1842 
4000 
1880 
1974 
1902 



3764 
3600 
3728 
3399 
3547 
12000 
3600 
4041 
4041 



100 



AVĖS — (contimed). 



Macrocercus Illigeri .. 

— Ararauna 

— Macao 

— Severus 

Platycercus Pennantii . . 

— Pacificus 

— eximius 

— flaviventris 

— Vasa 

— scapulatus 

— niger 

NymphicusNovae-Hol- "I 

landise J 

Psittacara leptorhyncha 

— murina 

— Patachonica 

— viridissima 

— solstitialis 



L.D. 



- virescens 

Trichoglossus capistratus 
Palseornis Alexandri 

- torąuatus 

Bengalensis . . 

Lorius domicellus . . 

- Ccramensis 

- Amboinensis .. 

- coccineus 

- Sinensis 

Tanygnathus macro 

rhynchus 

Psittacus erythacus . . 

albifrons 

Augustus 

Araericanus . . 

Regulus , 

- Dufresnii 

- Atnazonicus .., 

- leiicocephalus . . , 

- badiceps 

- menstruus 

- melanocephalHS 

- mitratus 

Psittacula cana 

- pullaria 

Picus minor 



Anisodactyli. 
Sitta Europaea , 



Nuclei ... 
Certhia familiaris 



Alcyones. 

Dacelo gigantea . 
Alcedo Ispida .... 



1924 
1961 
1902 
2165 
2)06 
2118 
2193 
2118 
2045 
2000 
2133 

2160 

2067 
2133 
2115 
2029 
2133 
2097 
2203 
2115 
2174 
2278 
2093 
2115 
2045 
2165 
2115 

2106 

1898 
1931 
2085 
2115 
2037 
2278 
1800 
2050 
2165 
2115 
2005 
2029 
2101 
2097 
2170 



2213 
4572 
2305 



S.D. 



4335 
4128 
4762 
3801 
3931 
4174 
3892 
3892 
3892 
4042 
3892 

4174 

3931 
4031 
3977 
4190 
4000 
4175 
3892 
3892 
3892 
4000 
4133 
4000 
4133 
4000 
3692 

3829 

4000 
3692 
3600 
3600 
3764 
3374 
3832 
3727 
3617 
3708 
3892 
3892 
4174 
4174 
3892 



4188 

11000 

4000 



Cheliones. 

Hirundo nistica .. 

urbica , 

Cypselus Apus . 



Nuclei . 

COLŪMB-E. 

Columba Palumbus .... 

risoria 

Turtur 

tigrina 

rutina 

chalcoptera 

Nicobarica 

Guinea 

Corensis 

aurita 

montana 

Nuclei ... 

Zenaida 

migratoria .. 

coronata ...., 

leucoccphala 

mysticea ...., 



2110 3555 
2124 3693 



Gallin^. 

Penelope leucolophos . . . 

Nuclei ... 

cristata 

Crax globicera 

rubra 

Yarrellii 

Ourax Mitu 

Pavo cristatus 

rauticus 

Javanicus 

Pbasianus pietus 

nycthemerus 

Nuclei ... 

superbus 

lineatus 

Nuclei . . . 
Colchicus 

Nuclei... 
Gailus domesticus 

Nuclei ... 
Meleagris gallapavo ... 

Numida Rendallii 

Francolinus vulgaris ... 

Perdix longirostris 

Bonhami 

Nuclei ... 
Coturnix Argoondah ... 

Ortyx Virginianus 

iieoxvenus 



L.D. 



2133 
2170 
1982 
4000 



1973 
2133 
2005 
2088 
2314 
2208 
2133 
2165 
2193 
2422 
2239 
5333 
2203 
1909 
1954 
2132 
2100 



1902 
3555 
ibid. 
1985 
1993 
2000 
2005 
1835 
ibid. 
1884 
2213 
1887 
4000 
2128 
1855 
4570 
2168 
5647 
2102 
6000 
2045 
2054 
2106 
2054 
1933 
4570 
2347 
2213 
2305 



S.D. 



4000 
4000 
3850 
10666 



3643 
3523 
3369 
3615 
3429 
4062 
3692 
3839 
3643 
3519 
3692 
12000 
3571 
4626 
3491 
3646 
3512 



3607 
9166 
ibid. 
3425 
3664 
3456 
3490 
3589 
ibid. 
3491 
3615 
3470 
8000 
3587 
3348 
9166 
3646 
7111 
3466 
9140 
3598 
4415 
4041 
3801 
3282 
10666 
3470 
4000 
3836 j 



101 



AVĖS — (continued). 



Tetrao urogallus 

-Tetrix 

— Caucasica 

Nuclei . . . 
Tinamus rufescens 

Alectorides. 
Dicholoplius cristatus ... 

CURSORES. 

Struthio Camelus 

T. 9166 
Nuclei . . . 
Dromaius Novse-Hol-"l 

landise J 

Rhea Americana 

Grallatores. 

CEdicnemus crepitans ... 

Vanellus cristatus 

Haematopus Ostralegus . 

Nuclei ... 

Psopliia crepitans 

Anthropoides Virgo 

T. 11230 

Stanleyanus 

Balearica pavonina 

T. 9597 

Nuclei . . . 

Regulorum 

Ardea cinerea 

Nycticorax 

minuta 

Platalea leucorodia 

Ciconia alba 

nigra 



L.D. 


S.D. 


2248 


3836 


2376 


3728 


1923 


3456 


4570 


9166 


1752 


3338 


1884 


3364 


1649 


3000 


3200 


9166 


1690 


3031 


1898 


3273 


2157 


4000 


1964 


3310 


1895 


4000 


3200 


9000 


1883 


3488 


1884 


3740 


J909 


3529 


1859 


3777 


4000 


9750 


1858 


3478 


1913 


3491 


1780 


3555 


1993 


3827 


1859 


3600 


1755 


3439 


1806 


3403 



Ciconia Argala 

Marabou 

Ibis ruber 

Numenius Phjeopus . 

Limosa melanura 

Scolopax Gallinago .... 
Ralius Philippinensis . 
Gallinula chloropus .... 

PiNNATIPEDES. 

Podiceps minor 

Palmipedes. 

PlectropterusGambiensis 
ChenalopeK JEgyptiaca . 
Cereopsis Novse-Hol- 1 

landise J 

Bernicla Sandvicensis . . . 

Magellanica 

Cygnus atratus 

Dendrocygna viduata . . . 

autuinnalis 

arborea 

Dendronessa sponsa ... 

Tadorna vulpanser 

Mareca Penelope 

Querquedula crecoa 

acuta 

circia 

Anas galericulata 

Larus ridibundus 

canus 

Nuclei . . . 
Pelecanus Onocrotalus... 

Nuclei... 
Phalacrocorax Carbo ... 



L.D. 


S.D. 


1728 


3555 


1859 


3460 


1948 


3153 


1846 


4465 


1973 


3764 


2170 


3622 


2997 


3S89 


2055 


3839 


2001 


3200 


1866 


3728 


1866 


3839 


1722 


3692 


1866 


3839 


ibid. 


ibid. 


1806 


3692 


1789 


3555 


1916 


3764 


1931 


3724 


2001 


4079 


1925 


3839 


1873 


4385 


2062 


4592 


1993 


3839 


2088 


3839 


1937 


3424 


2097 


4000 


1973 


3839 


3555 


10666 


1777 


3369 


3200 


9600 


2005 


3765 



REPTILIA. 



Chelonia Mydas 

Nuclei.. 
Testudo Graeca 

— radiata 

Alligator .' 

Crocodilus acutus 

T. 8000 

— Lucius? 

Champsa fissipes 

Iguana Cyclura 

Nuclei 



L.D. 


S.D. 


1231 


1882 


4000 


6000 


1252 


2216 


1241 


2197 i 


1324 


2122 i 


1231 


2286 1 


1124 


2215 


1259 


2315 


1230 


2285 


5333 


6400 



Lacerta viridis .... 
Anguis fragilis .... 
Natrix torąuata . 

T. 8341 

Nuclei . 
Coluber Bėrus 

Nuclei ... 
Python Tigris 

Nuclei 



L.D. 


S.D. 


1555 


2743 


1178 


2666 


1371 


2157 


3835 


6817 


1274 


1800 


3227 


4986 


1440 


2400 


3555 


7468 



102 



AMPHIBIA. 





L.D. 


S.D. 




L.D. 


S.D. 


1108 

3114 
1043 

S802 


1821 

6297 
2000 

6261 


848 
1901 
ibid. 

814 
1778 

435 
1142 


1311 
3000 
ibid. 
1246 
2667 
800 
2007 


T. 7112 

Nuclei ... 

Bufo vulgaris 

T. 5625 
Nuclei ... 


Nuclei... 


Lissotriton punctatus ... 

Nuclei... 
Siren lacertina 

Nuclei ... 



PISCES. 



L.D. 



Perca fluviatilis 2099 

T. 8000 
Nuclei ... 7482 

-— Cernua ' 2461 

Nuclei... 6000 

Cottus Gobio 2000 

T. 8000 

Cyprinus Carpio 2142 

T. 8000 
Nuclei... 6400 

Tinca 2286 

T. 8830 
Nuclei... 8500 



S.D. 



2824 

8830 
3000 
8000 
2900 

3429 

8000 
2722 

9600 



L.D. 



Cyprinus auratus I 1777 

T. 10666, 
Nuclei... 4570 

Enthrophthalmus. 2000 

Phoxinus 2000 

EsosLucius 2000 

Nuclei... 5333 

Anguilla vulgaris 1745 

T. 8000 
Nuclei... 7500 
Gyranotus electricus ... 1745 



S.D. 



2824 

8000 
3200 
2900 
3555 
8000 
2842 

10000 
2599 



103 

The following extract was read from a letter, dated Madeira, 
August 18, 1845, received from the Society's Corresponding Mem- 
ber, the Rev. R. T. Lowe : — 

" The Rev. R, T. Lo\ve has the pleasure of adding to the Society's 
collection a fine sijecimen of a new Zeus (Zeus conchifer, Lowe) of 
the greatest rarity ; the present being the second example only which 
has hitherto occurred." 

The specimen was exhibited to the Meeting. 

' On the genus Anous, Leach (Megalopternis, Boie)." By John 
Gould, Esq., F.R.S. &c. 

There is no family of birds more generally diffused over the globė 
than the Terns, and certainly no group of the Natatorial Order less 
understood, or ■which \voiild more amply reward the studious investi- 
gation of the scientific omithologist. The present short paper is 
limited to some species of the genus Anous, for the purpose of de- 
scribing three or four new ones, rather than aiming at anything likę 
a complete monograph of even this little group. It vd\\ not, how- 
ever, detract from the interest of the paper if I give a list of the spe- 
cies with which I am familiar, and reserve to some future time the 
completion of the subject. Upon the present occasion I shall exhibit 
five well-defined species ; a sixth, of \vhich I am not aware that an 
example exists in the museums of this country, is figured in the 
' Planches Coloriees' of M. Temminck. They are — 

1. Anoūs stolidus : Sterna stolida, hitm. ; Gavia fusca, Btehm ; 
Anous niger, Steph. 

2. Anotjs LEucocAPiLLTJS, Hov. sp. A. vertics et nuchd albis ; 
loris, et partibus circumocularibus, intense nigris ; omni inferiore 
corpore alisgue fuUginosis, necnon occipite, dofso, et caudd, sed 
cinereo tinctis. 

Crown of the head and nape of the neck white ; lores and space 
surrounding the eye deep black ; near the posterior angle of the upper 
and lower eyelids a small patch of white ; breast, all the under sur- 
face and the wings deep sooty black ; back of the neck, back and tail 
the šame, slightly tinged with ash ; bill black ; feet browTiish black. 

Totai length, 14 inches ; bill, 2į ; wing, 9 ; tail, 5 ; tarsi, į ; middle 
toe and nail, lį. 

Hab. North coasts of Australia. 

3. Audus MtLANOPS, nov. sp. A. veftice et mchd pallidh ci- 
nereis ; dorso saturate griseo ; macnld ante oculum^ alterdque mi- 
nore post oculum intense nigj-is. 

Crown of the head and back of the neck light ash-colour, passing 
into deep grey on the mantle and back ; immediately before the eyes 
a large patch, and behind a smaller one, of jet-black; posterior half 
of the lower and a smaller space on the upper lash snow-white ; 
throat, fore-part of the neck and all the under surface deep sooty 
black ; -vvings and all the upper surface of the šame colour, but rather 
browner ; bill black ; tarsi and toes brownish black. 

Totai length, 12 to 13 inches ; bill, 2į ; wing, 8f ; tail, 5 ; tarsi, | ; 
middle toe and nail, 1^. 



104 

Hab. Very abundant during the breeding season on the Houtman's 
Abrolhos, off the western coast of Australia. 

Remark. — This species, although very nearly allied to, is distinct 
from the Anous tenuirostris (^Sterna tetmirostris, Temm.) of 'Western 
Africa, from •vvhich it may at once be distinguished by the black marks 
before and behind the eye, of which no trace is represented in M. 
Temminck's figure in the ' Planches Coloriėes ' ; neither is this con- 
spicuous mark alluded to in his description. It is just possible that 
this may be the species described by \l. de la Fresnaye in Guerin's 
Magazine, under the generic name of Procellosterna. 

4. Anous tenuirostris : Sterna tenuirostris, Temm. PI. Col. 202. 

5. Anous cinereus, nov. sp. A. capite, colio, et corpore inferiore 
argentato-albis ; parvd plumarum lined oculum circumeunte nigrd 
ad rostrum, ad nucham albd ; dorso, alis, cauddąue Itete griseis ; 
secondariis ad apices albis. 

Head, neck and all the under surface silvery greyish white ; round 
the eye a narrow ring of feathers, the anterior half of which is deep 
black and the posterior half white ; back, w ings and tail light grey ; 
secondaries tipped -vvith white ; bill black ; tarsi and toes brownish 
black ; interdigital membrane yellowish. 

Totai length, 11 inches; bill, \į ; \ving, 8; tail, 5; tarsi, \^; 
middle toe and nail, 1|. 

Hab. The north-eastern coasts of Australia. 

Syn. Pelecanopus pelecanoides, Brit. Mus. Coli. Part iii. p. 180. 

6. Anous parvūlus. A. toto corpore cinereo-griseis ; parvo plu- 
marum annulo oculum cingente,parte anteriore nigrd , posteriore albd. 

The whole of the plumage ashy grey, being somcwhat lighter on 
the head and neck than on the other parts of the plumage ; round 
the eye a narrovv ring of feathers, the anterior half of \vhich is black 
and the posterior half white ; bill black ; tarsi and toes bro\vn. 

Totai length, 9į inches; bill, 1^ ; wing, 6į; tail, A\; tarsi, |; 
middle toe and nail, lį. 

A single specimen forms part of the collection of the Zoological 
Society, to whom it was presented by F. Debell Bennett, Esq., \vho 
procured it at Christmas Island, in the South Seas. It may be di- 
stinguished from all the other species by its small size and delicately- 
formed bill. 

Mr. Gould then exhibited two new birds from New South Wales : 

PoDARGUS PLUMIFERUS. Pod. plumis Tiūres tegentibus, quee sunt in 

cristcE formam erecta, nigro-fusco et albo alternatim fasciatis ; 

medid gula et pectore brunneo-albis, fusco minute maculatis, nec 

aliler colli pectorisgue lateribus, nec corpore subtils, nisi singulis 

plumis lined saturate fuscd in medio, et duabus maculis quadratis 

ad apicem, ornatis. 

Feathers covering the nostrils, which are erected into a tuft, alter- 

nately banded -nith blackish brown and white ; all the upper surface 

mottled brown, black and brownish white, the latter predominating 

over each eye, ■where it forms a conspicuous patch ; the markings are 

of a similar but of a larger kind on the \vings, and on the primaries 



105 

and secondaries assume the form of bars ; tail similar but paler, and 
with the barred form of the markings still more distinct ; centre of 
the throat and chest brownish white, minutely freckled with brown ; 
sides of the neck and breast and all the under surface similar, but 
with a dark line of brown down the centre and two large nearly 
square-shaped spots of brow-nish irbite near the tip of each feather ; 
bill and feet horn-colour. 

Totai length, 20inches; bill, 2| ; -vving, 9į ; tail, 10; tarsi, 1. 

In another specimen the markings are altogether of a much darker 
hue, particularly on the under surface, where the light markings are 
less distinct and more chestnut. 

Hab. The brushes of the Clarence and MacLeay rivers of New 
South Wales. 

Remark. — This species difFers from all its Australian allies by the 
more lengthened form of the tail and the conspicuous tuft of fea- 
thers which spring from the fore-part of the head, and it is from this 
character the specific name has been taken. 

Plattcercos splendidus. Plat. capite, colli lateribus, et medio 
pectore, coccineis ; genis albis ; dorso inferiore, et tectricibus caudee 
superioribus pallidi viridibus ; lateribus pectoris, et abdomine 
splendide flavis ; crisso palUde viridi. 

Head, sides of the neck and centre of the breast scarlet ; cheeks 
•white, faintly tinged -roith blue ; feathers of the back and scapularies 
black, broadly margined with gamboge-yellow ; low'er part of the 
back and upper taU-coverts pale green ; on the shoulder a patch of 
black ; wing-coverts pale blue ; primaries black, with the exception 
of the basai portion of the extemal web, which is rich deep blue ; 
two centrai tail-feathers dark green at the base, passing into deep 
blue on the apical half of the extemal -vveb, and tipped with black ; 
the next on each side is black on the internal web, green at the base 
of the external web, blue for the remainder of its length, and slightly 
tipped with \vhite ; the remainder of the tail-feathers are deep blue 
at the base of the external, and black at the base of the internal \veb, 
the remaining portion of both webs being pale delicate blue, passing 
into ^vhite at the tip ; sides of the breast and the abdomen bright 
gamboge-yellow ; vent pale green in some, in others pale bluish 
green ; under tail-coverts scarlet ; irides dark brown ; bill horn- 
colour ; feet mealy brown. 

Totai length, 12 inches ; bill, f; wing, 6; tail, 7 ; tarsi, |. 

Another specimen, probably immature, has the general colour 
similar, but has the head and breast pale yellow, interspersed Tvltb 
scarlet feathers. 

Hab. Darling Downs, New South Wales. 

Remark. — Very nearly alUed to, but a more beautiful species 
than, the Platycercus eximius, from w-hich it differs in the extent of 
the scarlet on the breast, which in this species merely occupies the 
centre, while in the former it forms a broad band across the breast ; 
the rump also is of a paler green. 

" A Description of new species of Ostrecc, in the collection of H. 
Cuming, Esq.," by Sylvanus Hanley, Esq., was then read: — 



106 

OsTREA Chemnitzii. Ost. testd obovali, plerumgue sinistrorsd, 
valde compressd, solidd, nitidd, luted aut sordide rubro-purpU' 
rnscente, subtuberosd, nonnunquam paululum subvesiculosd, nulUs 
lamellis asperatd; margine pUcato, intusque persape scabro ; plicia 
plerumque parvis ; superficie internd albido-virescente ; cicatrice 
satis maynd, subreniformi. Long. 3 poli. 
Hab. China ? Mus. Cuming, Hanley, &c. 

A species which is closely allied to rosacea, vith a peculiar resi- 
nous gloss, and invariably attached by the entire surface of the lower 
valve. The colour varies from dirty yel]ow to duU reddisli purple, 
The apices are not much attenuated. The figure 994 of Chemnitz 
is a fair representation. 

OsTREA LACKRATA. Ost. tcstd clongūtu, soUd'iusculd, valde in- 
(Equivalvi, haud lamellosd, ad yiates acutas angustatd, ad latera 
basimque laceratd ; valvuld sujjeriore planulatd, sublcevigatd, aut 
lutescente radiis sordide rubro-purpureis ornatd, aut rubro-pur- 
pured radiis duobus centralibus nigrescentibus aream angustam 
albidam includentibus ; valvuld in/eriore profundd, radiis latis 
atropurpureis strigatd, costisque raris subangulatis armatd ; super- 
ficie internd albidd, submargaritaced ; cardine denticulis nullis 
munito. Long. 2 poli. 
Hab. Senegal ? Mus. Petit, Cuming. 

Not uniike parasitica, but distinguishable by its claw-like lateral 
projections. 1 have never met with any valves attached by the en- 
tire surface, The duIl crimson specimens, adorned with two centrai 
dusky rays, which usually enclose a narrow space of yellowish vvhite, 
are peculiarly beautiful, 

OsTREA MULTiSTRiATA. Ost. testd suborbiculari, compressd, (equi- 
valvi, solidiusculd aut svbtenui, vix lamellosd, brunneo-rufescente, 
con/ertissime radiatim rugosd ; superficie internd valvulee superi- 
oris nived, purpureo marginatu ; inferioris disco centrali rufo 
pulcherrime tinctd ; cardine dentibus validis munito ; natibus haud 
eminentibus ; cicatrice satis magnd. Long. 3"3 poli. 

Mus. Saul, Cuming, Hanley. 

The lower valves were attached by their entire surfaces to a ship 
returning from the coast of Africa. 

OsTREA Megodon. Ost. tcstd fttlcatd, glabrd, solidu, subcEqm- 
valvi, pallide livido-purpurascente, margines verstis plicatd ; plicis 
anticis o aut 6, 7naximis, subangulatis ; posticis minintis, angulatis, 
paucis, subobsoletis ; margine valde plicato, intusque magis minusve 
scabro ; natibus incurvatis ; superficie internd allo-virescente, nun- 
quam margaritaced ; cicatrice satis magnd, reniformi, Long. 5 poli. 
Hab. Peru (Cuming). Mus. Cuming. 

A rare and extraordinary species, which bears not the slightegt 
resemblance to any of the recent Ostrece. The narrovv sickle-shaped 
contour and the gigantic marginai tooth-like folds form its most di» 
stinctive characteristics. The adult specimens are attached by their 
apices only. 

OsTBEA Pe8-tigris. Ost. tcstd ovuU, ūut ovūU-subtrigond, solidd, 



107 

concolore, atro-purpureo aut ruhro-purpurascente, undigue sub- 

lamellosd, ad margines dense plicatd ; lamellis imbricatis, confertis, 

depressis ; plicis regularibus, rotundatis ; valvis in longitudine 

paribus ; inferiore profundd, superiore planulald atgue in costas 

planas suleis latis remotis radiatim divisd; superficie internd 

albidd, ?nargine interno denticulato ; denticulis elongatis ; cicatrice 

satis magnd, obovali aut suborbiculari. Long. 2 poli. 

Hab. Isle of Luzon; on rocks (Cuming). Mus. Cuming, Walton. 

In typical specimens the shell is subtriangular, from the anterior 

side sloping in a produced and straightish line, abruptly from the 

beaks. The sculpture is both elegant and peculiar, the extremely 

depressed ribs being divided by rather broad grooves, and assuming 

a scalloped appearance at their edges, from the crowded sublamellar 

imbrications which cover the entire surfade. 

OsTREA BicoLOR. Ost . testd obovatd, nunquam elongatd, subtenui 
aut solidiusculd, subcompressd, vix lamellosd, purpureo-fuscescente 
radio uno vel radiis duobus albidis ornatd ; margine simplici ; 
natibus subacutis ; superficie internd, albidd colore externo margi- 
natd ; cardine denticulis nullis munito. Long. 2^ poli. 
Hab. Senegal ? Mus. Cuming, Hanley. 

As the few specimens I have yet examined of this elegant species 
have been attached by the entire surface to the sheathing of vessels, 
I am unable to describe the characteristics of the lower valve. The 
lamellae, when existing, are flattened, so that the shell presents a 
smooth surface, and appears inclined to expand laterally whenever 
unobstructed in its growth by adjacent substances. 

OsTREA CoLUMBiENsis. Ost. testd subincEcuivalvi, subtenui, lamel- 
losd, albidd, purpureo radiatd, subcompressd; valvuld inferiore 
magis convexd; superficie internd albidd, snbmargaritaced ; car- 
dine denticulis nullis munito; cicatrice satis magnd, reniformi. 
Long. 2 poli. 
Hab. St. Elena, West Columbia, adhering to rocks at half-tide 
(Cuming). Mus. Cuming. 

AU the specimens I have seen are attached by the entire surface 
of the lower valve. The shape varies from oblong to suborbicular, 
and the valves are of equal length, but the shelly substance of the 
shallow upper valve fits into the lower one, and is only continued to 
the margin by the lamellse, which, when the habitat permits, branch 
nto wavy foliations. 

OsTREA Callichroa. Ost. tcstu obovatd aut suborbiculari, solidius- 
culd, subeeguivalvi ; valvuld superiore jiurpureo albogue lutescente 
radiatd, concentrice lamellosd ; lamellis depressis ; valvuld inferiore 
magis minusve purpureo tinctd, cosiiscue radiantibus subobtusis 
dense armatd; superficie internd, albd ; ?nargine simplici; cardine 
denticulis distinctis munito. Long. 2 poli. 
Hab. Island of Chiloe, adhering to stones at low-water mark 
(Cuming). Mus. Cuming. 

The general appearance is that of our edible oyster, but the colour- 
ing is magnificent. 



108 



October 28, 1845. 

George GuUiver, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

A paper was read containing " Descriptions of new species of 
Shells," by Loveli Reeve : — 

Genus Murex. 

MuREX MACūLATUS. Muv. tcstd ovutd, suhpyrūmidali, anfractibus 
brevibus, tuberculato-varicosis, varicibus interstitiisgue subtiliter 
Uratis, liris, lirarum interstitiis quoque pulcherrime fimbriato- 
cancellatis ; albidd, maculd rubido-fuscd inter varices conspicue 
tinctd ; columelld et apertura fauce pallide rosaced ; canali bre- 
viusculo, recurvo. 

Hab. ? 

The -vvhorls of this species are strongly tubercled by the varices, 
which are very delicately cancellately ridged across. 

MuREX RUSTicus. MuT. testd ovatd, spird acuminato-turritd, an- 
fractibus medio tumidis, transverslm subobscure Uratis, tuberculato- 
varicosis, varicibus frondosis, frondibus brevibus, interstitiis mi- 
nutissime sįuamatis ; lutescente-albd, varicibtis nigricante-fuscis ; 
aperturd parvd, limbo producto ; canali breviusculo. 

Hab. ? 

A rather solid shell, with an elevated tubercled spire. 

MuREX TūRRiTūs. Mur. testd trigono-ovatd, liris convexis subno- 
dosis irregularibus confertis undiųue cingulatd, tuberculo unico 
inter varices, trifariam varicosd, varicibus peculiariter laminato- 
frondosis, frondibus erectis, lateraliter convexis ; lutescente livido- 
olivaceo hic illic saturatiore tinctd. 
Hab. North Australia; Ince, R.N. 

The entire surface of this interesting new species is encircled with 
very close-set convex ridges, each terminating on the varices in an 
erect frond, connected together at the side so as to form a continuous 
laminated frill extending from the suture to the base. From Mr. 
Cuming's coUection. 

MuREX CROCATUS. Mur. testd trigono-fusiformi, transversim li- 
ratd, liris parvis, granoso-sguamatis, tuberculo inter varices ; tri- 
varicosd, varicibus frondosis, frondibus obtuso-ramosis ; canali 
subelongato, frondoso, fuscescente, frondibus rubido-crocatis . 

Hab. ? 

An olive-bro\vn shell, wilh varices of a bright safFron colour. 
From Mr. Norris's collection. 

MuEEx PUDORicoLOR, Mur. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, obliįue 



109 

trigond, transversim Uratą, liris singulis tubercuUs duobus, basim 
versus evanidis, inter varices, lined minutd elevatd inter liras • 
trivaricosd, varicibus rotundatis, prominentibus , squamis frondi- 
busque prototomis basim versus pracipue, pulcherrime ornatis • 
eximii rubente. 
Hab. Island of St. Thomas, West Indies. 

An interesting blush-coloured shell, received from M. Griiner of 
Bremen, of which I have since observed specimens in the British 
Museum from the island of St. Vincent. 

MuREX Pleurotomoides. Mur. testd pyriformi-ovatd, anfractibus 
superrie depressis, transversim liratis et minutissime crispato- 
scuamatis, multifariam varicosis, varicibus muricato-squamatis ; 
canali subelongato, patulo ; columelld labroque intus dentatis, labro 
superrie sinuato; albidd aut flavicante. 

Hab. ? 

A small pyriform prickly shell, having a sinus in the upper part of 
the lip, after the manner of a Pleurotoma. 

RIuREx pisTACHiA. Mur. testd ovatd, subfusiformi, solidiusculd , 
anfractibus rotundatis, sulco subobsoleto prope suturam cinctis, 
transversirn crebriliratis, longitudinaliter suboblique unduloso-va- 
ricosis, varicibus obtusis ; castaneo-fuscescente, columelld et aper- 
turafauce subrosaceis ; canali brevi. 

Hab. ? 

A small chestnut-brown shell, quite distinct from any hitherto 
described. 

MuREK EURTPTERON. Mur. tcstd ovato-oMongu, basim versus 
contractd, spira breviusculd, acuminato-turritd, suturis subexca- 
vatis ; anfractibus superne depressis, transversim obscurc obtuso- 
liratis et punctato-striatis, tuberculo superficiario inter varices ; 
trivaricosd, varicibus tenuibus, erecto-alatis, ultimo latissime ex- 
panso, superne falcato-recurvo ; aperturd parvd, ovatd ; canali 
breviusculo. 
Hab. Japan ? 

For this new and remarkable shell I am indebted to the kindness 
of the Rev. W. R. Crotch, whose manuscript name eurypteron, from 
evpvs, widely extended, and irtcpov, luing, I feel great pleasure in 
adopting, as being peculiarly expressive of its curious alate growth. 
It approaches nearest to the Murex falcatus , but in that species there 
are live varices on a ■whorl, whilst in this there are but three, and the 
■vvinged expansions of the Murex falcatus are folded over at the su- 
perior margin. The specimen above described, and which is, I be- 
lieve, unique, was received from Holland, and is supposed to have 
come from Japan. 

Genus Pleurotoma. 

Pleurotoma rosacea. Pleur. testd ovato-turritd, anfractibus ro- 
tundatis, superne depresso-concavis, transversim subtiliter striatis. 



110 

longitudinaliter crebricostatis ; canali brevissimo ; sinu lato, sub- 
amplo ; undigue esimie rosaced. 
Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma b^tica. Pleur. testd turritd, anfractibus superri^ 
depresso-concavis, transversim elevato-striatis, oblique costatis, 
costis plicato-nodulosis ; canali brevissimo; sinu lato, amplo ; 
bceticd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma obliqui-costata. Pleur. testd ovato-oblongd, longi- 
tudinaliter costatd, costis angustis, obliguis, subundatis, superiie 
obtuse mucronatis ; canali brevissimo ; albidd, rubido-fusco parce 
maculatd et variegatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma fūcata. Pleur. testd ovatd, crassiusculd, anfractibus 
superne depressiusculis, longitudinaliter costellatis, costellis subob- 
tusis, striis transversis elevatis subobsoletis cancellatis, anfractu 
ultimo tuberculo gibboso inunito ; canali brevissimo ; labro superne 
subsinuato ; albd, croceo-fuscescente fasciatd et variegatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma implicata. Pleur. testd pyramidali-turritd, anfrac- 
tibus superne peculiariter depressis, infra seriatim nodosis, nodu- 
lorum serie supremd transversim biliratd ; canali brevissimo ; aper- 
turd brevi ; albidd, epidermide corned olivaced undigue indutd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma eubrifasciata. Pleur. testd abbreviato-fusiformi, 
anfractibus superne concavis, Iccvibus, infra transversim striatis, 
et pulcherrime crebrinodulosis, 7iodulis supremis, longitudinaliter 
confiuentibus ; canali subelongato ; flavescente, rubro cinereogue 
fasciatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma sacerdos. Pleur. testd subfusiformi, utringue atte- 
nuatd, crassd ; anfractibus superne valde depresso-concavis, sub- 
angulatis, tuberculis transversim compressis ad angulum cingulatis, 
infra seriatim 7iodulosis ; canali breviusculo ; carneo • albidd, fiam- 
mis maculisgue purpureo-rufis variegatd, anfractuum parte supę- 
riori cinereo tinctd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma crocata. Pleur. testd pyramidali-oblongd, transver- 
sim elevato-striatd, longitudinaliter costatd, anfractu ultimo tuber- 
culo parvo gibboso munito ; canali brevissi}no ; aperturd brevi ; 
sinu lato, amplo ; albidd, epidermide croceo-olivaced indutd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma obeliscus. Pleur. testd pyramidali-ovatd, anfrac- 
tibus superne concavis, infra nodosis, anfractus ultimi parte infe- 
riori granoso-liratd ; canali brevi; sinu amplo ; albidd, epidermide 
Jlavescente- olivaced undigue indutd. 

Hab. ? 



111 

PtEUROTOMA ARMiLLATA. Pleuv. tcstd pyrnmidaVi-ovutd, sub/usi- 
formi, anfraclibus spiraliter carinatis, carinei mediand gemmtilald , 
gemmuUs transversis, canali breviusculo, sinu amplo, profundo ; 
albidd, anfractibus supra carinam gemmulatamfuscescentibus. 

Hab. Philipinne Islands ; Cuming. 

Pleūrotoma aquatilis. Pleur. testd ovato-iurritd, solidd, spird 
acuminatd, anfractibus Itevibiis, superni depressis, obliąue plicato- 
tuberculatis ; canali brevissimo, sinu amplo; eburned, lineis plu- 
rimis subtilissimis undulatis, pallidissime corneo-fuscescentibus, 
fasciatim pictd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma flavescens. Pleur. testd ovato-turritd, anfractibus 
superne valde concavis, infra transversim striatis, nodosis, nodis 
subirregulariter costellafornie confluentibus ; canali brevissimo ; 
flavescen te- olivaced. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma fragilis. Pleur. testd ovatd, ventricosd, tenui.fra- 
gili, translucidd, anfractu ultimo valde maximo ; lineis subtilibus 
elevatis undiąue creberrime reticulatd cuarutn transverscefortiores ; 
aperturd ampld, sinuatd ; columelld basiąue truncatis, luddo-albd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma pulchella. Pleur. testd ovato-turritd, anfractibus 
superne depressis, medio plicato-tvberculatis, tuberculis angustis, 
confluentibus, anfractu ultimo tuberculo gibboso munito ; canali 
brevissimo, siriu a?nplo ; vivide rosaced.fascid linedąue castaneis, 
spiraliter cingulatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma punctata. Pleur. testd fusiformi, anfractibus su- 
perne valde depressis, lavigatis, carind parvd prope suturam medio 
nodosis, infra granulatis ; canali longiusculo ; simi latiusculo ; 
albidd, rubido-fusco punctatd, pracipuė super carinam et inter 
nodos. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma lanceolata. Pleur. testd lanceolatd, anfractibus 
superne concavis, tuberculis obliquis plūs minusve obsoletis medio 
ornatis, leevibus, anfractu ultimo minutissirne granulato ; canali 
breviusculo ; aurantio-fuscescente, tuberculis albidis. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma sacra. Pleur. testd ovatd, solidiusculd, basim versus 
subgibbosd ; anfractibus superne depressis nodulorum serie unicd 
prope suturam infra longitudinaliter granoso-costatis, transversim 
minute liratis ; canali brevissimo, sinu lato ; albidd, anfractu ultimo 
fascid pallide fuscescente cingulatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma rubinicolor. Pleur. testd ovatd, subventricosd, an- 



112 

fracttbus superne angulato-depressis , ud angulum obtuso-nodoiis, 
nodis subplicato-conflueiitibtis, lavibus, ultimo busim versus obso- 
lete striato ; canali brevissimo ; aurantio-rufd, nodis per angulum 
niveis. 
Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma nūx. Pleur. testd ovatd, subpyramidali, anfractibus 
convexis, superne leviter concavis, ultimo subgibboso ; canali bre- 
vissimo truncato ; sinu latiusculo ; rubido-castaned, columelld et 
aperturte fauce albis. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope. 

Pleūrotoma clara. Pleur. testd pyramidali, subelongatd, anfrac- 
tibus oblique plicato-nodosis, Icevibus ; canali brevissimo ; sinu 
amplo ; purpureo-fuscd, anfractuum parte superiori albd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma castanea. Pleur. testd subelongato-turritd, anfrac- 
tibus superne concavis, medio plicato-nodosis ; lavigatd, basi sub- 
tiliter sulcatd ; canali brevissimo ; castaneo-fuscu. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma vidua. Pleur. testd subobeso-ovatd, spird acnminatd, 
anfractibus superne depressis, medio plicato-nodosis, nodis crebris, 
longitudinaliter confluentibus, Icevigatd, basim versus granosd ; 
canali brevissimo; anfractuum parte superiori nived, inferiori 
olivaceo-nigricante, granis albis. 

Hab. Island of Masbate, Philippines (under stones at low water) ; 
Cuming. 

Pleūrotoma palliata. Pleur. testd ovato-oblongd, anfractibus 
convexiusculis, transversim subtilissime crebristriatis, granulorum 
serie unicd cingulatis, granulis conspicuis, elevatiusculis ; canali 
brevissimo ; albidd, epidermide pallidefulvd undique indutd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma exarata. Pleur. testd pyramidali, anfractibus trans- 
versim granoso-striatis, medio leviter angulatis, ad angulum mi- 
nute nodulosis, inter nodulos longitudinaliter exaratos ; canali bre- 
vissimo, truncato ; sinu amplo, pallidefulvo, suleis longitudinalibus 
fusco-punctatis. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma vittata. Pleur. testd abbreviato-ovatd, solidd, gib- 
bosd, spird subacuminatd, anfractibus superne depressis, medio 
plicato- tuberculatis, infra granulatis ; labro incrassato, sinu lati- 
usculo ; albidd, vittd fascidve lutescente-fuscd conspicud supra 
tubercula ornatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma olyra. Pleur. testd cylindraceo-ovatd, tenui, sub- 
pellucidd, spird brevi ; hevigatd aut obsolete striatd; aperturd 
longiusculd ; canali brevissimo, truncato ; nived, apice roseo. 

Hab. ? 



113 

Pleūrotoma sūbula. Pleur. testd acuminato-attenuatd, striis ele- 
vatis transversis et longitudinalibus creberrime reticulatd, carind 
plano-obtusd prope suturam ; canali breviusculo, sinu distincto ; 
albidd, macnlis parvis pallide aurantio-fuscis juxta suturam. 

Hab. Island of Corrigidor, Philippines (found among coarse sand 
at the depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleūrotoma aureola. Pleur. testd acuminato-elongatu, tenui, 
semipellucidd, transversim liratd, liris parvis, obtusis, longitudi- 
naliter subtilissime crcbristriatd ; canali brevi, labro intus crenu- 
lato, sinu parvo, distincto; aureold. 

Hab. Island of Luzon, Philippines; Cuming. 

Pleūrotoma satuhata. Pleur. testd pyramidali-acumi'natd, in- 
ferne subcontractd, anfraciibus striis transversis et longitudinalibus 
creberrime granoso-reticulatis ; canali breviusculo; labro subti- 
liter crcnulato, sinu distincto; intus extusque fuscd, fasciis albis 
longitudinalibus subdistantibus, fascid unicd transversd in anfractu 
ultimo ornatd. 
Hab. Island of Corrigidor, Philippines (found among coarse sand 
at the depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleūrotoma igniflua. Pleur. testd ovato-oblongd, transversim 
creberrime elevato-striatd, longitudinaliter costis latiusculis ap- 
proximatis, apicem verstis conspicuis, basim versus obsoletis ; 
canali brevi; labro intus crenulato, sinu superficiario ; albidd, 
flammis fulvo-aurantiis undato-fluentibus ornatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma patula. Pleur. testd ovato-oblongd, inferne ventri- 
cosd, subobligud, anfractibus tenuibus, transversim subtilissi7ne et 
creberrim'k striatis ; canali brevissimo, truncato ; labro simplici, 
sinu profundo, aperturd ampld ; albidd, flammis fulvo-aurantiis, 
undatis, longitudinaliter fluentibus ornatd. 

Hab. Bolinao, island of Luzon, Philippines (found under stones at 
low water) ; Cuming. 

Pleūrotoma putillus. Pleur. testd ovatd, spird pyramidali- 
acuminatd, anfractibus transversim subtiliter striatis, superne con- 
cavis, infra nodosis, nodis longitudinaliter obliguc confluentibus ; 
canali breviusculo ; labro simplici, sinu lato ; flavicante-albidd, 
lined undulatd fulvo-aurantid inter nodos fluente. 
Hab. Calipan, island of Mindoro, Philippines (found among coarse 
sand at the depth of fifteen fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleūrotoma spectrum. Pleur. testdfusiformi, transversim elevato- 
striatd, anfractibus rotundatis, longitudinaliter fortiter obligue 
plicato-nodosis, nodis in anfractu ultimo evanide confluentibus ; 
canali brevi ; labro simplici ; nived, nodis pallide rufescente-fuscis. 
Hab. Puerto Galero, island of Mindoro, Philippines (found among 
coral sand at the depth of about nine fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleūrotoma bilineata. Pleur. testd ovato-oblongd, subpyrami- 



114 

dali, anfractihus medio tumidis, uniseriatim plicato-nodosis, nodis 
angustis cornpressitiscuUs, anfractds ultimi dorso callositate mu- 
nito ; canali brevissimo, labro simplici, sinu amplo ; incarnato- 
fiiscescente, lineis duabus saturatioribus, guarum superior muito 
subtilior inter nodos cingitlata. 
Hab. Islands of Capul and Mindoro, Philippines (found on the 

reefs and among coarse sand at the depth of fifteen fathoms) ; Cu- 

ming. 

Pleūrotoma Metcalfiana. Pleur. testd ovatd, crassiusculd, 
transversim creberrime elevato-striatd, longitudinaliter apicem 
versus subobsolete sulcatd ; albd, maculis rtifo-fuscis subguadratis 
fasciatim pictd ; canali brevi. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma Grayi. Pleur. testd ovatd, subventricosd, anfractibus 
superne angulatis, longitudinaliter obtuso-costatis, transversim 
creberrime sulcatis ; canali brevi ; labro incrassato, sinu amplo ; 
castaneo-fuscd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma luteo-fasciata. Pleur. testd subovato-oblongd, an- 
fractibus prope suturam impressis, longitudinaliter f ortiter costatis, 
costis crebris, obtusis ; canali brevissimo ; albd, fasciis luteis pul- 
cherrime ornatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma pagodūs. Pleur. testd pyramidali, anfractibus superne 
depressis, subangulatis, ad angulum costatis, costis brevibus, con- 
fertis, lineis elevatis decussatis ; cinereo-rufescente, maculis rubidis 
inter costas, columelld labroque rubido tinctis ; canali brevi. 

Hab. ? 

Pleubotoma urnula. Pleur. testd ovatd, ventricosd, spira brevi- 
usculd, longitudinaliter costatd, transversim elevato-striatd ; cas- 
taneo-fuscd; canali breviusculo, aperto. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma Forthiensis. Pleur. testd pyramidali-oblongd, an- 
fractibus superne subangulatis, longitudinaliter obligue costatis; 
basi truncatd; albidd. 

Hab. Frith of Forth ; Gray. 

Pleūrotoma reflexa. Pleur. testd ovatd, Tritoniformi, concen- 
trice costatd, transversim f ortiter liratd ; aperturd longiusculd 
sinuosd, labro reflexo, intus denticulato. 

Hab ? 

Pleūrotoma quadrata. Pleur. testd ovatd, spird turritd, anfrac- 
tibus f ortiter angulatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis ad angulum 
mucronatis, infra striis duabus elevatis cingulatis, anfractds ulti- 
mi parte inferiori lird mucronatd clathratd ; flavicante, costarum 
interstitiis rufo-castaneis ; sinuparvo. 

Hab. ? 



115 

Pleueotoma pabvula. Pleur. testd fusiformi-ovatd, anfractihus 
tumidiusculis, longitudinaliter costatis, transversim creberrime U- 
ratis į canali breviusculo ; lutescente. 

Hab. ? 

Pleūrotoma pseudo-carinata. Pleur. testd ovatdysubpyramidali, 
anfractibus superne concavis, subindistinctl carinatis, infra confer- 
timplicato- costatis, transversim crebrisulcatis ; basi truncatd; fia- 
vescente. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma languida. Pleur. testd gracili-fusiformi, longitudi- 
naliter noduloso-costatd, transversim elevato-striatd, costis strits- 
que subdistantibus ; sinu amplo ; albd, rufescente-fusco tinctd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma puncticincta. Pleur. testd ovatd, spird breviusculd, 
longitudinaliter subobscure plicatd, interstitiis minutissiml striatis; 
sinu subamplo ; albidd, cinguld unicd punctatd spiraliter ornatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma pyramidula. Pleur. testd subpyramidali-elongatd. 
Kris minutis lorigitudinalibus et transversis creberrime^ clathratd, 
suturis unicarinatis ; aperturd parvd, sinu amplo ; basi truncatd ; 
albidd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma >eruginosa. Pleur. testd acuminato-turritd, anfrac- 
tibus longitudinaliter subobsolete plicato-costatis, interstitiis minu- 
tissime impresso-striatis ; albidd, suturis livido-viridescentibus, 
anfractds ultimi parte inferiori Uvido-viridescente, punctis nigri- 
cantibus marginatd, apice rufescente-fusco. 

Hab. . ? 

Pleurotoma obliciuata. Pleur. testd ovatd, subobesd, spird acu- 
minatd, anfractibus medio angulato-tumidis , oblique costatis, costis 
ad angulum nodosis ; intus extusque flavido-fuscd, zond pallidd 
angustd ad angulum cingulatd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma pellis-phoc^. Pleur. testd pyramidali. anfractibus 
convexis, longitudinaliter fortiter et creberrime granulatis, trans- 
versim subsulcatis, aperturd peculiariter parvd, sinu indistincto. 

Hab.= ? 

^"^J Pleurotoma vexillum. Pleur. testd acuminato-elongata, longi- 
tudinaliter crebricostatd, basi transversim liratd ; aperturd parvd, 
sinu amplo, albidd, suturis et anfractus ultimi parte inferiori f uscis. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma cardinalis. Pleur. testd pyramidali, spird acumi- 
natd, anfractibus longitudinaliter subtiliter plicatis, transversim 
minutissime striatis ; sinu lato, amplo ; albidd, fasciis violaceo- 
brunneis cingulatd. 



116 

Hab, Island of Negros, Philippines (found among sand at the 
depth of four fatlioms) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma arata. Pleur. testd pyramidali, suturis peculiariter 
excavatis, anfractibus lavihus angustis granulosis creberrime cin- 
gulatis ; aperturd parvd ; albd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma Guildingii. Pleur. testd py ramidali'Oblongd, anfrac- 
tibus superne depresso-concavis, infra obligue nodoso-plicatis, 
transversim undique creberrime striatis ; intus extusque piceo-nigrd. 

Hab. St. Vincent's, West Indies ; Guilding. 

Pleurotoma hyalina. Pleur. testd elongato-acuminatd, basi trun- 
catd, tenui, hyalitid, longitudinaliter undique minutissime et con- 
fertissime elevato-striatd ; albidd, lineis rufo-fuscis distantibus 
cingulatd; labro simplici, sinu parvo. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma Ticaonica. Pleur. testd oblongo-ovatd, spira tereti, 
anfractibus subventricosis, transversim irregulariter liratis, lira- 
rum interstitiis minutissime clathratis ; albidd, aurantio-fusco hic 
illic flammatd ; sinu parvo. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philippines (found on the reefs) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma fulva. Pleur. testd oblongo-ovatd, subturritd, an- 
fractibus longitudinaliter multicostatis , costis angustis, prominen- 
tibus ; fulvd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma cantharis. Pleur. testd obtuso-ovatd, crassd, solidd, 
lecvigatd, anfractibus medio oblique nodoso-plicatis ; sinu subamplo; 
nigricante-fuscd, nodis albidis. 

Hab. Sibonga, island of Zebu, Philippines (found under stones at 
low ■vvater) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma vultuosa. Pleur. testd ovatd, anfractibus subrotun- 
dis, longittidinaliter obtuse costatis, transversim creberrime liratis ; 
labro intus denticulato, sinu amplo, lato ; albicanle, apice pallide 
rosaceo. 

Hab. Baclayon, island of Bohol, Philippines (found under stones) ; 
Cuming. 

Pleurotoma opalus. Pleur. testd oblongo-ovatd, pentagonali, 
crassd, Icevigaid, longitudinaliter costatd, costis oblique continuis, 
subnodosis, angustis, quasi vellicutis, interstitiis plano-concavis ; 
aperturd parvd, sinu amplo, profundo ; eburned, nitente, costarum 
interstitiis incarnato-fuscescentibus. 
Hab. Cagayan, province of Misamis, island of Mindanao, Philip- 
pines (found in sandy mud at the depth of twenty-five fathoms) ; 
Cuming. 

Pleurotoma ebur. Pleur. testd oblongo-ovatd, pentagonali, crassd. 



117 

spird acuminatd, longitudinaliter continue costatd, transversim 
striatd, striis basim versus conspicuis ; sinu amplo, profundo ; 
ehurned. 
Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma įgrota. Pleur. testd oblongo-ovatd, tenuiculd, sub- 
ventricosd, spirce suturis profundis, striis impressis longiludinali- 
hus et transversis undiįue decussatd ; aperturd subelongatd, ampld ; 
albicante. 

Hab. Singapore (found among fine sand at the depth of seven fa- 
thoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma concentricostata. Pleur. testd gracili-fusįformi, 
spird acuminatd, anfractibus creberrime concentrice costatis, sutu- 
ris simplicibus ; incarnato-fuscescente. 

Hab. ? 

PiEUROTOMA LiRATA. Pleur. testd subfusiformi, basi contractd, 

transversim undiąue liratd, columelld excavatd, callositate superne 

munitd, labro subeffuso, leviter incrassato, sinu lato, amplo, canali 

paululhm elongato ; albidd, labri margine intus rufescente. 

Hab. Islands of Luzon and Mindanao, Philippines (found in sandy 

mud at the depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma nexa. Pleur. testd ovatd, Tritoniformi, anfractibus 
subrotundatis, plicato- costatis, funiculis exilibus angustis, costas 
super leviter nodulosis, cingulatis ; aperturd subampld, labro pla- 
nulato, sinu lato ; canali brevissimo, recurvo ; albd, fusco undique 
tinctd et f asciatd, funiculis suturatioribus. 

Hab. Islands of Masbate and Luzon, Philippines (found under 
stones at low water) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma inquinata. Pleur. testd acuminato-fusiformi, an- 
fractibus transversim exiliter liratis, longitudinaliter creberrime 
striatis ; sinu profundo ; albidd, aurantio-fusco hic illic inguinatd. 
Hab. Gindulman, island of Bohol, Philippines (found among coral 
sand at the depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma undaticosta. Pleur. testd fusiformi, anfractibus 
superne leviter depressis, costis longitudinalibus undatis concentrice 
ornatd; albidd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma paxillus. Pleur. testd abbreviato-ovatd, spird apice 
acuminatd ; ajifractibus superne concavis, unicarinatis, medio cre- 
berrime plicatis, pUcarum interstitiis subtilissime striatis, inferne 
liratis ; sinu amplo ; 7iigricante-fuscd. 

Hab. } 

Pleurotoma soedida. Pleur. testd ovatd, longitudinaliter subob- 
ligut costatd, costarum interstitiis elevatis clathratis ; sordide albd 
Hab. } 

Pleurotoma pluricarinata. Pleur. testd subfusiformi-oblongd. 



118 

carinis plurimis acutis cingulatd, guarum interstitia striis longi- 
tudinalibus cancellata ; aperturd oblongd, sinu subamplo; canali 
leviter recurvo ; lutescente, aurantio-fusco pallide strigato-tinctd. 
Hab. Island of Buriąs, Philippines (found in sandy mud at the 
depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma compta. Pleur. testd ovatd, spird nodoso-ttirritęt, 
anfractibus superne concavis, infra late costatis, liris angustis 
transversim funiculatis ; labro incrassato, intus denticulato, sinu 
amplo, lato ; lutescente-albd. 

Hab. Baclayon, island of Bohol, Philippines (found under stones 
at low water on the reefs) ; Cuming. 

/jTiįIV' Pleurotoma hexagonalis. Pleur. testd pyramidali-ovatd, an- 
fractibus costis sex continuis longitudinaliter ornatis ; aperturd 
parvd, sinu distincto ; fuscescente-albd. 
Hab. Loay, island of Bohol, Philippines (found in sandy mud at 
the depth of seventeen fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Plettrotoma arctata. Pleur. testd pyramidali-elongatd, anfrac- 
tibus obligue costatis, costis striis elevatis funiculatis ; labro in- 
crassato, peculiariter effuso, sinu amplo ; sordide albd. 

Hab. Island of Corrigidor, Philippines (found among coarse sand 
at the depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma coccinata. Pleur. testd ovatd, apicem versus acumi- 
naid, anfractibus IcEvigatis, superne concavis, infra plicato-nodosis ; 
basi truncatd ; albd, inter nodos dorsumgue coccinatd, 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma vitrea. Pleur, testd cylindraceo-elongatd, basi le- 
viter contractd, tenui, pellucidd, vitred, Icevigatd, anfractibus su- 
perne et inferne subtilissime sulcatis ; albidd. 

Hab. Singapore and island of Mindanao, Philippines (found at 
depths of seven and twenty-five fathoms) ; Cuming, 

Pleurotoma foraminata. Pleur. testd fusiformi-ovatd, liris an- 
gustis longitudinalibus et transversis creberrime clathratis ; lutes- 
cente. 

Hab. .? 

Pleurotoma efficta. Pleur. testd ovatd, spird breviusculd, acu- 
minatd, longitudinaliter subconcentrice costatd, costis striis elevatis 
cancellatis ; aperturd subampld, labro incrassato, sinu latiusculo. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma cavernosa. Pleur. testd oblongd, spird angulato- 
turritd, anfractibus superne subangulatis, longitudinaliter costatis, 
costis distantibus, liris angustis elevatiusculis transversis clathra- 
tis, anfractu tiltimo prope basini peculiariter cavernoso ; fuscd, 
liris costas super albicantibus. 

i/ai. Philippine Islands; Cuming. 



119 

Pleurotoma Polynesiensis. Pleur. testd acuminato-turritd, ari' 
fractibus parvis, rotundatis, longitudinaliter crebricostatis, trans- 
versim striatis ; labro incrassato, siiiu amplo ; albicante. 

Hab. Lord Hood's Island ; Cuming. 

The follovving paper, entitled " Dėscription de ąueląues nouvellea 
Nuritės Fluviatiles, du cabinet de H. Cuming, Esq.," par C. A. 
Recluz, was then read : — 

I. NeRIT^E SUBHEMISPH^RICjE. 

1. Nerita Rossmassleriana. Ner. testd subhemispharicd, con- 
vexd, luteo-fulvd, nigro irregulariter reticulatd; anfractu unico 
Itevissime perlongurn striato ; peritremate ovato-rotundato, basi 
obtuse anguloso ; aperturd croced ; columelld planissimd, declivi, 
margine acuto, in medio subarcuato et obsoletissime 3—4-denticu- 
lato. 

Hab. ? 

Alt. 10, lat. 18, convex. 10 mill. 

Cette Nuritinę par son extėrieur rappelle trės bien la forme et la 
coloration exterieure de la Nerita Sayana, RecL, et par son ouver- 
ture la Nerita Bruguiereana, Recl. Ces deux circonstances peuvent 
servir k la faire distinguer de toutes les deux ; mais c'est principale- 
ment par ses caractėres specifiąues qu'il est aise de la differencier. 
Nous la dedions au savant professeur et conchyliologue distinguė, 
Mr. Rossmassler. 



2. Nerita violacea, Gmelin; Ner. crepidularia, Lamk. 

Var. /3. Testd ellipticd, luteo-palUdd, violaceo-nigricante reticulatd; 

aperturd nigricante ; peritremate continuo. 
Hab. ? Cabinet de Mr. H. Cuming. 

II. SERRAT.fi. 

A. Globosa. 

3. Nerita sobrina. Ner. testd globoso-ovatd, lutescente, lineis 
nigris distantibus latiusculis undatis vel angulato-flexuosis fulgu- 
rantibusąue pictd ; an/ractibus tribus, ad sitturam nigro-margi' 
natis ; spira semisphcericd ; columelld convexiusculd, supeme plūs 
minusve callosd, inferne compresso-subcanaliculatd, margine rectd, 
vix denticulald ; labro semi-elUptico, intus incrassato. 

Hab. Cayenne ? 

Alt. 20, lat. 23, conv. 15 mill. 

Nėrite si voisine de la jVer. zebrą, Bruguiėre, var. major, Encycl. 
Meth. pi. 455. fig. 3, a. b, que l'on serait tente de la confondre avec 
cette espece deja si variable, si eile n'etait plūs solide, plūs grande 
et k lignes colorantes plūs larges, plūs espacėes et plūs anguleuses. 
Sa suture noire comme sur cette derniėre, sur la Ner. lineolata, 
Lamk., et sur la Ner. reclivata, Say, dont eile se rapproche aussi par 
la forme exterieure et les caractėres de l'ouverture, sembleraient faire 
pencher vers sa fusion avec la Ner. zebrą. Cependant comme nous 



120 

n'en connaissons que peu d'exemplaires, rious avons pense qu'il ne 
serait pas inutile de la signaler ici. Ce serą seulement lorsąu'elie 
serą plūs abondante qu'on pourra dėcider si eile doit rester indėpen- 
dante de la premiėre ou lui ėtre rėunie. 

B. Ovatce vel ovato-oblonga. 

4. Nerita Zelandica. Ner. testd ovato-oblongd, ventricosd, te- 
nuiusculd ; anfractihus 3—4 supremis scepius derosis, infimo sub- 
suturd horizontaliterque compresso ; nigrd lineis ravidis longitudi- 
nalibus angulato-flexuosis creberrimis pictd, interdum lutescente 
superne et inferne late. fasciatd ; columelld subcompressd, croced, 
margine denticulatd et in medio vix arcuatd; iabro teiitii, margine 
■sordide rubente, intus lacteo ac parimi incrassato. 

Hab. New Zealand : on stones in mountain-streams. 

Alt. 19-20, lat. 18-19, conv. 12 mill. 

Neritine intermediaire entre la Nerita turrita, Chemnitz, et la Ne- 
rita communis, Quoj' et Gima^rd. (Neritina sinensis, Beck, ex fide pro- 
pria). Eile est toujuurs d'une texture plūs mince que ces derniėres, 
presque fragile, autrement colorėe et constante dans ses caractėres. 

III. Spinos-e (Clithon, Montfort, Leach). 

C. Mutica. 

5. Nerita solium. Ner. testd ovato-ventricosd, olivaced, postice 
maculis rufis triangularibus transversisctie obsolete pictd ; anfrac- 
tibus \\ ; infimo siipra medium vix anguloso, superne depresso ; 
apice puncto excavato notato ; aperturd albd, margine pallidė lu- 
tescente sive aurantid; columelld plano-compressd, superne callosd, 
margine rugosd et in medio excavatd. 

Hab. Bencoonet, isle of Sumatra ; in a muddy stream. 

Alt. 22, lat. 26į, convex. 18 mill. 

Celle-ci a de l'affinitė avec la Nerita bicolor, Recl. ; eile est nėan- 
moins plūs transversale ou obiique, plūs ėpaisse et pesante, et d'une 
coloration tout-a-fait differente. 

6. Nerita celata. Ner. testd globoso-ovatd, olivaceo-lutescente, 
postice pallidiore, striis intensioribus longitudinalibusąue pictd; 
anfractibus lį ; infimo supra medium subanguloso ; aperturd 
albido-carulescente pallido ; columelld plano-compressd, superne 
callosd, margine denticulatd, medio breviter ac recte emarginatd. 

Hab. ? 

Alt. 17, lat. 20i, convex. 14 mill. 

Espece intermediaire entre la Nerit. bicolor et la Ner. olivacea, 
Rėcl. ; eile a la coloration interieure et presque rextėrieure de la 
premiėre, si ce n'est qu'elle est briliante, et l'autre a un ton de cou- 
leur presque mat ; eile n'a qu'un tour et dėmi, formant une spire 
basse : l'autre en a trois disposes en eone. Son sommet est entier 
tandis que sur la Ner. bicolor, ce sommet est toujours tronquė par 
rapport a sa corrodation ; enfin l'ėchancrure de la maize columellaire 
toujours plūs ėtroite, a un peu plūs de profondeur. Sa forme genė- 
rale la rapproche seulement de la Ne?: olivacea. 



121 

7. Nerita DoiNGii. Ner. testd parvd, globoso-ovatd vel suhglo- 
bosd, purum obliqud, tenuiusculd ; anfractibus lį— 2 oblique rugu- 
losis, transversim et sub lente creberrime ac obsolefe striolatis ; 
aperturd viriduld; columelld/ere pland, margine denticulatd et in 
medio subarcuatd; labro tenui, semicirculari. 

Var. a. Testd lineolis longitudinalibus undulatis nigris et luteis cre- 
berrime pictd. 

Var. /3. Testd ut in var. a, et zonis lutescentibus plūs minusve nume- 
rosis cinctd. 

Hab. Hanover Bay, North Australia. CoUected by Mr. T. E. 
Doing, R.N. 

Alt. 9i, lat. 10, convex. 7 mill. 

Les stries longitudinales sont en forme dėridės dans la moitiė su- 
pėrieure du dernier tour et s'afFaiblissent sur l'autre moitiė au fur et 
a mesure qu'elles avancent vers sa basse ; les transversales sont trės 
fines, pressees et ne se montrent complėtement que sous la loupe. 

8. Nerita Colombaria. Ner. testd ovato-globosd, Icevissime stri- 
atd ; anfractu unico, rufescente, viridescente pallido obsolete fas- 
ciatd, maculis minimis luteis nigro seu roseo marginatis pictd ; 
columelld callosd, subconvexd, denticulatd, medio vix emarginatd ; 
labro antice subtruncato, basi et intus incrassato. 

Operculo crasso, externe viridulo, lutescente pallido undato, medio 

perlongum strid bipartito, 
Var. /3. Testd viridi-olivaced, striis luteis distantibus ornatd, medio 

et inferne lutescente late fasciatd ; fasciis nebulis rubris pictis. 
Hab. Colombo, Ceylon. CoUected by Capt. Templeton. 
Alt. 9-iOi lat. 10|-11, convex. 7-8 mUl. 
Espėce bien distincte. 

IV. SUBAURICULAT^. 

9. Nerita Jordani, Butler, Sowerby, Conch. lUustr. 

Var. o. Major. Testd ovatd vel oblongd, albidd, lineis undulatis ni- 
gris, rubris, violaceisve pictd ; aperturd obligue semi-ovatd ; labro 
interdum superne dilatato. 
Var. /3. Strangulata. Testd minor, rotundatd, ovatd seu subconicd, 
medio horizontaliter compressd,fere strangulatd, albidd lineis ro- 
seis rubrisve pictd; spird sapiūs obtusd, interdum acutd ; labro 
superne interdum dilatato. 
Var. y. Nitida. Testd major, nigerrimd, nitidissimd. 
Var. i. Limosa. Testd parvd, scepissime argilld crasse obductd, sub- 
tils albidd aut luteo-viridescente lineis nigris, violaceis, rubrisve 
undulatis pictd, interdum omnino nigerrimd sive lutescente. — A^e- 
rita lutescens, Megerle ? 
Hab. La var. a. Le Jourdain ; la var. /3. Smyrne ; la var. y. La Syrie ; 
la var. S. C^plialonie. 

Nous n'avons pu trouver des caractėres propres ^ difFėrencier 
toutes ces coąuilles trės variables dans la forme gėnėrale et la colo- 
ration ; eiles sont arrondies, ovales, oblongues ou en eone aigii ; leur 
ouverture souvent semispherique ou semiovale tend a s'etendre en 



122 

aile vers la marge superieure du labre. Leur opercule est le mėme. 
Nous avons acquis, sous le nom de Ner. lutescens, Megerle, une va- 
riėtė de cette espėce tantot ovale transverse mince et noire, tantot 
ovale selon raxe longitudinal, plūs forte et zėbree ; toutes les deux 
remarąuables par un enduit argilleux, epais, dur, qui enveloppait leur 
tęst dans une ėpaisseur de 3 k 5 millimėtres. Cette particularitė 
que l'on remarąue egalement sur la Nerita domingensis, Lamarck, et 
mėme sur certaines coąuilles de la Nerita fluviatilis, Lamarck, vivant 
dans les mares, doit-elle ėtre attribuėe a l'ėtat d'apathie de l'animal, 
dont le repos faciliterait les dėpots successifa du limon, ou bien 
serait-il un moyen employė par ces animaux pour se prėserver de 
l'attaąue de leurs ennemis, ou d'une trop grande chaleur ou d'un 
grand froid, selon les climats dans lesąuels ils vivent ? Ce qu'il 
y a de certain c'est que beaucoup de ces coąuilles ainsi recouvertes 
cnt la spire gėneralement corrodėe. Quelques observateurs ont cru 
remarąuer, que la corrodation de la spire des coquilles fluviatiles 
habitant les eaux \'ives ou agitėes ėtait un fait du a ce mouvement 
des eaux ; nous ne pensons pas que cette raison soit la seule, et ii ne 
serait pas sans intėrėt d'en etudier la cause, sur plusieurs parties 
de notre globė. 

" Dėscription d'une nouvelle espėce de Conovulus," par C. A. Re- 
cluz : — 

Conovulus Cumingianus. Con. testd oblongo-acutd, leevigatd, 
nitidd, castaned ; anfractibus 10-12, planis, angustis, ultimo 
supra medium obtusissinie carinato, carind zond lutescente cinctd ; 
spird conico-aaitd ; aperturd angustatd ; columclld obligvd, tri- 
plicatd, plicd superiori parvuld, secundd majori, ab inferiori por- 
rectd sulco profundo disjunctd ; labro acuto, fulvo, intvs ulbo, 
subcalloso et sulcato ; umhilico nulio. 

Long. 16 mill, larg. 7 mill. 

Hab. Isle of Negros : in a rivulet. 

Rapportėe par Mr. Cuming. 



123 



November 25, 1845. 

Williani Horton Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

A paper Tvas read containing " Descriptions of fourteen new spe- 
cies of Hclix, belonging to the coUection of H. Cuming, Esq.," by 
Dr. L. PfeifFer :— 

1. Helix albocincta, Pfr. Hel. testu umhiUcatd, orbicuhtto-con- 
vexd, tenuiusculd, superne regulariter et confertim striatu, sericind, 
fulvo-corned, carinatd ; spird depresso-cotūcd, apice obtiiso; an- 
fractibus 5y convexis, carind albd cinctis, nltimo basi sublcevigaio, 

lineis subtilibus, coiicentricis notato ; umbilico mediocri, pervio ; 

aperlurd obligud, angulato-lunari ; peristomate sunplice, acuto. 
Diam. 11, alt. 5 mill. 
Collected by Mr. Cuming at Himamaylan, island of Negros. 

2. Helix Boholensis, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, depressd, len- 
ticulari, acute carinatd, tenui, corneo-albidd ; spird convexiusculd ; 
anfractibus 7 planulatis, regulariter confertim striatis, juxta ca- 
rinam lineis 2 acute elevatis approximatis cinctis, ultimo basi con- 
vexiusculo, striatulo, medio vix impresso, a?itice non descendcnte ; 
aperturd verticali, depressissimd, late angulato-lunari; peristo- 
mate simplice, acuto, margine supero brevissimo. 

Diam. 14, alt. 6 mill. 

Var. minor, anfractibus 6į. Diam. 10, alt. 4 mill. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming at Loboc, island of Bohol. 

3. Helix cyathūs, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, orhiculato-conicd, 
superne arcuatim costulato-striatd, unicolore fuscd ; spird elevatd, 
obtuse conicd ; suturd distinctd, crenulato-marginatd ; anfractibus 
65 convexiusculis , ultimo carinato, basi sublcevigato, planiusculo ; 
umbilico magno, profundo, cyathiformi ; aperturd subverticali, 
angulato-lunari ; peristomate simplice, margine supero recto, basali 
arcuato, reflexiusculo, columellari breviter descendente. 

Diam. 8, alt. 4^ mill. 

CoUected by Mr. Cuming at S. Jaun, province of Cagayan, island 
of Luzon, on the leaves of trees. 

4. Helix dubiosa, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, depresso-globosd, 
tenui, obsolete malleatd, fulvd, fascid suturnli et ared columellari 
nigro-rufis.fasciisplurimis angustis epidermidis hydrophance ai- 
bidm ornatd ; spird subsemiglobosd ; anfractibus 4 convexiuscuUs, 
celeriter accrescentibus ; columelld intrante, planulatd, declivi; 
aperturd lunato-rotundatd, intus margaritaced ; peristomate tenui, 
albo, late expanso, vix reflexiusculo, margine basali cum columelld 
angulum obsoletum formante. 

No. CLIII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



124 

Diam. 35, alt. 26 mill. 

ft. Fasciis 2 nigricantibus ad peripheriam. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming on the island of Samar. This is the 
shell figured by Mr. Reeve under the name of H. decipiens, Sowerby 
(Conchologia Sytematica, vol. ii. pi. 145. fig. 16); it is nearer allied 
to H. mirabilis, Fėr., but may be distinguished as a good species. 

5. Helix filocixcta, Pfr. Hel. testd perforatd, depressd, tenui, 
pellucidd, corned, striatuld, nitidd ; spird jyariim elevatd, obtusd; 
anfractibus b\ co?ivexivsculis, carinatis, ultimo basi convexo ; ca- 
rind fiUformi, in anfractibus superioribus conspicud, sed non ex- 
sertd ; aperturd verticali, lunato-subauriformi ; peristotnate sim- 
pUce, recto, margine columellari perobliquo, elongato, descendente, 
ad dextram subith ascendente. 

Diam. 11, alt. 5į raill. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming at Cagayan, province of Misamis, island 
of Mindanao. 

6. Helix Gouldi, Pfr. Hel. testd umhilicatd, orbiculato-conicd, 
tenuiusculd, subtiliier striatuld, vix nitiduld, unicolore fuscd; 
spird elevatd, conoided ; anfractibus 6 convexiuscuUs, ultimo cari- 
nato, antice subrotundato, basi planiore ; umbilico mediocri, pervio; 
aperturd lunato-orbiculari ; peristomate simplice, marginibus sub- 
conniventibus, dextro recto, columellari subdilatato, patente, basali 
reftexiusculo. 

Diam. 9i, alt. 6 mill. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming in the province of Lagūna, island of 
Luzon, and on the island of Negros. 

7. Helix orthostoma, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, su- 
pernc confertim subarcuato-striatd, temii, pellucidd, pallide corned ; 
spird vix elevatd, obtusd ; anfractibus 6 angustis, convexiusculis, 
ultimo basi subleevigato ; umbilico mujusculo, cylindraceo ; aperturd 
verticali, obligue lunari; peristomate simplice, acuto, margine 
supero brevi, basali valde arcuato, columellari dilatuto, sinuato, 

Diam. 10, alt. 5 mill. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming at Dingle, island of Pana)^ under de- 
cayed leaves. 

8. Helix strigilis, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, lenticu- 
lari, tenui, pellucidd, pallide corned, acute carinatd ; anfractibus 
6 angustis, vix convexiusculis, superne confertim costuhtto-striatis, 
lineis elevatis concentricis reticulatis, ultimo basi convexiore, lavi- 
gato, nitido ; umbilico mediocri, cylindrico ; aperturd subverti- 
cali, angulato-lunari ; peristomate simplice, acuto, margine supero 
brevi, strictiusculo, basali valde arcuato. 

Diam. 12, alt. oį mill. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming at Himamaylan, island of Negros. 

9. Helix conspersula, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, turhinatd, 
striatuld, opacd, tenuiusculd, stramined vel cinnamomed, punctis 
albis confo'tissimh conspersd ; spird conoided, apice obtusiusculo. 



125 

nigricante ; suturd mediocri, castaneo-marginatd ; anfractibus 6 
convexiusciilis, ultimo suhangulato, basi planiusculo ; columelld 
obligvd, subarcuatd, subexcavatd, albd, castaneo-marginatd ; aper- 
turd ampld, lunato-ovali ; peristomate siinpUce, breviter expa7iso. 

Diam. 23i alt. 15 mill. 

Hab. ? 

10. H£Lix Hartmanni, Pfr. Hel. testd umUlicatd, depressd, stil- 
discoided, acute carinatd, arcuutim distincte striatd, unicolore 

fuscd; spird vix elatd ; suturd lineari ; anfractibus Q planulatis, 
ultimo non descendente, basi convexiusculo ; umbilico magno, per- 
spectivo; aperturd depressd, securiformi ; peristomate recto, mar- 
gine supero simplice, antrorsum arcuato, basali subincrassato. 

Diam. 26, alt, 8 mill. 

Hab. ? 

11. Helix HELicoPHANTOiDES, Pfr. HbI. tcstd pcrforatd, dcprcssd, 
temti, obligue et confertim costulato-striatd, stramined, rufo tes- 
sellatd et strigatd; spii-d planiusculd ; anfractibus 3i vix convex- 
iusadis, rapide crescentibus, ultimo depresso ; aperturd peroblicud, 
ampld, subovali ; peristomate simplice, acuto, marginibus approxi- 
matis, callo tenuissimo junctis . 

Diam. maj. 4f, alt. 2 mill. (Spec. max. coli. Cuming.) 
Hab. Island of Juan Fernandez. 

The shape of this shell is very likę that of Helicophanta rufa. 
Perhaps it may belong to the šame genus. 

12. Helix marmorella, Pfr. Hel. testd perforatd, depressd. 
tenuissimd,distanter costulatd.pellucidd, stramined, strigis obliguis 
et maculis rufis marmoratd; spird pland ; anfractibus 3 vix con- 
vexiusculis, rapide accrescentibus, ultimo basi paulb convexiore ; 
aperturd perobligud, ampld, lunato-ovali; peristomate simplice, 
acuto, marginibus callo tenui junctis, supero antrorsum arcuato. 

Diam. 7, alt. 3 mill. 

Hab. Island of Juan Fernandez. 

13. Helix Kingi, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, sub lente 
confertissime striatd, tenui, diapkand, stramined, rufo-flammulatd 
et 1-2 fasciatd ; spird depressd; anfractibus 5į convexiusculis, 
celeriter accrescentibus; umbilico majusculo, perspectivo ; aper- 
turd lunato-ovali ; peristomate simplice, acuto, marginibus conni- 

yentibus, columellari subdilatato, patente. 
Diam. 7, alt. 3 mill. (Spec. max. coli. Cuming.) 
Hab. Island of Juan Fernandez. — An H. pusio. Kino- ? 

14. Helix radiella, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, sub- 
Icnticulari, tenui, utrintįtie confertim costulatd, corned, strigis cre- 
bris undatis, castaneis, ad peripheriatn latioribus radiatd ; spird 
vix elevatd; anfractibus 5^ convexiusculis, ultimo subangulato. 
basi planiusculo ; umbilico mediocri, pervio ; aperturd subverticali, 
latl lunari; peristomate simplice, tenui. 

Diam. 4|. alt. 2į mill. 

Collected by Mr. Cuming on the island of Opara. 



126 

A paper was also read containing " Descriptions of thirty-six new 
species of HeUx, belonging to the coUectioa of H. Cuming, Esq.," 
by Dr. L. PfeifFer :— 

1. Helix Incei, Pfr. Hel. testd umhilicatd, depresso-globosd, so- 
liduld, striatd, sub epidermide j)allide fulvd albd , fasciis angustis 
castaneis cingulatd ; spird elevatd, acutiiiscuhi ; anfractibus 7 vix 
convexiusciilis , ultimo circa vnibilicitm mediocrem, pervhim sub- 
compresso ; columelid arcuatd; aperturd perobligud, lunato-ovali ; 
peristomate albo, ienui, intus sublabiato, margine dejctro vix ex- 
panso, basali reJlexo, columellari in laminam triangularem dilatatd, 
umbiUcum setnitegente. 

Diam. 38. alt. 28 mill. 

ft. Minor, epidermide castanea, fasciis indistinctis, anfractu ultimo 

basi flavo. 
Diam. 32, alt. 21 miil. 
From North Australia, coUected by Lieut. Ince, R.N. 

2. Helix .Tonasi, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd , globoso-conoided, 
soliditisculd, lavigatd, non nitens, pallidr viresccns ; spird obtuse 
conicd ; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, ultimo basi subplanato ; colu- 
melid albd, obligud ; aperturd lunari ; peristomate breviter incras- 
sato, margine columellari subdilatato, adpresso. 

Diam. 28, alt. 24 mill. 

/5. Tenuior, apice rubicundo, anfractu ultimo basi 7iigricante, fascia 

angusta, nigra ad suturam : H. dimera, Jonas. 
From the Philippine Islands, Mindoro. 

3. Helix Bdschi, Pfr. Hel, testd imperforatd, conico-globosd, 
soliditisculd, tenuiter striatd, parhn nitiduld, citrind; spird conoi- 
ded, obtusiusculd ; anfractibus 5\ convcxiusculis, ultimo rotundato; 
columelid subobliqud, strictd, dilatatd, albo-callosd ; aperturd 
rotundato-lunari, intus nitidd, concolore ; peristomate temti, albo, 
breviter expanso, margine basali cum columellari angulum formante, 

Diam. 23, alt. 23 mill. 
From the island of Mindoro. 

4. Helix pelodes, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, subglobosd, tenui- 
usculd, striatd et 7ninute granulatd, rubello-fuscd ; spird brevi, 
obtusiusculd ; anfractibus 6 convexiusculis, ultimo inflato, nntice 
breviter descendente ; umbilico mediocri, pervio ; aperturd lunato- 
orbiculari, intus margaritaced ; peristomate expanso, saturate car- 
neo, margine columellari perdilatato, fornicatim reflexo. 

Diam. 31, alt. 20 mill. 

From the north coast of Australia : found under decayed leaves 
(Lieut. Ince, R.N.). 

5. Helix Hartwegi, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressu, cari- 
natd, soliduld, striatuld, fuscd ; spird vix elevatd ; anfractibus 5 
planulatis, ultimo basi paulh convexiore, untice non descendente ; 
umbilico angusto, pervio ; aperturd perobligud, irregulariter sub- 
guadratd ; peristomate albo, incrassato, breviter reflexo, margini- 



127 

bus callo junctis, dextro sinuoso, basali stibrecto, dilatato, intror- 

sum calloso, dente unico interposito. 
Diam. 23, alt. 12 mill. 

From EI Catamaija, near Loxa, republic of the Equator (Hart- 
weg). 

6. Helix leptogramma, Pfr. Hel. testd vmbilicatd, globosd, tenui, 
striatd, lineis impressis, concentricis, confertis, scutptd, carneo- 

rv albidd, superne fasciis 3-4 angiistis, rvfis ornatd ; anfractibus A\ 

ttJk pK convexiuscuUs, ulthno inJJato, antice breviter dcscendente ; aperturd 

CV '^'''^ obliqnd, rotundato-lunari, intus concolore ; peristomate albo, 

simplice, breciter expunso, marginibiis callo temiisshno diffuso 
junctis, columellari valde dilatato, albo, nitido, rejlexo, umbilicum 
angustum semioccultante. 
Diam. 17, alt. 13 mill. 
From Cygnet Bay, North Australia (Lieut. Ince, R.N.). 

7. Helix Gilbeeti, Pfr. Hel. testu umbilicald, depressd, distincte 
striatd, mirnitissimc granulatd, tenui, pallide corned, lined riifd ad 
suturam cinctd; anfractibus A\ contexiusndis,ultimo basi convexo ; 
umbilico mediocri, pervio ; aperturd rotundato-lunari ; peristomate 
simplice, recto, margine columellari parimi dilatato, refiexQ. 

Diam. 16, alt. 9 mill. 

From Darling Domus, East Australia (Gilbert). 

8. Helix Zonites, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, tenui, 
diaphand, confertim costulato-striatd, lutescenti-corned ; spira vix 
elatd ; anfractibus 6 convexiusculis, regulariter accrescentibus, 
ultimo sup}-a medium lined rufd, ad apicem usgue conspicud ornato, 
basi leeviore, subplanulato ; umbilico mediocri, pervio; aperturd 
depressd, obligue lunato- ovali; intus margaritaced ; peristotnate 
simplice, recto, margine columellari breviter patente. 

Diam. 25, alt. 12^ mill. 
Hab. Unknown. 

9. Helix Griffithi, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, gloioso-depressd, 
solidiuscttld, IcEvigatd, superne leviter striatuld, corneo-lutescente ; 
spira breviter elevatd, conoided ; anfractibus 6 convexiusculis, ul- 
timo ad suturam custaneo-marginato , ventroso ; umbilico mediocri, 
pervio ; aperturd vix obUqud, anipld, rotundato-lunari, intus mar- 
garitaced ; peristomate simplice, acuto, marginibus callo tenuissimo 
Junctis, columellari breviter patente. 

Diam. 26, alt. 14 mill. 
Locality unkno-wn. 

10. Helix Kochi, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, globoso-depressd, 
soliduld, obligue distincte striatd, albidd, fasciis pluribus rufis ad 
peripheriam ornatd; spird parum elevatd, obtusiusculd ; anfracti- 
bus 6 convexis, sensim accrescentibus, ultimo subcylindrico ; um- 
bilico mag no, pervio ; aperturd lunato- orbiailar i, intus concolore, 
7iitidd ; peristomate simplice, acuto, marginibus conniventibus 
dextro antrorsum arcuato, columellari dilatato, patente. 



128 

Diam. 30, alt. 16 mill, 
Locality unknovvn. 

11. Helix variolosa, Pfr. Hel. testd perforatd, depressd, acufi 
carinatd, soliduld, opacd, lutescente, supei'ne confertissime plicatd, 
lineisque concentricis irrcgulariter decussatd, pustulis albis sub- 

fasciatini obsitd ; spird planiusculd ; anfractibus 3į vix convexi- 
usculis, rapide crescentibus, ultimo basi convexo, infra carinam 
compresso ; columelld brevi, verticali ; apertiird late seciiriformi ; 
peristomate simplice, actito, margine columellari breviter reflexo. 

Diam. 23, alt. 10 mill. 

Locality unknown. 

12. Helix induta, Pfr. Hel. testd perforatd, lenticulari, ucute 
carinatd, solidd, superne conferiim plicato-striatd, liiieis confertis 
concentricis decussatd, subtiis striatd, spadiced, basi pallescente, 
circa perforationem castaneo-areolatd, epidermide tenuissimd cor- 
tieo-grised undique induta ; anfractibus 5 jjlanis, setisim accrescen- 
tibus ; aperturd subrhombed ; peristomate simplice, margine colu- 
mellari vix refiexiusculo. 

Diam. 21, alt. 11 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

13. Helix bilineata, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, tenui, 
nitidd, pellucidd, IcEvigatd, lutescetiti-corned ; spird planiusculd ; 
suturd striolatd; anfractibus 5 vix convexiusculis, regtilariter 
crescentibus, ultimo subdepresso, lineis 2 castaneis, alterd supra 
peripkeriam, alterd suiurali ad apicem tisque conspicud ornato ; 
umbilico angusto ; aperturd oblicue lunari ; peristomate simplice, 
acuto, margine columellari brevissime reJlexo. 

Diam. 15, alt. 7 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

14. Helix Belcheri, Pfr. Hel. testd late umbilicatd, depressd, 
tenui, diaphand, superne confertim costulato-striatd, subtiis sub- 
Iccvigatd, nitidd, concolore corneo-cered ; spira vix convexd; an- 
fractibus 5 vix co?ivexiusculis, ultimo basi siibplanulato ; aperturd 

obliqud, lunato-ovali ; peristomate simplice. 
Diam. 8^, alt. 4 mill. 
Locality unknown. Brought by the ' SuljAur,' Capt. Belcher. 

15. Helix ceratodes, Pfr. Hel. testd subperforatd, globoso- 
depressd, tenui, minule striatd, nitiduld, pellucidd, corned ; spird 
parinn elevatd ; anfractibus 5 subplanulatis, celeriter crescentibus, 
tdtimo subdepresso; aperturd ampld, oblique lunari ; peristomate 
simplice, acuto, margine columellari breviter reflexiusculo , perfo- 
rationem f ere occultante. 

Diaai. IGį, alt. 9 mill. 

Collcctedon the islands of Luzon and Mindoro, by H. Cuming, 
Esq. 

16. Helix splendidula, Pfr. Hel. testd late umbilicatd, depres- 



129 

sissimd, pallide oUvaceo-corneu, niiidd, striatuld, lineis concen- 
tricis, magis minusve distinctis obsoleie reticulatd ; spira pland; 
suturd profundd ; anfractibus 3į suhplanulatis , celeriter crescen- 
tihus, ultimo lato ; umbilico lato, perspėctivo ; aperturd obliqud, 
lunato-ovali ; peristomate simplice, acuto, niarginibus conniventi- 
bus, dextro obliquc descendente, antrorsum subarcuato. 

Diam. 8|, alt, 3^- mill. 

Hab. East Australia, near Torres Strait (Lieut. Ince, R. N.). 

17. Helix papillata, Pfr. Hel. tcstd umbilicatd, depressd, sub- 
discoided, soUdiusculd, irregulariter striatd, opacd, albidd, spadiceo 
nebulosd, saturatiusque strigatd et maculatd; spira pland, apice 
papillatim prominente ; anfractibus 5 planiusculis, idtitno descen- 
dente, depresso-rotimdato ; umbilico angusto, pervio ; aperturd 
obliųud, lunato-orbiculari ; peristomate simplice, acuto, margine 
columellari vix dilatato. 

Diam. 23, alt. 11 mill. 
Locality unkno\Tn. 

18. Helix spirulata, Pfr. Hel. tcstd imperforatd, depressd, len- 
ticulari, subtilissime striatd, lineis elevatis concentricis utrinque 
notatd, tenui,fulvd, carinatd; carind compressd, subexsertd ; spird 
jmrhtn elevatd; anfractibus 5 lente crescentibus, supra carinam 
convexiusculis, ultimo basi vix convexo, medio impresso ; aperturd 
depressd, subrhomboided ; peristomate simplice, acuto. 

Diam. 9, alt. 4 mill. 

Hab. Real Liejos, Central America ; found on trunks of trees 
(Cuming). 

19. Helix insculfta, Pfr. Hel. testu imperforatd, depressd, 
utrinque convexiusculd, acute carinatd, soliduld, castaned, superne 
coslulis confertis et lined spirali, carince paralleld, insculptd ; an- 
fractibus 5 planulatis, ultimo basi Icevigato, juxta carinam lined 
impressd notato ; columelld dente unico brevi, acuto, albo viunitd ; 
aperturd depressd, securiformi ; peristmhate simplice. 

Diam. 8, alt. 4 mill. 
Locality unknovvn. 

20. Helix Sinaitensis, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, orbiculato- 
convexu, temti, confertim striatd, corned ; spird convexd, obiitsd ; 
anfractibus 7 angustis, vix convexiusculis , carind flifortni cinctis, 
ultimo basi convexiore ; umbilico lato, perspėctivo ; aperturd rotun- 
dato-lunari ; peristomate simplice, margine supero brevi, recto, 
basali valde arcuato, breviter reflexo. 

Diam. 10, alt. 4 mill. 

From Sinait, proviiice of North Ilocos, isle of Luzon (Cuming). 

21. Helix andicola, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, tenui, 
undique granulatd, opacd, corneo- albidd, fasciis j}luribus rufs in- 
terruptis, denticulatis vcl maculoso-tessellatis tceniatd, intersiitiis 
rufo-įJammulatis ; spird pland ; anfractibus 4 convexis, ultimo di- 
latato, rotundato ; aperturd rotundato-lunari ; peristomate tenui. 



130 

marginibus callo tenui jmictis, svpero hreviter expanso, basali re- 
ficxiusculo, columcllari dilalato, reflexo, umhilivum angustum semi- 
tegente. 

Diam. 20, alt. U mill. 

From tbe Eastern Cordllleras. 

22. Helix hians, Pfr. Hel. testd subohtecte perforatd, depressd, 
tenui, pellucidd, nitidiusculd, undique regulariter et confertim 
granulatd, pallide cortied, strigis anguslis, rvfs, approjchnalis, 
undulatis, interdum 7'amosis, et ad siUuram fascid palUdd , maculis 
irregiilaribus riifis tessellatd ornatd ; spird pland ; anfractibus 4^ 
coiivexis, ultimo injiato, subcompresso, antice vix descendente ; 
aperturu subobliqud, ampild, hmato-rolundatd, intus concolore ; 
peristomate tenui, cxpanso, marginibus distantibus, supero expanso, 
basali breviter reflexo, columellari membranaceo-dilatato,fornica- 
tim reflexo, perforationem tegente. 

Diam. 25, alt. 12 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

23. Helix rectangula, Pfr. Hel. testd imper/oratd, orbiculato- 
coidcd, solidd, striatuld, griseo-stramined, areu basali, lined sutu- 
rali et fasciis latis castaneis ornutd ; spird elevatd, obttisd ; an- 
fractibus 6-6^ C07ivexiusculis, iiltimo subrectangule carinato, basi 
planiusculo, niedio subexcavato ; aperturd depressd, subtrapezid, 
margine columellari incrassato, calloso -subunidentato. 

Diam. 13, alt. 10 mill. 

From the Marquesas islands (M. Rohr). 

24. Helix Nystiana, Pfr. Hel. testd late umbilicatd, depressd, 
subdiscoided, tenui, sub lente minutissime granulatostriatd, haud 
nitente, pallide corned, fasciis angustis, rufis 3-4 circumdatd ; 
spird vix elevatd ; anfractibus 4 convexis, ultimo antice subdefiexo, 
basi vix latiore ; imibilico latissimo ; aperturd perobliqud, subor- 
biculari ; peristoinate simpUce, marginibus f ere contiguis, supero 
recto, basali breviter reflexo. 

Diam. 11, alt. 4 mill. 

From Real Liejos, Central America (Cuming). 

25. Helix nilagirica, Pfr. Hel. testd. late umbilicatd, depressd, 
discoided, striatd, corneo-albidd, lined unicd rufd supra periphe- 
riam cinctu ; spird planiusculd ; anfractibus 5 conve.xiusculis, 
lente accrcscentibus, ultimo antice abrupte deflexo ; umbilico latis- 
simo, anfractum penultimum late monstrante, medio angusto, j)er- 
vio ; aperturd jmrvd, horizontali, rotundato-ovali ; jieristomate 
albo, sublabiato, reflexo, marginibus contiguis. 

Diam. 14^ alt. 5į mill. 

From the Neelgherries, East Indies. 

26. Helix tumida, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, globosd, solidd, 
rugoso-striatd, nitidiusculd, sub epidermide sordide viridi, satura- 
tius radiatd albd ; spird parvuld, elevatd ; anfractibus 5 tumidis, 
ultimo permagno ; columelld subverticali, elongatd, basi subtortd. 



131 

albo-callosd ; aperturd amplu, lunato-rotundalu, inius ccerulescente ; 

peristomate simplice, recto, margine deoctro arcuato, basali cum 

columelld angulum formante. 
Diam. 27, alt. 21 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

27. HelixCaucasica, Pfr. Hel. testdumhilicatd, globoso-depressd, 
tenui, subtiliter rugoso-striatd, sub lente granulatd, corneo-albidd, 
pellucidd, fascid latd, subopacd ad suturam, angustiore albd ad 
po'ipkeriam ornatd ; anfractibus 6 convexiusculis, ultimo antice 
subdeflexo ; aperturd lunato-rotundatd ; peristomate acuto, expanso, 
intus callo albo, acuto labiato, margine columellari dilatato, umbi- 
licum angustum, pervium semitegente. 

Diara. 16, alt. 10 mill. 
From the Caucasus. 

28. Helix Kntsnaensis, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, globosd, 
solidiusculd, costulato-striatd, sericind, corneo-olivaced ; spird 
brevi, obtusd; anfractibus 4 convexiusculis , ultimo inflato, basi 
subkevigato, nitidissimo ; umbilico angusto, pervio ; aperturd ro- 
tundato-lunari, intus margaritaced ; peristomate simplice, acuto, 
margine columellari superne dilatato, patente. 

Diam. 24, alt. 16 mill. 

From Knysna, Cape of Good Hope. 

29. Helix Jenynsi, Pfr. Hel. testd subperforatd, turbiniformi, 
striatuld, tenui, nitidd, carinatd, lacted, supra carinam fusco- 
unifasciatd; spird brevi, conicd, acutd; anfractibus 5^ vix con- 
vexiusculis, ultimo basi convexiore ; aperturd angulato-lunari ; 
peristomate simplice, acuto, margine columellari superne reflezius- 
culo, perforationemferc claudente. 

Diam. 12, alt. 1\ mill. 
Locality unknown. 

30. Helix Bronni, Pfr. Hel. testd hnperforatd, semiglobosd, 
striatuld, sub lente punctatd, niiiduld, castaned, apice obtuso pal- 
lidd ; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, ultimo obsolete carinato, basi 
planiusculo, granulato, ceerulescenti-albido, infra carinam f ascia 1 
castaned ornato, antice deflexo, profunde scrobiculato ; aperturd 
subhorizontali, elliptico-oblongd ; peristomate late incrassato, mar- 
ginibiis callo tenui junctis, basali dilatato, reflexo, fusco-maculato, 
intus 4 dentato ; dentibus 2 anticis majoribus, compressis, d mar- 
gine remotis. 

Diam. 25, alt. 15 mill. 

From Jamaica ; sent by Mr. Adams with H. sinuata, Born, to 
■vvhich it is nearly allied. 

31. Helix ventrosula, Pfr. Hel. testd rimato-perforatd, de- 
presso-globosd, tenui, subtiliter striatd, pellucidd, corneo-albidd; 
spird vix elevatd ; anfractibus 5į vix convexiusculis, ultimo subith 
deflexo, superne subangulato, basi inflato, antice gibbo et valdi con- 
stricto; aperturd perobliqud, ringente ; peristomate acuto, late 



132 

reflexo, marginibus vix conniventihus, laminas elevatas, in ventre 
anfractus penuliimi angulatim junctas emittentibus , dextro lamind 
siibperpendiculari dilatatd, basali dentibus 2 acutis munito. 

Diam. 13, alt. 1\ mill. 

From Mexico (Hinds), and Texas (So'vverby). 

32. Helix Hindsi, Pfr. Hel. testdumbilicatd, depressd, subtiliter 
striatd, corneo-lutescente, diaphand, nitidd; spird parum elevatd; 
anfractibus 5 planiuscuUs, ultimo basi convexiore, antice superiie 
dcflexo, subtiis conslricto ; umbilico angusto, pervio ; aperturd 
perobUqud, lunari, ringente ; peristomate brevitcr reflexo, margi- 
nibus conniventibus, callo triangulari, denti/ormi, bicrure junctis, 
deitro lamelld subverticali, basali dentibus 2 acutis munito. 

Diam. 8, alt. 4^ mill. 

From Mexico (Hinds), and Texas (Sowerby). 

33. Hehx Hedenborgi, Pfr. Hel. testd subperforatd, depressis- 
simd, subdiscoided , amt e carinatd, tenuiusculd, confertim rugoso- 
striatd, superne albido et fusco-variegatd, basi subunicolore fusces- 
cente ; spird vix elevatd; anfractibus 5į j)la7iis, non exsertis, ul- 
timo basi vix ventrosiore, antice non descendente ; aperturd depressd, 
angulato-lunari ; peristomate tenui, marginibus subparallelis, su- 
pero recto, basali breviter reflexo, columellari vix dilatato, reflexo, 
adpresso. 

Diam. 18, alt. 6 mill. 

On cliffs at the river Baher ei Kilio, at the Road of Mare Aurel, 
Egypt (Dr. Hedenborg). 

34. Helix platyodon, Pfr. Hel. tesld imperforatd, dcpresso- 
turbinata, minutissime granulato-striatd, albd, fasciis fuscis, albo- 
guttatis ornatd ; spird elevatd, obtusiusculd ; anfractibus 6 vix 
convexiusculis, ultimo basi subplanulato, antice deflexo ; aperturd 
perobliqud, lunato-ovali, intus albd ; peristomate late expanso, rc- 
fiexo, marginibus callo albo junctis, columellari perdilatato, ad- 
presso, dente lato compresso munito. 

Diam. 30, alt. 19 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

35. Helix retusa, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd , subglobosd, apice 
retuso, tenui, leevignto, basi concentrice striolatu, castaneofulvd, 
albo late strigatd et flammulatd, epidermide hydrophand, albidd, 
decidud partini indutd, sursum pallescente , castaneo-fasciatd; spira 
brevi ; anfractibus 4 convexiusculis, ultimo subangulato, vix de- 
scendente; columelld intrante,albd, superne dentato-dilatatd ; aper- 
turd rotundato-lunari, intus margaritaced ; peristomate lati ex- 
panso. 

Diam. 28, alt. 20 mill. 

From the island of Samar; found on leaves of trees (H. Cuming). 

36. Helix pratensis, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, orbiculato-con- 
vexd, rugtdoso- striatd, albidd, f asciis 2 castaneis cinctd vel sub- 
unicolore; spird suhelevatd; anfractibus 6 convexiusculis, ultimo 



133 

antice vix descendente ; umbilico mediocri, pervio ; aperturd roturi' 
dato-lumri ; peristomate ea:panso, intus remote albo-labiato, mur- 
ginibus coimiventibus, cohmellari subdilatato, patente. 

Diam. 17, alt. 9^ mill. 

From the banks of the river Tortoom (As. Russ.) ; found ia damp 
meadows, 

" On the Growth and Re-calcification of the Shell in Cypraa, a 
genus of Pectinibranchiate Mollusca" : — 

The Cypraa is a mollusk of very peculiar character : first, on ac- 
count of the difFerent phases presented by its shell at diflferent periods 
of growth ; aud, secondly, on account of the curious property which 
the animal possesses of dissolving and renewing its shell. The 
original growth of the Cowry is, undoubtedly, a process of time ; but 
the re-calcification of a shell at maturer age appears to be the -vvork 
of a few days only. 

The first stage of advancement produces a simple convolution of 
shell around a columella axis in the form of a long drawn-out Bulla, 
the columella being smooth, the outer lip thin, and the colour usually 
difFused in bands of \vaves. In the second epoch of grovvth the shell 
solidifies, the lip and columella begin to thicken, and present gradual 
indications of teeth, the teeth become more and mere perfectly de- 
veloped, and the dorsal surface is overlaid with a strong coat of livid 
colouring matter also difFused in obscure bands or waves. The cal- 
cifying energies of the mantle; which, extending in two uneąual lobes, 
one from either side of the shell's aperture, have been chiefly exer- 
cised during the second epoch of growth upon the dorsal surface, are 
now more particularly directed to the base and sides. The teeth are 
strengthened, the sides become thickened with a rich coating of 
enamel, and the gro\vth of the shell is completed by a light fabric of 
colouring matter deposed in lines, blotches, waves, or reticulations, 
of various hues and jjatterns. 

The re-calcification of a shell at maturer age has been a subject of 
some difFerence of opinion amongst naturalists. Bruguiėre first in- 
troduced the fact, and Lamarck says, " I possess obsei-vations \vhich 
tend to p rovė that the Cowry, arrived at the power of forming a 
complete shell, has still the faculty of enlarging its habitation, and 
is then obliged to quit the shell in order to form a new one. It re- 
sults from this that the šame individual has the power of forming a 
successive number of shells during both the second and third stagea 
of growth, and which accounts for our often meeting \vith so many 
diflTereut sizes of the šame species" ! 

M. Deshayes, after furnishing us \vith an escellent account of the 
zoological characters of Cypreea, derived mainly from the observations 
of MM. Quoy and Gaimard, argues against the possibiHty of any 
remodelling of the shell taking place, and regards the statement 
of Lamarck as a theory opposed to the common laws of organiza- 
tion. To the supposition of Bruguiėre that the Cowries cast their 
shells after the manner of Crabs, M. Deshayes very properly replies 
that there can be no analogy between them. The new shell of the 



134 

Crustacea is formed by a secretion of equal consistency from every 
part of the body, Avhereas the Mollusca have a muscular attachment 
to the columella, and increase the growth of their shell by an exu- 
dation, not from the whole body, but from a particular organ ; the 
mantle being the sole agent charged with that facult}^ It is further 
argued by the šame distinguished naturalist that the Co\vry mušt lose 
the power of forming the inner chambers of the columella anevv, after 
having once passed that early process of development \vhich hiduces 
their formatiou. " How is it possible," asks M. Deshayes, "that 
the animal can, under the circumstances of its nature, secrete a new 
shell from all parts of the body at once, and with all the different 
phases of colour exhibited in the original, when it has reached to an 
advanced condition of its existence ? " 

It is, however, certain that the Co\vry is enabled to efFect a very 
important change in the shell during one or more periods of its 
life ; and I think the fact may be fuUy established without prejudice 
to the excellent arguments of my illustrious contemporary. From 
the testimony of a gentleman who worthily employs the opportuni- 
ties afforded him as a Navai Officer to the advancement of science, 
■vvhose veracity is beyond all question, and ■vvhose communication 
(given verbatim)* contains nothing more than a simple narrative of 
the phsenomena of \vhich he was himself an eye-witness, it may, I 
thinlv, be deduced that it is the outer wall of the shell only \vhich is 
reconstructed, the columella, with its spirai compartments, remain- 
ing undisturbed. The animal does not quit the shell, as Lamarck 
supposed, but dissolves the outer portion with its acetose juices. 
Ali visible trace of the shell may be thus removed without weakening 
M. Deshayes' proposition, founded on the circumstance of the mantle 
being the only organ charged with the secretive flaid. The mantle 
is always capable of extension over the shell, and the šame power 

* Lieut. J. B. Hankey, R.N., to Loveli Reeve. 
My dear Sir, H.M.S. Collingwood, August 6th, 1844. 

Will you allow me to oflfer yon a few remarks oa the habits of the Cyprsea as re- 
gards the fact of its making a new shell, at an advanced age, of which process I 
have been myself in more than one instance an eye-witness ? i have seen the Co\vry 
crawl iuto some hollow or sheltered place, evidently for some predetermined pur- 
pose. The growth of the animal appears to increase too large for its cell ; it 
gradually swells and cracks the shell, and I think that some powerfnl solvent or 
decomposing fluid is distributed over the outer surface by the mantle of the fisb, 
for it gets thinner in substance, and the colours duUer in appearancc. The shell 
then entirely disappears, the Cowry becomes, to all appearance, a naked moUusk, 
vpith no other coveriug than its membranous mantle, and in a sbort time secretes 
a thin layer of glutinous matter which in a few days obtains the fragile consistency 
of shell-lac. From this step its growth is more rapid, and it becomes more and 
more cousolidated iuto the adult shell. \Vben in the first stage of renewal it has 
the appearance of shell-lac it is always of the Cymba form, but I have never suc- 
ceeded in preserving any specimens in this statė on account of their extreme fra- 
gility. 

Trusting that you may raake some use of these notes, and that (as I have a good 
dredge with me) I may, likę Mr. Cuming, succeed in bringing home something 
■worthy of notice, I shall conclude myself, my dear sir, 

Yours very truly, 

John B. Hankey. 



135 

which furnishes the adult \vitli its lašt coating of enamel can be ex- 
erted to the formation of as many superincumbent layers as may be 
necessary to replace all that has been decomposed. That a disso- 
lution takes place there can be no doubt : "the shell gradually 
swells," says Lieut. Hankey, " and cracks, becomes thinner, and 
duUer in colour, and finally disappears ;" a circumstance -n-hich may 
be easily credited -vvhen it is remembeied that the Mttrex possesses 
the faculty of reraoving spines or any similar obstacles to its advance- 
ment of growth, and that the Pholades and other terebrating mol- 
lusks exercise a power of absorbing which enables them to penetrate 
the hardest limestone rock. The microscopical structure of the 
Cowry shell is, moreover, of a nature peculiarly tenacious of absorp- 
tion ; it is composed of a large ąuantity of carbonate of lime in pro- 
portion to the amount of membranous substance ; and this accounts 
for its surface becoming vitrified, as it \vere, to such a highly polished 
statė of enamel when in contact with the acidity of the soft parts. 

There is another circumstance in Lieut. Hankey's naiTative to 
which attention should be given, respecting tlie formation of the 
new sheU. The glutinous matter, which has the appeai-ance of shell- 
lac, and is so fragile that it yields to the touch, does not assume the 
narrow cylindrical Bulla form ; it does uot follovv the original plan of 
revolving round a columellar axis, but is of the wide ventricose 
shape of a Cymba, and rapidly consoHdates into the adult shell. 

With these generalizations I think it may be assumed that the 
Co\vry possesses the faculty of decomposing, during one or more 
periods of its existence, any portion of the shell that is liable to re- 
sist its advancement of growth ; that the rene'vval of the shell is ac- 
compHshed within a comparatively short space of time ; and that the 
columella with its internal spirai partitions remains undisturbed. It 
may, however, be inferred that it is an operation of extremely rare 
occurrence, and one W'hich only happens under peculiar couditions. 



l.-i/ 



December 9, 1845. 

■NVilliam Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A paper was read containing " Descriptions, by Dr. L. PfeifFer, of 
new species of Land-Shells from Jamaica, coUected by Mr. Gosse." 

1 . Helix ptychodes, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicaid, depressissimd, 
discoided, tenuissimd, arcuato-plicatd, sub epidermide tenui.fuscd, 
decidud hyalind ; spird planiusculd ; anfractibus 4į — 5 planulatis, 
ultimo basi vix convexiore ; umbilico mediocri ; aperturd perob- 
liįud, ampld, angulato-lunari ; peristomate simplice, acuto. 

Diam. 101, alt. 3A mill. 

2. BuLiMUS GossEi, Pfr. Bul. testd rimatd, turrito-cylindraced, 
oblique costulatd, albidd, opacd, strigis semilunaribus, punctisąue 
pellucidis corneis ornatd ; spird cylindraced, apice attemiato, acuto ; 
suturd crenulatd; anfractibus 11 convexis, ultimo i longitudinis 
vix superante, rotundato, basi subangulato ; aperturd suborbiculari ; 
peristomate breviter expanso, marginibus approximatis, columellari 
reflexo, patente. 

Long. 11, diam. 3| mill. 

Nearly allied to Bul. unicarinatus and Bul. turricula. 

3. Cylindrella Gossei, Pfr. Ci/l. testd subcylindraced, sursum 
atlenuatd, non truncatd, tenui, diaphand, oblique et arcuatim leviter 
costulatd, pallide corned vel albidd; anfractibus 16 vix conveiius- 
culis, ultimo basi acute carinato, non protracto ; aperturd oblongd, 
basi subangulatd; peristomate simplice, tenui, breviter expanso, 
marginibus vixjunctis. 

Long. 21, diam. 4 mill. 

4. Glandina Jamaicensis, Pfr. Gland. testd fusiformi-turritd, 
confertim et verticaliter costatd, nitidd, albidd, strigis raris rufis 
ornatd; spird turritd, acutiusculd; suturd crenulatd, submargi- 
natd; anfractibus 10 planiusculis, ultimo į longitudinis subaguante, 
plurivaricoso, infra medium sublcevigato, attemiato ; columelld svb- 
rectd, basi obligue truncatd ; aperturd angustd, semiovali. 

Long. 22, diam. 7 mill. 

o. Glandina curvilabris, Pfr. Gland. testd oblongo-turritd, so- 
lidiusculd. confertissime costulatd, diaphand, nitidd, luteo-corned, 
remote albido-strigatd ; spird turritd; suturd marginatd ; anfrac- 
tibus 8 planiusculis, ultimo \ longitudinis subceguante, antice medio 
impresso ; columelld verticali, ad basin aperturee abrupte truncatd ; 
aperturd angustd, oblongd; peristomate albido-Umbato, margine 
dextro antrorsum curvato. 
Long. 16, diam. 5 mill. 
No. CLIV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



138 

6. Glandina arcuata, Pfr. Gland. testd fusiformi-turritd, tenui- 
usculd, nitidd, subarcuatim et confertim costulatd, succineo-flavidd, 
strigis angustis, remotis, arcuatis, rufis , pallide marginatis ornatd; 
spira subulatd, acutd; suturd crenulatd ; anfractibus 9 plonis, 
ultimo ^ longitudinis subceguante ; columelld strictiusculd, breviter 
truncatd; aperturd oblongd ; peristomate simplice. 

Long. 13, diam. 3į raill. 

7. AcHATiNA Adamsii, Pfr. {Bul. costulatus, Adams). Ach. testd 
fusiformi-ticrritd, longitudinaliter distincte costatd, inter costas 

basi anfractds ultimi evanescentes subtilissime striatd, corned, 
strigis rufis irregulariter ornatd ; spird turritd, apice acuto ; an- 
fractibus 8 convexis, ultimo ^ longitudinis subcequante ; columelld 
subrectd, basi obligue truncatd ; aperturd subrhombed. 
Long. 7, diam. 2į mill. 

8. AcHATiNA GossF.i, Pfr. Ach. testd subulatd, tenui, diaphand, 
cered, remote costatd, inter costas in anfractibus ultimis deorsum 
obsolescentes subtilissime striatd; anfractibus 9 — 10 convexius- 
culis, ultimo 1 longitudinis vix superante ; columelld oblicud, basin 
aperturte attingente, breviter truncatd; aperturd angustd, ob- 
longd; peristomate simplice, margine dextro deorsum dilatato. 

Long. 12, diam. 2f mill. 

9. AcHATiNA ABERRANS, Pfr. Ach. tcstd subulūtd, tetiut, nitidd, 
lineis impressis longitudinalibus, regulariter distantibus notatd, 
pallide succined, strigis rufulis, angustis, oblicuis, sparsis ornatd ; 
spird subulatd, apice acutiusculo ; suturd leviter crenulatd; an- 
fractibus 7 planiusculis, ultimo ^ longitudinis aguante ; columelld 

callosd, torto-subtruncatd ; aperturd oblongd ; peristomate simplice. 

Long. 7, diam. 2 mill. 

This species belongs to a peculiar aberrant group of the genus 
Achatina, of which the tj-pe seems to be Ach. columnaris. The co- 
lumella is not exactly truncated, but rather contorted, and forms a 
prominent angle, -vv-hich appears similar to the truncated columella 
of the true Achatinas. To this šame group may be referred another 
very distinct and beautiful species, collected by INIr. Lattre in Cen- 
tral America, and making, likę all formerly described species, part 
of the rich coUection of Mr. Cuming. 

10. Achatina Lattrei, Pfr. Ach. testd glandiformi, Itevissimd, ni- 
tidd, fulvd, strigis castaneis leviter arcuatis irregulariter ornatd ; 
spird brcvi, conoided, acutiusculd ; anfractibus 7 planis, ultimo % 
longitudinis fere (Eąuante ; columelld callosd, contortd, extus sub- 
truncatd ; aperturd angustissimd, basi dilatatd ; peristomate sim- 
plice, obtuso, margine dextro antrorsum leviter arcuato. 

Long. 38, diam. 14 mUl. 

A paper by Dr. Philippi was then read, containing " Descriptions 
of a new species of Trochus, and of eighteen new species of Littorina, 
in the collection of H. Cuming, Esq." : — 

Trochus Cumingii. Tr. testd late conicd, umbilicatd, acutd, car- 



139 

neo-cinered ; anfractibus conveiirisculis, transverse striatis, et serie 
triplici spinularum ornatis ; spinis supremis solidis compressis, 
medianis fornicatis majoribus, infimis fornicatis confertissimis ; 
aperturd suborbiculari, violacescente ; margine umbilici acuto, pro- 
minente. 

Altit. 8, diam. 8, altit. aperturse 4| lin. 

Hab. Guimaras, insula Philippinarum. 

This very interesting species was found on rocks at high ■vvater- 
mark ; its operculum is orbicular, horny, and consists of 5-6 volutions. 

1. LiTTORiNA LEMNiscATA. Lit. testd purvd, ovato-oblongd, nigrd, 
striis transversis et lined triplici, elevatd, moniliformi sculptd ,• 
anfractibus planiusculis ; basi nodulosd; aperturd spiram non 
tEįuante, nigrd, basi albo-fasciatd ; columelld depressd, basi sub- 
effusd. 

Altit. 4į, diam. 3, altit. aperturse 2\ lin. 
Hab. Cuba? 

2. LiTTORiNA ASPERA. Lit. testd oblongd, acutd, crassd.fuscescente, 
lineis nigricantibus longitudinalibus obliguis pieta, ad basin sub- 
angulatd; anfractibus paritm convexis, liris elevatis transversis 
sculptis ; aperturd ovatd, fuscd, fasciis duabus albidis ; labro intus 
albido, fusco-punctato . 

Altit. 8, diam. 5\, altit. aperturae 4į lin. 

Hab. Ad oram occidentalem Americse borealis (from Sitka, New 
Albion, found on rocks at low water by Mr. Barclay ; from Mexico, 
found by Hegewisch ; from Conchagua, province of San Salvador, 
Central America, Cuming). By the character of its aperture, this 
species belongs to the group of L. ziczac, L. zebrą {Phasianella pe- 
ruviana, Lamarck), and is easily distinguished from all allied species 
by its sculpture. 

3. LiTTORiNA picTA. Lit. testd pūrvd, ovatd, acutd, basi obscure 
angulatd, transversim striatd ; fascid ad partem superiorem an- 

fractuum, alidque ad basin albis, lineis fuscis longitudinalibus pic- 
tis ; aperturd semiorbiculari, fuscd, basi albo-fasciatd ; columelld 
satis comjjressdfere rectilined. 
Altit. 4, diam. 3, altit. aperturae 2\ lin. 
Huh. ad insulas Sandwich. 
Var. jS. Aiifractibus superne angulatis, parte mediand anfractūs ul- 

timi albido-marmoratd. 
This species has uearly the shape and size of L. Basteroti {Turbo 
petrctus, Turbo carvlescens , etc), which I believe the true Turbo neri- 
toides of Linnseus, and the colouring of the intemipted variety of L. 
ziczac. 

4. LiTTORiNA PORCATA. Lit. tcstd poTvd, ovūtd, obtusiusculd, um- 
bilicatd, e ccerulescente-albidd, lineis elevatis distantibus porcatd ; 
aperturd magnd, ovatd, semiorbiculatd ; f aucibus fuscis , albo-bifas- 
ciatis ; limbo labri albo. 

Altit. 3, diam. 2į, lūtit. aperturae 2 lin. 

Hab. ad insulas Gallapagos (on high exposed rocks) ; Cuming. 



140 

5. LiTTORiNA SiTKANA. Lit. testd transversim ovūtci, obtustttsculd, 
castaned, transversim grosse sulcatd ; anfractibus roiundatis, ul- 
timo dilatato ; aperturd ovatd, patuld ; columelld albd, vix dila- 
tatd, sulco umbilicari exaratd. 

Altit. 6, diam. 6, altit. aperturae 4i. 

Hab. ad Sitka, Nova Albion (on rocks, half-tide) ; collected by 
Mr. Barclay. 

Very nearly allied to L. groenlandica, but more depressed, blunt, 
the aperture more dilated. The elevated transverse lines are threa 
in number on the upper volutions, about twelve on the lašt. 

6. LiTTORiNA GLABRATA. Lit. testd ovūto-oblougd, acutd, albido- 
carned, strigis pallide fuscis oblicuis pictd ; anfractibus parūm 
convexis, lavibus, supremis sub lente lineis impressis 6—8 exaratis, 
ultimo basi angulato ; aperturd ovatd, rufd ; columelld depressd, 
violaced. 

Altit. 8į, diam. 6, altit. aperturae 4^5 lin. 

Hab. ad Payta Peru (on rocks, half-tide) ; Cuming. Ad Caput 
Natale (Wahlberg). 

Perhaps oniy a variety of L. obesa, Sow., though easily distin- 
guished by the pale obliąue longitudinal lines : very likę L. ziczac, 
D'Orb. (non Chemn.) 

7. LiTTOHiNA LiEvis. Lit.testd ovato-oblongd, ttcutd.albidd.cinereo- 
marmoratd ; anfractibus pariim convexis, Icsvissitnis (sub lente 
fortiori vix tenuissime striatis) ; ultimo basi obscure angulato ; 

aperturd ovatd, fusco-violaced, basi albido-fasciatd ; columelld 

depressd, violaced. 
Altit. S\, diam. 6, altit. aperturae 5 lin. 
Hab. Unknown. 
'lliis species scarcely diflFers, except in colouring, from L. obesa. 

8. LiTTORiNA DEBiLis. Lit. tcstd parvd, ovūto-oblongd, ūcutd, tcnui, 
carulescente-albidd, interdum lineis obliquis pallidissime fuscis 
pictd, apice obscuro ; anfractibus leeviusculis (sub lente lineis con- 
fertis impressis sculptis), ultimo basi angulato ; aperturd ovato- 

oblongd, rufd, basi productd et subangulatd ; columelld pariim 
depressd, fuscescente. 
Altit. 4i, diam. 3, altit. aperturae 2^ lin. 
Hab. Unknovvn. 

A L. glabrata in miniature ; it difFers hovvever essentially from 
that species by its aperture, ■vvhich is produced into a distinct angle 
at the base. 

9. LiTTORiNA Sayi. Lit. tcstd ovato-oblongd, acutd, solidiusculd, 
transversim inultisulcatd, albd, punctis pallide rufis ornatd; spird 
violacescente ; anfractibus convexiusculis, suturd profundd divisis; 
aperturd ovato-orbiculari ; columelld rvfd; labro intus albo. 

Altit. 9, diam. 65, altit. aperturae 5 lin. 
Hab. ad Floridam (commuiiicated by Say). 



141 

Very nearly allied to L. irrorata, but thinner, more slender, the 
aperture not narrowed, nor the outer lip mottled \vithin. 

10. LiTTORiNA MODESTA. Lit. testd ovūto-oblongd, acutd, tenuius- 
culd, albidd, aut obsolete rufo-punctatd, profunde transversim 
sulcatd; anfractibus convexiusculis, suturd profundd divisis, ul- 
timo haud carinato ; aperturd semiorbiculari, luted velfusco infu- 
matd ; columelld f ere rectilined, dilatatd, depressd, infuscatd ; 
anfractu ultimo ad columellam eroso. 

Altit. 8, diam. 6, altit. aperturse 5 lin. 

Hab. ad Sitka, Nova Albion (on rocks, half-tide), Mr. Barclay ; 
ad insulam Mauritii, Capt. Caldwell. 

This species has the sculpture of L. aspera, the shape and colour 
of L. Sayi. 

11. LiTTORiNA iNTERMEDiA. Lit. testd oblongo-cotiicd, basi ventri- 
cosd, tenui, varii coloris, lineis impressis circa 8 in anfractu penul- 
timo exaratd, l<evi; anfractibus convexis, ultimo rotundato haud 
carinato ; aperturd ovatd ; columelld albd vel violaced, foved exa- 
ratd. 

Altit. 10, diam. 7^, altit. aperturse 5į lin. et minor. 

Hab. Mare Rubrum, ad oram Natai ; Swan Point, in Nova Hol- 
landia boreali ; Jimamailan, in insula Negrorum ; Tahiti ; insula Eli- 
sabeth in Oceano Pacifico (Cuming). 

This species is intermediate between L. scabra (Helix scabra, L. 
not auct.) and L. angulifera, Lamk., not Quoy and Gaim. ; it has the 
shape and colouring of the latter, vphich is easily known by its very 
numerous impressed spirai lines. With L. scabra it agrees in the 
number of the impressed lines, but difFers by its smoothness to feel- 
ing and by the absence of the basai keel. This latter character di- 
stinguishes it from L. luteola, Q. et G., a species which, however, I 
have not seen in nature. It is very variable in colouring, and we 
may distinguish principally the following varieties ; — 

1 . punctata, testd lutescente aut rufescente, lineis transversis fuscis 
irregulariter interruptis punctatd. 

2. articulata, testd interstitiis sulcorum regulariter albido et fusco 
articulatis. (From Swan Point ; only 6 lin. high.) 

3. strigata, testd in fundo flavescente strigis latis, irregularibus ni- 
gris ornatd. (From Jimamailan ; only 6 lin. high.) 

12. LiTTORiNA coNicA. Lit. tcstd tcnuissimd, oblongd, exacti 
conicd, basi carinatd, confertim et obsolete transversim striatd, 
albidd, unicolore velfusco pictd ; aperturd ovatd, perobliqud ; co- 
lumelld basi rectd, excavatd. 

Altit. 10, diam. 7į, altit. aperturse 6 lin. 
Hab. Insula Java. 

13. LiTTORiNA TENUis. Lit. tcstd ovūto-oUongd, acutd. tenuissimd, 
tenuissime transversim striatd, carneo-albidd, lineis angiilatis )-iiJis 
pallidissimis pictd ; suturd seepius infuscatd ; atfractibus planius- 



142 

culis, ultimo basi rotundato, minime angulato ; aperturd ovatd, 

concolore ; columelld arcuatd, vix compressd. 
Altit. 7, diam. 4|, altit. aperturse 3f . 

Hab. Insula Ticao, Philippinarum (on rocks, high water; Cu- 
ming). 

14. LiTTORiNA PALLEscENs. Lit. tcstd oMoTigd, subturritd, solidd, 
albidd; anfractibus convexiusculis, superioribus lineis impressis 
novem, ultimis lineis elevatis obtusis (circa ąuatuor in anfractu 
penultimo) sculptis ; aperturd patuld, semiorbiculari ; columelld 
brevi, compressd. 

Altit. 10, diam. 7, altit. aperturse 5į lin. 

Hab. Insula Mindanao (Cagayan, province of Misamis, found 
on mangrove-trees ; Cuming). 

This species differs from L. filosa, Sow., in being mucL more 
solid, in its broader and blunter elevated transverse lines and broad 
compressed columella. 

15. LiTTOKiNA SiEBOLDii. Lit. tcstd obloncd, subturritd, tenuius- 
culd, flavescente, subunicolore ; anfractibus convexiusculis, supre- 
mis lineis impressis, inferioribus lineis elevatis confertis, acutius- 
culis (circa 9 in anfractu penultimo) sculptis; aperturd patuld, 
semiorbiculari; columelld compressd, subcanaliculatd, albd. 

Altit. 13, diam. 8, altit. aperturae 7 lin. 

Hab. Japonia, Siebold. 

Perhaps only a variety of L. scabra, from ■which it differs almost 
only in its high raised transverse ridges and very obscurely angu- 
lated base. 

16. LiTTORiNA ciNGULATA. Lit. tcstd oblougd, ttcutd, tcnui, palHdc 
grised, apice obscuro ; anfractibus convexiusculis, suturd profundd 
divisis, sulcatis ; ultimis cingulis elevatis croceis ornatis ; basi 
haud carinatd ; aperturd ovatd, patuld ; columelld arcuatd, albd, 
haud compressd; faucibus albis, rufo-lineatis. 

Altit. 9, diam. 6į, altit. aperturae 4\ lin. 

Hab. Ad oram borealem Novae HoUandiae (found on the mangrove- 
trees by I. E. Dring, Esq.). 

17. LiTTORiNA suLCtJLOsA. Lit. tcstd oblongd, acutd, tcnui, Jlaves- 
cente,fasciis transversis pallide fuscis pictd ; anfractibus convexi- 
usculis, suturd profundd divisis et suleis 3-4 exaratis ; ultimo 
subangulato ; aperturd semiorbiculari, albd ; faucibus fusco-fas- 
ciatis ; columelld parilm arcuatd, compressiusculd. 

Altit. 8^, diam. 5\, altit. aperturse 4y lin. 

Hab. in ora boreali Novse Hollandiae (found on the mangrove- 
trees by I. E. Dring, Esq.). 

The sculpture of this species is exactly likę that of Trochus ros- 
t ratus, Gm. 

18. LiTTORiNA? ABERRANS. Lit. tcstd clougatd, subturritd, sub- 
perforatd, tenui, obsolele striatd, albidd ; anfractibus rotundatis , 
suturd profundd divisis, ultimo venlricoso ; aperturd patuld, orbi- 



143 

culari-ovatd, intus nigro-marginatd ; columelld brevi, tereti, extus 
reflexd. 
Altit. 8, diam. 5, altit. aperturse 3|- lin. 
Hah. Panama (found on the rocks, half-tide, Cuming). 
This species differs by its aperture so much from the other species 
of Littorina, and so nearly resembles a Bulimus, that I am very 
doubtful whether it be placed in its right genus. 



December 23, 1845. 
No Meeting was held. 



INDEX. 



The names of New Species, and of Species newly characterized, are printed m 
Roman Characters: those of Species previously known in Italics: those of Species 
respectiiig which Anatomical Observations are made, in Capitals. 



Aecentor, knct 34 

Accentor Cacharensis, Hodgson ...... 34 

immaculatus, Hodgson 34 

Nipalensis, Hodgson 34 

strophiatus, //orfjson 34 

Achatina ? įį 

aberrans, P/r '38 

Adamsii, P/r ^38 

columnaris '38 

costulata, P/r 75 

fusifonnis, Pfr 75 

Gossei, P/r '38 

Lattrei, P/r ^38 

papyracea, Pfr 74 

reticulata, P/r 74 

semisculpta, P/r 74 

Aehatinella Swainson 89 

Achalinella acuta, Swains 89 

brevis, P/r 90 

bulimoides, Swains 89 

clara, Pfr 90 

corneola, P/r 90 

gravida 90 

tojrfa, Swains 89 

/uįTMŽrts, Chemn 89 

luteola 90 

perversa, Swains 89 

pica, S^ains 89 

pieta, Pfr 90 

pulcherrima, S^ains 89 

p vramis, P/r. ^" 

radiata, ^r 89 

ro«ea, Swains 89 

trislis 89 

turriteUa 89 

ventulus 89 

Alaudince 33 

Alcopus rufifrons, Hodgson 24 



Ajlcyones 

AlECTORIDES 

Amphibia 

Amphipeplea Cumingiana, Pfr. 

Ampullaria ? 

Anisodactyh 



100 
101 
102 
68 
U 
100 



Jnous, Leach 103 



Page 

Anous cinereus, Gould 104 

leucocapillus, Gould 103 

melanops, (?o«W 103 

niger, Steph 103 

parvnlus, Gould 104 

sfolidus 103 

tenuirostris 104 

Ardea (Herodias) picata, Gould ... 62 

Ardeola exilis, Bonap 1 

Artemis sculpta, Hanley 12 

simples, Hanley H 

subąuadrata, Hanley 11 

AsphaUuc Zokar 76 

AvES 98 

Boa constrictor, Auct 43 

Brachypodince, Swains 22 

Bradypcs didactylus 93, 98 

Bulimus 89 

Bulimus canaliculatus, P/r 68 

castaneus, P/r 68 

coarctatus, iyr 73 

costulatus, kAdxa% 138 

decoruStVb 89 

Desliayesii, ij/r 73 

egregius, iyr 67 

gilvus, 5ou» 45 

Gossei, P/r 137 

Grayanus, i^r 73 

Leopardus, P/r 67 

loratnSy'Pii 89 

. Siąuijorensis, iyj- 74 

Thompsonii, Pfr 74 

tristis,Vfr 89 

turritella, Pfr 89 

ventulus, Pfr 89 

vulpinus, Pfr 89 

BufeonintB "7 

Buteo leucocephalus, Hodgson 37 

I plumipes, Hodgson 

vulgaris,Fiera. 

Calamoherpe longirostris, Gould 

Cancer Norvegicus 

Carnivora 

Cetacea 

Cheiroptera 



146 



Pnge 

Chelidoryns, n. g., Hodr/son 32 

Chelidorynx clirysoschistos, Hodgson 32 

Cheliones 100 

Chloropsis, 3 ard 24 

Cilathora, Auct. (StachjTis, Hodg- 
son) 22 

CTi7/;on, Montfort, Leach 120 

Clupea Harengus 91 

Coccotliraustes rosea, Auct 36 

COLUMB.E 100 

CoUiirieincla panula, Gould 62 

rufogaster, Gould 80 

Conovulus Cumingianus, i?(^e; 122 

Corvus pastinator, Gould 1 

Crateropodina 24 

Cuculus dumetorum, Gould 19 

• insperatus, Gould 19 

optatus, Gould 18 

CūRSORES 101 

Cylindrella Gossei, P/r 137 

Cypr.ea 133 

Cysticola carapestris, ffo!(W 20 

Cytherea Ovum, Hanley 21 

Digenea, Hodgson 26 

Digenea leucomelanura, Hodgson ... 26 

—^ \TLCo\or, Hodgson 26 

Dimorpha, u. g., Hodgson 25 

Diraorpha ? monileger, //of/ysora ... 26 

? rubrocyanea, //orfįfson 26 

strophiata, Hodgson 26 

Dipus Jaciilits 76 

Donacola flaviprymna, G'')jtW 80 

Donax asper, //an/ey 14 

assimilis, Hanley 17 

cvlter, Hanley 14 

gracilis, Hanley 15 

lubricus, //anfcy 17 

na\icu\a, Hanley 15 

sordidas, Hanley 15 

Ticaoiiicus, i/an/ey 14 

Droinicia concinna, Gould 2 

Echidna Hystrix 80 

Edentata 98 

Elephas Indicus 93, 97 

Emheriza 35 

Emberiza oinops, //brfyson 35 

Erpomis, Hodgson 23 

Erpornis santhochlora, Hodgson ... 23 

Falconidte 37 

Fringilla rhodochroa 36 

rhodopepla 36 

FringillincB 36 

Fulica ater, Fenn 13 

AustisMs, Gould 2 

Gallin^ 100 

Garrulus glandarius, Flem 13 

Gaviafusca, Brehtu 103 

Genetta vulgaris, Cuv 11 

Geomelania, n. g., /yr 45 

Geomelania Jamaicensis, P/r 45 

Glaudina arcuata, P/r 138 



Glaudina cunilabris, P/r 137 

Jamaicensis, Pfr 137 

mouilifera, Pfr 75 

nigricans, Pfr 75 

obtusa. P/r 42 

GlaucopintB, Swams 31 

Grallatores 101 

Granivor.e 99 

HtBmorfious rosea, Auct 36 

Ilapalotis murinus, Gould 78 

Helicece 89 

Helix .' 11 

Helis acutimargo, Pfr 40 

Adamsii, P/r 66 

albocincta, P/^ 123 

amoena, P/r 65 

andicola. P/r 129 

Bahamensis, Pfr 66 

Bainbridgii, P/r 44 

Belcheri, P/r 128 

Bermudensis, P/r 67 

biangiilata, iyV 40 

bilineata. P/r 128 

Boholensis, P/r 123 

Bronni, P/r 131 

Bruguieriana, Pfr 44 

Buschi, P/r 126 

campanula. P/r 65 

Caucasica, Pfr 131 

ceratodes, P/r 128 

Cheranitziana, Pfr 43 

—— cinerascens, Pfr 64 

—— conspersula, P/r 124 

constricta, Pfr 39 

cyathus, P/r 123 

decipiens, Soy^ 124 

decora,¥ėT 89 

dilatata, Pfr 42 

dimera, Jonas 126 

dubiosa, Pfr 123 

eurj-omphala. P/r 71 

excentrica, i/r 41 

eximia, Pfr 41 

filaris, Ta/rae 38 

filicosta, Pfr 73 

filocincta. P/r. 124 

fodiens, Pfr 39 

Forbesii, P/- 71 

gallinula, P/r 40 

Gilberti, P/r 127 

Gmeliniana, Pfr 43 

Gouldi, P/r 124 

grandis, Pfr 43 

gravida,Yėr 90 

Griffithi, P/r 127 

Gruneri, Pfr 63 

Hanleyi, P/r 65 

Hartmanni, P/r. 125 

Hart^egi, P/r 126 

Hedenborgi, Pyr 132 

helicophantoides, iyr 125 



14/ 



Page 

Helis hians, P/r 130 

Hindsi, Pfr 132 

horizontalis, /^ 40 

Incei, Pfr 126 

induta, P/j- 128 

insculpta, iyr 129 

invdluta, P/r 65 

^— Jenynsi, Pfr 131 

Jonasi, PA- 126 

Kingi, Pfr 125 

Knvsnaensis, Pfr 131 

Kodii, P/r 127 

labiata, P/r 65 

leptogramma, P^ 127 

Linnseana, Pfr 43 

lorata, Fer 89 

luieola.Yėr 90 

marmorella, P/r 125 

■ Martiniana, P/r 44 

Metcalfii, P/^- 66 

micans, iy*- 71 

^— Neogranatensis, Pfr 64 

•^— nilagirica, P/r 130 

Nystiana, P/r 130 

obtusa, P/r 38 

Okeniana, P/r 63 

omphalodes, P/r 64 

orthostoma, P/;- 124 

pachvstyla, P/r 71 

papillata, P/r 129 

paradoxa, iį/r 39 

— — pelodes, Pfr 126 

Pennantiana, Pfr 67 

planissima, P/r 72 

platyodon, Pfr 132 

ponderosa, Pfr, 38 

pratensis, iyr 132 

ptychodes, P/^ 137 

radiella, Pfr 125 

radula, P/r 40 

rectangula, i/r 130 

retifera, Pfr 73 

retusa, P/r 132 

rhombostoma, P/r 72 

rubicunda, Pfr 72 

Sauliae, P/r 72 

Schroeteriana, Pfr 44 

seraiglobosa, Pfr 38 

Sinaitensis, P/r 129 

spectabilis, P/r 41 

spirizona, fer 89 

spirulata, i/r 129 

splendidula, i/r 128 

strigilis, Pfr 124 

succinea, i/r 39 

tenuis, i/r 41 

trignnostoma, i^ 41 

tristis.Fer 89 

tristis, P/r 66 

t umida, P/r IGO 

— — Turbo, i/r 6i 



Page 

Helio: lurritella, Fer 89 

iiuicolor, i/r 64 

variolosa, i/r 128 

ventrostda, i/r 131 

ventulus, Fer 89 

vu!pina,FėT 89 

Zonites, Pfr 127 

Hemichelidon, n. g., Hodgson 32 

Hemichelidon ferruginea, Hodgson ,. 32 

faliginosa, Hodffson 32 

Hemipodius scintillans, Gould 62 

Hemipus, n. g., Hodgso'a 32 

Heinipus picsecolor, Hodgson 33 

Heterura, n. g., Hodgson 33 

Heterura sylvaua, Hodgson 33 

HoMo 96 

Horeites, Hodgson 30 

Horeites pollicaris, Hodgson 30 

schistilatiis, Hodgson 30 

Horornis, n. g., i/orfįrsore 31 

Horornis flaviventiis, iib(f^sore 31 

ioTtvpe%, Hodgson 31 

? f uli give uter, Hodgson 31 

? fiilviventris, iiotįrsore 31 

Hypsipetes, Vig 24 

Insectivora 96 

Insecttvores 99 

Ixops 24 

Ixulus, n. g., Hodgson 23 

Lagomys Nepaleusis, i/ofT^rsore 13 

Larus argentatus,yiov\t 13 

Bridgesii, Praser 16 

capistrahis, Temm 68 

ridibundus, Auct 68 

Lemurid.e 96 

Leuciscus ? 17 

Littorina? aberrans, Phil. 142 

articidata, PMl. 141 

aspera, PML 139 

cingulata, PAiV. 142 

conica, PA?7. 141 

dehilis, Phil. 140 

glabrata, PAi/. 140 

intermedia, P/ijV. 141 

tevis, PA/7. 140 

lemniscata, P/ii/. 139 

modesta, PA?7. 141 

pallescens, P/;!7. 142 

pieta, PA i7 139 

porcata, PA!7. 139 

punetata, PA?7. 141 

Savi, P/iil. 140 

Sieboldii, PAiV 142 

Sitkana, PA(7. 140 

strigata, PAj7. 141 

sulculosa, Phil 142 

■ tenuis, P/!!7. ! 141 

Lorins superbus, Fraser 16 

Lo.via 35 

Lox\i\ himaliiy&na, Hodgson 35 

leucoptera 91 



148 



INDEX. 



Page 



Mammalia 93, 96 

Mareca {Anas Penelope, Linn.) 13 

Marsupiata 9*^ 

Megaloptems, Boie 103 

Melania? ? 1^ 

Melithreptus melanocephalus, Gould 62 

Mergus Orientalis, GoaW 1 

Meriones opimus 76 

Micrura sguamata, Gould 24 

Mitra aegra, iJeei'e 5v 

jEthiops, Reeve 60 

alveolus, 7?e«)e 61 

amabilis, Reeve 53 

amanda, ižeeye 5" 

analogica, ifeea;e 56 

armiger, Reeve 55 

armillata, ifeeue 58 

articulata, Reeve 56 

Auriculoides, i2ee»e 46 

avenacea, Reeve 49 

bilineata, Reeve 56 

bnimalis, Reeve 54 

Bulimoides, Reeve 46 

cselata, Reeve 51 

caMosa, Reeve 50 

candida, Reeve 60 

chelonia, Reeve 55 

cimeliurn, iie^'e 51 

cineracca, Reeve 57 

cithara, i?ewe 49 

coeligena, Reeve 46 

consanguinea, Reeve 48 

corallina, Reeve 61 

cona.cea., Reeve 47 

cremans, ifee»e 48 

crocea, Reeve 59 

dsedala, i?ewe 54 

decora, Reeve 47 

discoloria, i?e«;e 46 

duplilirata, /feepe 46 

elegans, Reeve 47 

e^\\is, Reeve 58 

fasUgium, Reeve 45 

festa, Reeve 56 

. forticostata, Reeve 48 

gausapata, Reeve 59 

glandiformis, Reeve 57 

Gmia, Reeve 60 

granata, Reeve 52 

gratiosa, ižee»e 53 

hehes, Reeve 55 

incarnata, ižfere 56 

inermis, Reeve 54 

infausta, iZeeee 60 

lacryma, Reeve 51 

lauta, Reeve 49 

leucodesma, ižeese 49 

limata, Reeve 58 

lota, Reeve 48 

. lubens, Reeve 61 

lucida, Reeve 51 



Mitra luculenta, /feere 49 

moesta, Reeve 59 

vaica, Reeve 58 

niicans, iJeece 55 

militaris, Reeve 48 

milium, ifeCTie 50 

inirifica, iJeere 53 

modestSi, Reeve 50 

mutabilis, i2e«)e 47 

nympha, ifeere 50 

Pacifica, Reeve 52 

Tpatula., Reeve 61 

peculiaris, Reeve 57 

])\ca, Reeve 49 

pinguis, /?ee»e 57 

puella, Reeve 53 

purpurata, fleepe 53 

radius, Reeve 57 

recurvA, Reeve 56 

rhodia, 7?eepe 46 

roborea, iJewe 57 

rosacea, Reeve 59 

rustica, /feeee 60 

sculptilis, i?e«je 55 

semen, Reeve 50 

spicata, i?eepe 55 

sutiirata, Reeve 54 

tornata, /feei'e 52 

Tornatelloides, ifeece 58 

tuberosa, Reeve 48 

■ turgida, i?e«;e 52 

turriger, i?ee»e 51 

tusa, Reeve 54 

typha, iJeei'e 52 

verrucosa, Reeve 47 

vultuosa, ^e«;e 52 

zelot ypa, Reeve 60 

W\xon\h, n. g., Hodgson 23 

Mixornis ruficeps, //orfįrson 23 

Monodon/a seminigra, Lamarck ... 89 

MoscHus Javanicits 94, 97 

Stanleyancs 94,97 

Murex alabaster, Reeve 86 

amViguus, Reeve 86 

beitus, Reeve 88 

bipinnatus, Reeve 85 

crassivaricosa, Reeve 86 

CTOcatus, Reeve 108 

eurypteron, Reeve 109 

funiculatus, Reeve 88 

Gambiensis, Reeve 88 

maculatus, i?ee»e '08 

Martinianus, Reeve 88 

nigrispinosus, iJeet'c 88 

oculatus, i?e«;e 86 

osseus, Reeve °^ 

pellucidus, ifeei-e 87 

pistachia, i?e«?»e 10" 

Pleurotomoides, i2ewe 109 

pudoricolor, /?e«je 108 

rubiginosus, iJe«Jf 86 



149 



Page 

Murex rusticus, Ae«)e 108 

Sinensis, Reeve 85 

Steeriae, iJeere 85 

—— tnioTvaii, Reeve 87 

turritus, ifeeve 108 

Mus albocinereus, ffou/d 78 

gracilicaudatus, Gould 77 

lineolatus, Gott/d 77 

Muscicapa leucura, Gmel 26 

MuscicapiruB 32 

Muscisylvia, n. g., //orf^iora 27 

Muscisylvia leucura, //orf^soB 27 

Mustela Altaica 76 

Mygale moschata 76 

MyotherincE 24 

Netnura, n. g., Hodgson 27 

Nemura cy anura, Hodgson 27 

fid.\oY\\'&ce&, Hodgson 27 

rufilatus, Hodgson 27 

Nerita celata, iZeci 120 

Columbaria, Red 121 

crfpirfMfaria, Lamk 119 

Doingii, JJec/. 121 

—— domingensis, Lamk 122 

-^—fluviatilis,\jdmk. 122 

Jordani, Butler, Sow 121 

lutescens, Megeile 122 

sobrina, ižec/. 119 

so\imn,RecL 120 

Rossaiassleriana, iSėc/. 119 

yio\a.cea., Gmelin 119 

. Zelandica, ižec/. 120 

Neritae globostB 119 

muticee 120 

— — ovatce vel ovato-oblongie 1 20 

•-^— serratee 119 

spinosce 120 

subhemisphcericce 119 

Neritina ? 11 

Nycticejus 10 

Ocyris, Hodgson 35 

(Edicnemus crepitans, Selby 13 

Oligura, n. g., //orfįrson 25 

Oligura cyaniventer, i/orfj'son 25 

flaviventer, Hodgson 25 

Omnivor^ 99 

Orthoiomus, Horsf. 28 

Orthotoraus Patia, //brf^son 29 

Ostrea bicolor, //anfey 107 

callichroa, Hanley 107 

Chemnitzii, Hanley 106 

Colurabiensis, //aafey 107 

lacerata, //anfey 106 

Megodon, Hanley 106 

multistriata, Hanley 106 

Pes-tigris, Hanley 106 

Pachycephala glaucura, Gould 19 

Pachydermata 97 

Palaeornis modestus, Fraser 16 

Palmipbdes 101 

Pariance? 34 



Pelecanopus pelecanoide* 104 

Phascolomys latifrons, Ouoen 82 

VoMBATus, Auct 82 

Philomelina 27 

Pica caudala, Ylem 13 

serica, Gould 2 



Picus major ? 

PiNNATIPEDES 

PiSCES 

Planorbis ? 

Plantigrada 

Platycercus splendidus, Gould 

Pleurotoma aegrota, Reeve 

aeruginosa, Reeve 

• aąuatiiis, Reeve 

— — arata, Reeve 

arctata, Reeve 

armillata, Reeve 

s.\ireo\&, Reeve 

baetica, Reeve 

bilineata, Reeve 

cantharis, Reeve 

cardinalis, ifee»e 

castanea, Reeve 

cavernosa, Reeve 

c\a.r3i, Reeve 

coccinata, iJe«)e 

compta, iZeetie 

concentricostata, Reeve 

crocata, Reeve , 

—— ebur, Reeve 

efficta, Reeve 

exarata, Reeve 

flavescens, Reeve 

foraminata, Reeve , 

Forthiensis, TJeece 

fragilis, iJee»e , 

fucata, Reeve , 

fulva, Reeve , 

Graja, Reeve , 

Guildingii, Reeve 

hexagonalis, /Jeece , 

hyalina, ifeeee , 

igniflua, i?e«)e , 

■ implicata, Reeve 

inąuiuata, Reeve 

laaceolata, Reeve 

languida, Reeve , 

lirata, 5ee»e 

luteo-fasciata, Reeve 

Metcalfiana, Reeve 

nexa, Reeve 

nux, Reeve 

obeliscus, Reeve 

obliquata, Reeve 

obliąui-costata, Reeve ... 

olyra, Reeve 

opalus, Reeve 

pagodus, ife«)e 

palliata, /fee»e 

parvula, iJeeve 



13 

100 

102 

11 

96 

05 



l5o 



Page 

Pleurotoma patula, Reeve 113 

paxillus, iJeetJe 117 

pellis-phocae, i?ee»e 115 

pluricarinata, ^eewe 115 

— -^ Polynesiensis, Reeve 119 

pseudo-carinata, Reeve 115 

pulchella, i?ee«e 111 

punctata, Reeve 111 

puncticincta, iJee»e 115 

putillus, iJeOTie 113 

pyramidula, ižee»e 115 

quadrata, Reeve 114 

it&e.xa., Reeve 114 

rosacea, ife«)c 109 

rubinicolor, Reeve 111 

rubrifasciata, J?ee»e 110 

sacerdos, Reeve 110 

sacra, jRee»e 111 

saturata, ^eeiie 113 

iorAKAa., Reeve .f. 117 

spectrum, 7?e«7e 113 

subula, ifeet^e 113 

Ticaonica, ifee»e 116 

undaticostata, Reeve ^... 117 

\xrxm\&, Reeve 114 

• vexillum, Reeve 115 

vidua, i2ee»e 112 

\\irtA, Reeve 118 

vittata, /feepe 112 

vultuosa, i?ee»e 116 

Pnoepyga(olim Tesia),n. g., Hodgson 24 

Pnoepyga albiventer, i/orfįr40« 24 

pusillus, i/orf^son 25 

rufiventer, //orf^'son 25 

unicolor, Hodgson 25 

Podabrus inacrourus, Gould 79 

Podargus pliimifeius, Gould 104 

Polyodonflavicollis, Hodgson 24 

Prima, Horsf. 29 

Priiiia brunnifrons, Hodgson 29 

taica., Hodgson 29 

ruficapilla, Anct.} 29 

Propasser, n. g., Hodgson 36 

Propyrrhula Rubeculoides, Hodgson 36 

Pterocles guttatus ? Temm 13 

Pyctoris, n. g., Hodgson 24 

Pyrrboplectes, n. g., //o(/^son 36 

Pyrrhida 36 

Pyrrhtila epauletta,\\cAį,%on 36 

Py rrh idincE 35 

PjT-rhulinota, n. g., Hodgson 36 

Pyrrhulinota roseata, //orfysore 36 

Rana arborea 18 

Rapaces 98 

Reptilia 101 

rodentia 98 

ruminantia 97 



Page 

Salamandra 18 

Salamandra maculosa, Bonap 11 

Saxicola rubeculoides, Sykes 26 

SaaHcolinfB 25 

Scolopendra cingulata 18 

SiMi.E Catarrhini 96 

Platyrrhini 9% 

Siphia 25 

Spatula {Anas clypeata, Linn.) 13 

Sphenceacus gramineus, Gould 19 

Stachyris, Hodgson (olim Cilathora) 22 

StachjTis chrysseus, Hodgson 23 

nigriceps, Hodgson 22 

]>yTops, Hodg-von 23 

Sterna gracilis, ComW 76 

Lica, Less 1 

• stolida, Linn 103 

tenuirostris,1exa.m 104 

Strix tenebricosus, Gould 80 

Stumris vulgaris, lAnn 13 

Sylvia putoria, Auct 29 

sphenura, A.ViCt 29 

ru/i cap i lla, Anct 29 

Sylmadce 25 

SylviantB 28 

Synornis, Hodgson 26 

Synornis Joulaimus, Hodgson 27 

Taphozous Philippinensis, JJ'aterh. . 9 

Tarsiger, n. g., Hodgson 28 

T SiT&iger chTysxns, Hodgson 28 

Temuoris (olim Suthora), Hodgson .. 31 

Teninoris atrifrons, Hodgson 31 

i\x\y\i\on%, Hodgson 31 

Tetrao medius 13 

■urogallus 13 

Timalia hypoleucos, Auct 24 

Tomogeres turbinatus, P/r 45 

Tribura, n. g., //oc^yso/i .... 30 

Tribura luteoventris, //oaf^soa 30 

Trochus Cumingii, Phil. 138 

Trogon puella, Gould 18 

Tyn-haptes paradams 76 

Valvata ? 11 

Venus Bniguieri, Hanley 21 

magnifica, Hanley 21 

Vertebrata 93 

Vespertilio 3 

Vespeitilio Escbscholtzii, TT'aterh 4 

macrotarsus, TVaterh 5 

Meytm, IVaterh 7 

pellucidus, JJ'aterh 6 

rufo-pictus, rfaterh 8 

tristis, JVaterh 3 

Yuhina Jlavicollis : 24 

Zeus conchifer, Lowe 1 03 

Zosterops,\''\g. et VioTsi. 24 

Zygodactyli 99 



END OF PART XIII. 



Printcd bv Richard and John E. Taylor, Red Lion Court, Fiect Street. 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 




PART XIV. 
1846. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 

BY K. AND J. E.TAYLOR, UED LION COUllT, FLEET STREET. 



LIST 

OF 

CONTRIBUTORS, 

Wi(h References io the several Articks contributed by each. 



Bridges, Thomas, Esq. page 

Letter from, addressed to G. R. Waterhouse, Esq., con- 
tainiug iiotices of Bolivian Mammals and Birds 7 

CuMiNG, HuGH, Esq. 

Desci'iptions of New Species of Chamą by Loveli Reeve, 
coniiimnicated by . 117 

Fayreu, k. j., Esq., Lieut. R.N. 

Letter from, aecompanying sorae Specimens of the Bische 
de Mer, or Trepang 67 

Fry, Edward. 

On the Osteology of the Active Gibbon {Hylobates agilis) 1 1 
On the Relation of the Edentata to the Reptiles, especially 
of the Armadillos to the Tortoises 72 

Gaskoin, j. s., Esq. 

Descriptions of three New Species of Cyprcea .... 23 

GouLD, John, Esq., F.R.S. 

On a New Species of Nyctihius 1 

Descriptions of eleven New Species of Australian Birds • 18 
Descriptions of tiiree New Species of the family of Trochi- 

lidce 44 

Descriptions of six New Species of Birds 67 

Letter addressed to, detailing the circumstances of the 

death of Mr. John Gilbert 79 

Descriptions of t\vo Ne\v Species of Australian Birds . . 83 

On twenty New Species of Trochilidce or Humming Birds 85 

Descriptions of three New Australian Birds 106 

GuLLivER, George, Esq., F.R.S. 

Note on the Spermatozoa of the Polar Bear (Ursus mari- 
timus) 11 

Note on the Size of the Blood-Corpuscles of Birds, \vith 
Measurements by Dr. Davy of the Blood-Corpuscles of some 
Fishes and of a Humming-Bird 26 



Heron, Sir RoBERT, Bart. puye 

Note on the Genus Crax 67 

HiLL, RiCHARD, Esq. 

Description of a Seal found on a shoal, south of Jainaiea . 80 

Jonas, Dr. J. H. 

Descriptions of New Species of Shells S-t 

Descriptions of two New Shells 120 

LowE, the Rev. R. T. 

Letter from, accompanying a specimen of Lichia Vadigo, 

Cuv. & Vai 2'i 

On a new Genus of the Family LophidcB (les Pectorales 
Pėdiculees, Cuv.) discovered in Madeira 81 

OwEN, Professor. 

Notės on the Dissection of a Female Chimpanzee ( Trog- 

lodytes niger) 2 

Memoir on the Dinomis, Part II 46 

Observations on the SkuU and on the Osteology of the 

¥oot oi i\\e D o Ao (^Didus ineptus) .51 

Pfeiffer, Dr. L. 

Descriptions of thirty New Species of Helicea, belonging 
to the collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq '28 

Descriptions of twenty New Species of Helicea, in the 
collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq 37 

Descriptions of nine New Species of Helicea, coUected by 
Hugh Cuming, Esq +1 

Descriptions of thirty-eight New Species of Land-Shells . 109 

Reeve, Lovell, Esq. 

On New Species of Pleurotoma 3 

Descriptions of two New Species of Cyprcea 2,3 

Descriptions of forty Ne\v Species of Haliotis, from the 

collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq ,53 

Descriptions of fifty-four New Species of Mangelia, from 

the collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq .59 

SowERBY, G. B., Esq. 

Descriptions of thirteen New Species of Brachiopoda . . 91 
Descriptions of New Species of Marginella 95 

Strickland, h. e., Esq. 

Exhibition of a New Species of Corvus, discovered by 

Captain H. M. Drummond, 42nd R.H 43 

Notės on certain Species of Birds from Malacca ... 99 

Tomes, — , Esq. 

Exhibition of a Female Specimen of the Bimaculated Duck 
(Anas glocitans) 121 

Waterhouse, g. r., Esq. 

Description of a New Mammal from Bolivia (Hesperomi/s 
Boliviensis) S 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 13, 1846. 

William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, iu the Chair. 

Mr. Gould described a new species of Nyctibius, \vhich he pio- 
posed to name 

Nyctibius bracteatus. Nyct. castaneo-fuscus ; scapularurn api- 
cibus, et abdomine, macuUs albis, guasi bracteis, ornatis. 

The general plumage rich chestnut-brown ; the feathers of the 
head, back and breast freckled with black, and with an irregulnr- 
shaped blotch of black at the extiemity of each feather ; near the tip 
of each of the scapularies a spot of white encircled with black ; on 
the lower part of the abdomen are two lunar-shaped marks of white, 
formed by a square spot of silverj' -vvhite, bounded abo^e and below 
\vith a narrow line of black, occupying the extremities of the feathers ; 
wings daik brown, -viith the exception of the outer margins of the 
primaries, which are cinnamon-bro\vn ; tail chestnut, crossed with 
numerous bars, composed of two irregular narrow lines of black, and 
with a small spot of \vhite at the tip ; under tail-coverts buiF, with a 
sąuare spot of white at the tip. 

Totai length, 9į inches ; bill, 1^ ; \ving, 6; tail, 5^; tarsi, i. 

Hab. Santa Fe de Bogota. 

Remark. — This species is the least of the genus that has come under 
my notice ; the description is taken from a fine specimen in the col- 
lection of the Royal Institution of Liverpool. ' 



Nos. CLV. C'LVI. & CLMI. — rKocE£DixGs or the Zool. Soc. 



January 27, 1846. 

William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A paper by Professor Owen was read, containing the following 
notes on the dissection of the Chimpanzee {Troglodytes niger) which 
died in the menagerie of the Society Dec. 29, 1845: — 

Chimpanzee (female) : — Weight 421 Ibs. 

MKASUREMENTS. ft. in. 

From vertex to under-side of heel 3 6 

From vertex to coccyx 2 O 

From trochanter major femoris to extemal condyle of 

femur O Dį 

From extemal condyle of femur to external malleolus . . O 9į 

From heel to end of middle toe O SJ 

From distal end of first metatarsal to distal end of pha- 

langes of first toe O 2^ 

From acromion to external condyle of humerus O 9^ 

From external condyle of humerus to distal end of radius 10 

From distal end of radius to extremity of middle finger . . 10 

Circumference of proximal part of arm O 8 

Circumference of proximal part of forearm O 8A 

Circumference of distal part of fore-arm O 6į 

Circumference of \vrist O 6 

Circumference of proximal part of thigh O 11 

Circumference of distal part of thigh O 9^ 

Circumference of proximal part of leg O 7 

Circumference of distal part of leg O 6{ 

Circumference of metatarsus O 7 

Weight of brain (covered by arachnoid and pia mater), 13 oz. 4 dr. 
Weight of liver, 2 Ibs. 
Weight of spleen, 2^ oz. 
"VVeight of kidneys, 3 oz. each. 

AU the deciduous teeth were shed, and all the permanent teeth 
(on the right or healthy side of the mouth) were in place, escept the 
canines and lašt molars ; these latter teeth were more advanced in 
their development than the canines. This stage of dentition corre- 
sponds with that of the human subject at about the twelfth year; 
fcut allowance mušt be made for the later period of development of 
the canines in the Chimpanzee. Both upper and lower jaws on the 
left side were enlarged by disease ; the gums inflamed and sloughy : 
the bicuspides or i^remolars and the first and second true molars had 
been pushed out, and their fangs more or less absorbed. The left 
outer permanent incisor of the upper jaw \vas half an inch distant 



from the inner or medlan incisor, o-wing to intervenlng s\velHiig of 
the jaw. A section of the diseased left ramus of the lower jaw 
showed the matrices of the canine and lašt molar in a healthy stata 
in the closed alveolar cavities. 

The irritation had extended to the ieft suhmaxillary and sublin- 
gual glands, which were much enlarged. Both tonsils were ulcerated. 
Both pleurae, but particularly the left, were partly closed by old ad- 
hesions, which had obliterated the divisions of the lobes of the lungs. 
Only one small portion of the pulmonary tissue was Consolidated by 
inflammation ; it was about the size of a walnut, and situated in the 
lower lobe of the right lung, close to an adhesion of the pleura, but 
there were no tubercles developed in any part of the lungs. 

A few old adhesions bound the spleen and omentum to the walls 
of the abdomen ; all the other viscera of the abdominal cavity were 
healthy. The most remarkable morbid appearance was found upon 
the upper surface of the posterior lobe of the right hemisphere of the 
brain, where a circumscribed depression of two convolutions ^vas 
formed, to which the dura mater strongly adhered, by the medium of 
a yeUovvish firm lymph ; but there wa3 no superficial ulceration of 
the cerebral substance. 

With regard to the normai anatomy, I may at present add to the 
fuU descriptions that have been published of the dissections of 
younger Chimpanzees, that in this nearly adult individual the laryn- 
geal pouch extended over the front of the neck, beneath the platysma 
myoides, as far down as the left axilla, passing there beneath the 
upper border of the great pectoral musele. 

The continuation of Mr. Loveli Reeve's paper on new species of 
Pleurotoma was then read : — 

Pleurotoma delicata. Pleur. testd suhulatd, tenui, hyalind. 

iransversim minuti et creberritrie elevato-striatd, aperturd brevi ; 

pellucido-albd, aurantio pallidissimi maculatd. 
Hab. Lord Hood's Island, Pacific Ocean ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma axis. Pleur. testd recto-acuminaid. inferne contractd, 
anfractibus superni bicarinatie, infra iransversim exiliter liratis, 
aperturd oblongn, siim profundo, albidd, aurantio -fusco subindi- 
stincti tinctd. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

Pletjkotoma crebriplicata. Pleur. testd ovatd, inferni ventri- 
coso-sinuatd, anfractibus concentrice crebrij)licatis. iransversim 
crebriliraiis, aperturd patuld ; albidd, aurantio-fusco profuse va- 
riegaid. 

Hab. Bolinao, Island of Luzon, Philippines (found under stones at 
Io\v -Nvater) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma rosaria. Pleur. testd ahbreviato-subulatd, basi 
truncatd, anfractibus concentrice plicaiis, Itevibus, aperturd brevi, 
vivide coccineo-rosed, anfractuum parte supremd albizonutu. 

Hab. ? 



Pleurotoma Dysoni. Plear. testd ovald, apird subturritd, an- 
fractibus supertie concavis et obtuse carinatis, infra rotundatis, 
longitudinaliter costatis, liris iransversis decussatis, aperturd brevi, 
s'mu amplo ; castaneo-fuscd, anfractuum parte superiori hic illic 
interriipte albifasciatu. 
Hab. Hondūras ; Dyson. 

I have much pleasure in naming this shell, at the request of Mr. 
Cuming, after Mr. Dyson, whose adventurous researches after objects 
of natūrai history in a country not the most healthy for European 
travellers are certainly worthy of being recorded. 

Pleurotoma Hondueasensis. Pleur. testd oblongo-ovatd, spird 
acutd, anfractibus rotundatis, nodoso-costatis ; cinereo luteoque 
alternutim fasciatd ; labro incrassato. 

Hab. Hondūras ; Dyson. 

Pleurotoma fenestrata. Pleur. testd fusifornū-ovatd, subinflatd, 
tenui, pellucidd, anfractibus rotundis, liris superficiariis subdistan- 
tibus undique clathratis, labro simplici, sinu latiusculo ; pellucido- 
albd, aurantio pallide tinctd. 

Hab. Island of Mindoro, Philippines (found among coral). 

Pleurotoma granicostata. Pleur. testd abbreviato-ovatd, basi 
truncatd, spird brevi, anfractibus pulcherrime granoso-costatts, 
liris transversis clathratis ; albidd, roseo-fuscescente tinctd, granis 
saturatioribus. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma regularis. Pleur. testd subpyramidali-ovatd, an- 
fractibus superne concavis, medio oblique regulariter costatis, aper- 
turd parvd, sinu lato ; albidd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma angicostata. Pleur. testd oblongo-ovatd, spird tur- 
ritd, Itevigatd, anfractibus longitudinaliter costatis, costis subdi- 
stantibus, angustis, superne angulatis, submucronatis ; nived. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma mucronata. Pleur. testd acuminato-pyramidali, an- 
fractibus longitudinaliter subobscure plicato-costatis, costis nodu- 
losis, aperturd brevi ; fuscd, nodorum serie mediand albicante. 

Hab. } 

Pleurotoma Cagayanensis. Pleur. testd fusiformi-ovatd, spird 
acuminatd, anfractibus superne unicarinatis, infra tuberculato-pli- 
catis, transversim conspicue liratis ; sinu amplo ; albd. 

Hab. Cagayan, province of Misamis, island of Mindanao, Philip- 
pines (found in sandy mud at the depth of seven fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma tessellata. Pleur. testd pyramidali,. anfractibus 
superne concavis, medio confertim tuberculatoplicatis, aperturd 
parvd; albd, maculis grandibus conspicuis rifo-fuscis tessellatd. 

Hab. Isle of Capul, Philippines (on the reefs) ; Cuming. 



PleurotoMA semen. Pleur. testd oblongd, spird mucronatd, an- 
fractibus lavibus, medio obUque plicatis, aperturd parvd, sinu 
profundo ; castaneo-fuscd, plicis albidis. 

Hab. San Nicolas, island of Zebu, Philippines (under stones at 
low \vater) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma Paria. Pleur. tesiu oblongd, spird acuminato-turritd, 
anfractibus superne concavis, infra plicato-cosiatis, costis angustis, 
subJlexuosis ; albd, fascid pallide aurantid indistinctd cingulatd. 

Hab ? 

Pleurotoma scalpta. Pleur. testd pyramiduli-ovatd, lavigatd aut 
mitiutissimi reticulatd, aperturd brevi, sinu distincto ; albd, lineis 
fuscis brevibus tessellatim pictd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma Forbesii. Pleur. testd turritd, anfractibus rotundatis, 
longit.udinaliter obtuse costatis, transversim liratis, aperturd parvd ; 
rufescente-fuscd, liris saturatloribus . 
Hab. Paros, Grecian Archipelago ; Forbes. 

I have much pleasure in dedicating this little species to Professor 
Edward Forbes, whose submarine researches among the islands of 
the Grecian Archipelago have afForded matter of so much interest 
and novelty. 

Pleurotoma symmetric^. Pleur. testd ovatd, spird breviusculd, 
anfractibus superni depressis, longitudinaliter costatis, costarum 
interstitiis subtilissinie elevato-striatis ; lutescente, anfractuum 
parte superiori albd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma cornea. Pleur. testd ovatd, spird acuminatd, corned, 
subpellucidd, concentrice tenuicostatd ; fuscescente, zond angustd 
pallidd cingulatd. 

Hab. — ? 

Pleurotoma foveolata. Pleur. testd ovatd, liris fortibus elevatis 

undiąue reticulatis, liris ad decussationem granosis ; albd. 
Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma pagoda. Pleur. testd pyramidali-acuminatd, anfrac- 
tibus longitudinaliter crassicostatis, transversim subtilissime liratis, 
aperturd brevi; olivaceo-fuscd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma semigranosa. Pleur. testd acuminato-turritd, an- 
fractibus superne concavis, medio nodoso-costatis, infra granosis, 
aperturd parvd ; albidd, fascid aurantid inferni cingulatd. 
Hab. ■ ? 

Pleurotoma tincta. Pleur. testd oblongo-ovatd, anfractibus ro- 
tundis, longitudinaliter crassicostatis, liris transversis fortiter 
clathratis, interstitiis profundis, labro incrassato, sinu lato, canali 



subrecurvo; albd, anfractibus supra et infra aurantio-fusco fasčt- 
atim maculatis. 
Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma canaliculata. Plevr. testd ovato-turritd, spirte su- 
turd canaliculatd, anfractibus striis elevatis, subtiliter clathratis, 
sinu amplo ; albicante. 

Hab. ? 

PLEtFROTOMA FusoiDES. PleuT. testd fusifomii, spira acuminatd, 
anfractibus superne angulatis, striis elevatis creberrime reticulatis, 
labro subincrassato, sinu lato ; albicante, intus fuscescente. 
Hab. Island of Mindanao, Philippines (found in sandy raud at the 
depth of twenty-five fathoms) ; Cuming. 

Pleurotoma albifuniculata. Pleur. testd oblongd, anfractibus 
rotundatis, longitudinaliter crebricostatis, liris subtilibus trans- 
versis funiculatis, canali subrecurvo, sinu lato ; albicante, auruntio 
hic illic tinctd, liris opalo-albis, apice rosaceo. 

Hab. South Pacific. 

Pleurotoma albinodata. Pleur. testd ovato-turritd, medio gib- 
bosd, anfractibus superne angulatis, ad angulum tubercnlatis, 
transversim granoso-liratis ; nigricante-fuscd, tuberculis albis. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma scahabjsūs. Pleur. testd obeso-ovatd, spird brevi, 
apice elevato ; lievigatd, spird apicem versus obsolefi hexagonali ; 
castaneo-fuscd, anfractu ultimo zond subobscurd lutescente cingu- 
latd, apice albo. 

Hab. Hondūras ; Dyson, 

Pleurotoma D/Edala. Pleur. testd subfusiformi, anfractibus lon- 
gitudinaliter tenuicostatis, interstitiis transversim creberrime ele- 
vato-striatis, labro incrassato ; albidd, fuscescente pallidissimt 
tinctd. 

Hab. ? 

Pleurotoma obtusa. Pleur. testd oblongd, spird breviusculd, ob- 
tusd, anfractibus rotundis, obtuso-costatis, transversim tenuiliratis, 
labro incrassato, sinu lato ; lutescente. 

Hab ? 



February 10, 1846. 
R. C. Griffith, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following letter was read, addressed to G. R. Waterhouse, 
Esq., by the Society's Corresponding Member ITiomas Bridges, 
Esq. : — 

" I am much delighted to learn that several of the little Rodents 
I sent from Chile previous to my departure proved new, and I thank 
you sincerely for the honour you have done me by affixing my name 
to the new Octodon. I now ■with pleasure give you its habitat. 
Many years ago I found this species inhabiting holes in sandy banks 
and hUlocks near the borders of the river Jeno, in the province of 
Colchagiia, nor do I remember having found it in any other locality 
in Chile, It is much less abundant than O. Cumingii, but, likę that 
species, it feeds on herbs and dried grass. In the ^vinter months I 
have observed it eats the bark of Mimosa Cavenia, which abounds in 
that part of Chile. Of this species, on my retum to ChUe, I shall 
endeavour to procure other specimens ; also a skeleton and cranium 
for your inspection. Likę O. Cumingii, it makes its appearance and 
feeds during the day, especially when the weather is cloudy. 

" The Lagotis Cuvieri of Bennett, of which I sent beautiful speci- 
mens, vėre captured on the westem side of the Andes, in the province 
of Colchagua. This animal I have also found in great abundance in 
Bolivia ; you would be delighted to see it in its native country. It 
abounds in bold, rocky and steep precipices, and sometimes on the 
slopes amongst large stones tumbled one on the other, amongst the 
crevices of which it takes shelter. I have never yet seen it make caves 
or burrows. It is highly amusing to see it bound from one huge 
block to another, taking leaps equal almost to those of the squirrel ; 
this it accomplishes from the structure of its hind legs and the assist- 
ance of its tail. On examining several females lately, I find that 
they only produce one or two at a birth. Their food is coarse grass. 
It appears that this animal has an immense mountainous range from 
lat. 33° to 18°, and probably is found much further north and south. I 
have found it often from 10,000 to 12,000 feet of elevation in Bolivia. 
If not mistaken, I have discovered in my rambles from Cobija to this 
place, a distance of 900 miles, another species of Lagotis*. It is 
somevvhat less in size, more compact, with a shorter tail, and the 
fur is of a rūsty colour, especially that of the flanks and abdomen ; 
nor is the dark Une over the vertebra so well-marked as in Z. Cuvieri. 
When you possess the skins you will be better able to discover if it 
is a distinct species. 

* I did not perceive any other species of Lagotis beyond the L. Cuvieri in Mr. 
Bridges' coUection. — G. R. 'VV. 

No. CLVI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Societt. 



" The Chinchilla I have never been able to capture, although I 
spent a day or two in Cobija for that purpose. It is entirely a noc- 
turnal ariimal, never making its appearance during the day, therefore 
it cannot be taken with the gun : its habits and abode are similar to 
the Viscacha. 

" The native hunters of this little animal domesticate the Quique 
of Molina, -vvhich they term here Huron, the Spanish for feiTct* ; the 
Huron enters the crevices and holes mada by the Chinchilla, and 
drives thera out, when they are either killed with sticks by the hunt- 
ers or taken by the dogs trained for that purpose. 

" I find near the coast of Bolivia, \vhere scarcely any vegetation 
exists, the Chinchilla lives on the seed-vessel of a tall long-spined 
species of Cereus, -vvhich it coUects in small pilės, and eats during 
the night. These seed-vessels contain a great deal of pulpy sub- 
stance surrounding the seeds, and the exterior is covered \vith long 
hair. They are shaped likę a pear, and are called by the natives 
Pasas canas (hairy figs). The Canis fulvipes I am persuaded does 
not exist in the northern provinces of Chile ; had this been the case 
I should have taken it. Molina describes the Culpeo and the Chilla, 
and as I have not his work here I cannot give you his specific names ; 
why not adopt them, as I consider them prior to those of other au- 
thors ? On my return to Chile I will consult his •nork and send you 
them. 

" During my journey in Bolivia I have paid ever}' attention to the 
Mammalia, and only a fe\v days ago I forwarded a box of skins to 
Valparaiso, reąuesting my friend there to forvvard three species which 
are highly interesting, and at the šame time to me quite new. They 
are — 

" 1. Kerodon. — This animal I consider different from K. Kingii ; 
it is found in the vicinity of Chuąuisaca and Cochabamba in rocky 
places, and not uncommon in fields surrounded by stone vi-alls, in 
vvhich it takes shelter and lives. It is raore solitary tban K. Kingii, 
as that species I found near Mendoza in what may be termcd large 
communities. This animal feeds during the day on grass and herb- 
age, but, I have observed, after the dew is evaporated from the ground. 
The hair of this animal appears, from \vhat I remember, to be more 
coarse and bristly ; however, comparison will decide ; I may perhaps 
be mistaken. Native name, 'Conejitof.' 

" 2. A large Rat, with short tail and strong claws J. This curious 
and astonishing animal I first found a few leagues south of Potosi, 
at an elevation of 12,000 feet, in sandy slopes and valleys, at no 
great distance from water. Large patches of land are completely 
undermined by its \vorkings, -n'hich are similar to those of ScMzodon 
fuscvs. I at first concluded that it burrowed for amusement, or the 
change of residence, but on deeper consideration I consider it does 
so in pursuit of bulbs and the roots of grass for food, likę Po'ėphago- 
mys ater. It may be seen working in the morning, throvving out the 

* This is the Galictis vitlata of Bell.— G. R. W. 

t The species referred to is the Cavia cobaia of authors. — G. R. W. 

X Ctenomys Braziliensis of De Blainville. — G R. W. 



9 

sand, and now and then turns round and protrudes its head out of 
tlie new-made burrow. It was then our only chance to shoot them, 
and if not killed on the spot, there is no hope of obtaining them. 
Only in one or two instances do I remember seeing them leave their 
holes to feed on the grass. I think youwill find this animal distinct 
from all the other South American Rodents, and perhaps it will form 
the type of a new genus. Its native name is 'Tufo' and 'Tojo,' 
pronounced ' Tu-fo ' and ' To-ko.' 

"3. A large Mouse, with soft furandlargeears*. This charming 
little animal \ve found in the šame locality as the above, inhabiting 
the abandoned caves of the former species. It makes its appearance 
in the afternoon, when the sun is nearly on the horizon, to feed on 
grass, and is often seen sitting on its hind legs ; and it then presents 
its pretty white abdomen and erect ears. In this position it has the 
appearance of a rabbit in miniature. The natives call it ' Achohalla,' 
pronounced ' Ha-cho-ha-ya.' 

" I have taken the Didelphis Azara with a litter of eight young 
ones. I have not forwarded this animal -vvith the others ; it will re- 
main till my return to Chile ; also several species of Mice and Bats. 

" In ornithology I have been very successfui, ha\-ing obtained 
about 100 species difFering from the birds of Chile. I have found 
a considerable portion of the birds figured in D'Orbigny's splendid 
■work, and before I leave Bolivia I hope to obtain the greater part, 
especially as in a few days I intend leaving Cochabamba and tra- 
velling down the river Mamore towards the frontiers of Brazil, 
traversing the country of the Yaracares Indians, •vvhere D'Orbigny 
found an immense number of novelties. 

" Amongst the Perdicara I have found a beautiful species oi En- 
dromia, differing from E. elegans of D'Orbigny ; also a third species 
of Tinachorus, much larger than T. D' Orbignyanus ; and in the valley 
of Cochabamba and mountains in the vicinity I have of late had the 
good fortune to take three distinct species of Nocthura, all of beauti- 
fully marked plumage, and difFerent from N. Perdicaria of Chile. 
These have given me excellent sport. Amongst many other inter- 
esting birds which I have lately taken, I have found Serrirostrum 
carbonarium and sittoides. My intention is, before I leave Cocha- 
bamba, to write a communication to the Zoological Society, having 
now the honour to be a Corresponding Member, giving them a brief 
idea of what I have accomplished since I arrived in this country. 
I have no doubt that the Earl of Derby and the Messrs. Gray will have 
much pleasure at the sight of the Bolivian birds vvhen they arrive in 
England. I have many interesting insects, amongst which there are 
three species of Nyctelia and two or three of the genus PhancEus, with 
others which I am sure "svill aflford you pleasure and amusement." 

Hesperomts Boliviensis. Hesp.pallide ochraceus, corpore suprcl 
fusco-penicillato, subtiis albo ; pedibus albis flavo-lavatis ; caudd 
quoad longitudinem corpusfere eequante, albd, supra fiavd : auri- 
bus permagnis, extits rufescenti-flavis. 

* Hesperomys Boliviensis, a new species hereafter described. — G. R. W. 



10 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudrc basin. ... 53 

cttudčc 3 5 

tarsi digitorumque 1 H 

• — auris O 95 

Hab. Bolivia, near Potosi. 

The most striking features of this species are the large size of its 
ears, combined with its delicate ochre-yellow colouring. It is ap- 
parently a stout-bodied animal, and has long and soft fur, which on 
all parts of the body is of a deep slate-grey colour next the skin ; on 
the under parts each hair has the outer haif ■vvhite ; on the sides of 
the body the visible portions of the hairs are ochreous, obscurely 
tinted -vvith rufous on the rump : the hairs on the back are similarly 
coloured, but they are brown at the point, and many of them are 
blackish. The feet are •white, but slightly sufFused with yellowish ; 
the tail is well-clothed for a mouse, vvhite beneath, and of a pale 
yellow colour above ; the eyes are margined \vith brown ; the ears 
are clothed with small pale yellow hairs intemally, and the hairs on 
the outer surface, which are much longer, are of a rūsty yellow hue. 
The hairs of the moustaches are numerous and very long, some of 
them vvhite and some black. The incisor teeth, \vhich are narrow 
in proportion to the animal, are of a very pale orange colour. The 
fore-feet are small ; the tarsi moderate. 

The Hesperomys Boliviensis, in the large size of its ears, mušt ap- 
proach the Mus auritus of Desmarest ; but judging from the descrip- 
tion of that animal, it should difFer in being of a larger size, in having 
the tarsi shorter in proportion, and its colouring mušt be very dis- 
similar, the M. auritus being described aa of a grey hue. — G. W. 



n 



February 24, 1846. 
George GulUver, Esq., F.R.S., in thp Chair. 

The following Note on the Spermatozoa of the Polar Bear, by 
George Gulliver, Esq., F.R.S., was read : — 

The ąuestion of the true nature of these curious bodies is as inter- 
esting as it is obscure. Whether they be independent animalcules 
or merely free and floating ciHa has never been clearly proved. 

Professor Valentin*, indeed, described an amount of organization 
in the spermatozoa of a Bear, ąuite sufRcient, if confirmed, to prove 
that they are really distinct beings. Therefore I took an oppor- 
tunity of obtaining them for examination from the Polar Bear which 
died this morning in the Society's menagerie. The animal was a 
very large adult, in good condition ; bis testes "vvell-developed, con- 
taining in the seminal tubes plenty of cells and immature sperma- 
tozoa, and an abundance of them perfectly formed in the vas defe- 
rens. These were carefuUy examined. They presented none of the 
marks of mouth, anus and internal vesicles depicted by Professor 
Valentin. In short, the spermatozoa of the Polar Bear were similar . 
in all respects to those of numerous other Mammalia, as may be seen 
by comparing my drawings, now exhibited to the Society, of the 
spermatozoa of the following animals, viz. the Polar Bear (Ursus 
maritimus, Linn.), the Stoat (Mustela Erminea, Linn.), the Indian 
Badger (ArctonĮ/x collaris, F. Cuv.), the Dromedary (Camelus Dro- 
medarius, Linn.), and the Camel (Camelus Bactrianus, Auct.). I 
gavę a notice of the spermatozoa of the two lašt animals in the Proc. 
of this Society, July 26, 1842, p. 101, and April 11, 1843, p. 50. 

A paper by Edward Fry was then read : — 

" On the Osteology of the Active Gibbon {Hylobates agilis)." 

I have never met ■with any detailed account of the osteology of 
any species of the genus Hylobates. Professor Owen's memoir on 
that of the Orang Utan and Chimpanzee seems to make one de- 
girable, for the sake of comparison, as the Gibbons are the next group 
of Simiadce to the Orangs. Their skeleton too is highly interesting, 
as exhibiting a striking adaptation to progression amongst the 
branches of trees, well-fitting the animal to be a vi^alker amongst 
woods, a Hylobates. , 

The individual, whose skeleton I am about to describe, was a female, 
■vvhich lived for some years in the Zoological Gardens at Bristol, having 
been brought thither from Macao, \vhere she had been kept in con- 
finement. Of two young ones which were taken 'vvith their mother 
in the fore&ts of Malacca, she alone attained maturity. She was pro- 

* 'VVagner's Pbysiology, tr. by Dr.Willis, p. 228 ; 8vo, Lond. 1844. 



12 

bably nine or ten years of age at the time of her death. Of her 
agility and her cry I shall say nothing; much has already been 
written on these subjects, and no account of mine could give any 
adequate impression of her ■vv'onderful manners. 

This individual is the one which was exhibited in London in 1840, 
and of which mention is made in Martin's ' Natūrai History of Qua- 
drupeds,' Part 8. 

Section I. — Of the Skull. 

The cranium of the Hylohates agilis if? elongate and ovate in form, 
much-contracted behind the orbits, \vhich are very projecting and 
deep and surmounted by very elevated supraciliary ridges. The 
muzzle is rounded and broad, so that the face, although considerably 
prominent, has not attained the lengthened shape of the Baboons or 
of the adult Orang Utan. The forehead, which is narrow, is but 
slightly arched above the orbits, so that the whole of the cranium is 
behind the face. 

A slightly elevated ridge of bone, arising from the supraorbital 
ridges, which becomes contracted during its passage over the coronal 
aspect of the skull, and again expands towards the occiput, marks 
the boundary on either side of the temporal museles. This elevated 
medial portion is smooth, w'hilst the latei-al portions of the skull are 
roughened by muscular attachments. This development is similar 
to that of the Chimpanzee, \vhilst in the Orang Utan the sagittal 
' and temporal crests are elevated to an extraordinary extent. 

The supraorbital ridges, we have before remarked, are much-de- 
veloped. Such is the case in the Chimpanzee, where hovvever they 
form a junction across the face, which does not take place in the 
Active Gibbon. The orbits have a very prominent margiu, are very 
large and deep, and are much swelled out externally, so that their 
outer portion " projects very boldly from the cranium." Sir Thomas 
Stamford llaffles says of tlae Siamang, " The orbits of the eyes are 
circular and remarkably prominent," Linn. Trans. vol. xiii. p. 242. 
Such too is the character of the skull of the adult Hoolock figured 
by Dr. Harlan in the Transactions of the American Philosophical 
Society, vol. iv. New Series, p. 52. 

The nasal bones make a slight elevation, thus resembling Man 
more than the Orang Utan or even the Chimpanzee. The osseous 
opening of the nose is wide and rather large. The figure of the face 
^■iewed in front, from between the orbits to the dental edge, resem- 
bles a wedge -vvhose point is directed downwards. This form is con- 
trary to that of the Baboons, ^vhere the vredge is inverted. The 
infraorbital canal opens by a single hole, as in Man and the Chim- 
panzee. This foramen is smaller in the Gibbon than in those animals. 

The outvvard curvature of the zygomatic arch is not great ; it is 
placed far more posteriorly than in Man, in consequence of the 
lengthening of the facial portion of the skull. 

The skull of this Gibbon is anchylosed, externally at least, into 
one piece. Prof. Owen tells us that the cranial suturės are oblite- 
rated in the adult Orang Utan, Syndactylous Ape, and freąuently 



13 

in the Baboons and othcr Quadrumana. I have observed it in Pithe- 
cia Satanus, an American species. It sometimes occurs in the adult 
huraan cranium. 

The lower jaw is rather lengthened in figure, decidedly more so 
than in Man, in conseąuence of the production of the muzzle. It is 
shallowest just below the termination of the molar series, deepening 
tovvards the symphysis, which is not very retreating, so that the 
Gibbon has a pretty good chin for a monkey. In this respect it ap- 
pears to approach Man more nearly than the higher Orangs. The 
lower jaw of Man is more uniform in its depth than that of this 
Gibbon : its angle too is not quite so much rounded ; the external 
edges of the ascending and horizontai branches do not form quite so 
obtuse an angle at their meeting. 

The ąuestion may be asked, What are the efFects of age in altering 
the form of the skull in the Gibbons ? In answer I will remark, 
first, that the muzzle is elongated and the cranium throw'n in ą 
more backward position, in conseąuence of the necessity for length- 
ening the dental edge to receive the second or permanent series of 
teeth. This will be evident by a comparison of the skuUs of the 
young White-cheeked and Hoolock Gibbons, figured in Martin's 
Nat. Hist. Quad., Part 8, with that of the adult Agile Gibbon in the 
Bristol Institution (the subject of this paper) and with Dr. Harlan's 
plate of that of the adult Hoolock, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, ubi supra. 
The latter comparison is very satisfactory on this point, as the spe- 
cimens compared are of the šame species. A corresponding elonga- 
tion of the facial parts takes place in the Orangs, as demonstrated by 
Prof. Owen, Zool. Trans. vol. i. or Zool. Proc. 1835, p. 30. A similar 
change is also observable in the human species ; tlae facial angle of 
the infant decreases vvith age until the second teeth are cut. Secondly, 
vvith increasing age another change takes place in the greater promi- 
nence of the supraciliary ridges and the margiu of the orbit. I appeal, 
again to the illustrations of Martin and Harlan, and to the original 
sketch of the Agile Gibbon. A similar development of the craniai 
ridges takes place in the Orang Utan and Chimpanzee with age; 
in the former, in the temporal and sagittal crests ; in the latter, in the 
orbitai margiu. Thirdly, in the anchylosis of the bones of the cra- 
nium and the face. This -vv-ould appear to have taken place in the 
skull of the Hoolock figured by the late Dr. Richard Harlan {ubi supra), 
\vhilst in the immature one figured by Martin (ubi supra) the suturės 
are represented. This change is observed to take place in the adult 
Orang, but not in the Chimpanzee. Fourthly, it appears probable, 
from a comparison of the before-mentioned materials, that the infra- 
orbital foramen, cind the foramen which gives exit to the dental blood- 
vessel and nerve in the lower jaw, become smaller by age. 

From these observations it vdll be apparent that the skull of the 
Gibbons, likę that of the Orangs, is far more anthropoid in youth 
than in mature age. The prolongation of the muzzle, the retrogres- 
sion of the cranium, the smallness of the facial angle, the develop- 
ment of the orbitai ridgei, the anchylosis of the bpnes, and the small- 



14 

ness of the foramina, all distance the aged more tKan the immature 
Gibbon from the human race. 

Compared with the human skull, the head of this Gibbon is dlstin- 
guished by its lengthened ovate figure ; its narrowness, especially 
behind the orbits ; by the large size and inflated parietės of the orbits ; 
by the waiit of vertical elevation of the forehead, and the conseąuent 
position of the brain behind, not above the face ; by the great eleva- 
tion of the supraorbital ridges ; by the development of the muzzle, 
necessitating the backvvard position of the zygomatic arches and the 
elongation of the palate ; by the small proportional size of the infra- 
orbital forameu ; by the obliąuity of the occipital plane, and by the 
large size of the canine teeth ; by the elongation of the lower jaws, 
in consequence of the length of the muzzle and palate ; by the in- 
creased depth of the symphysis, and by the small size of the foramen 
which gives exit to the blood-vessel nourishing the teeth and the 
accompanying nerve. 

This skull agrees with that of the Chimpanzee in its Fmallness 
proportionally to the body, in its generally elongated form, in its 
anterior contraction, in the marks of the attachments of the temporal 
museles, in the large supraorbital ridges, in the obliąuity of the plane 
of the foramen magnum, and in the slight arch of the nasal bones. 

It differs from that of the Chimpanzee in the supraorbital ridges 
not uniting, in the obliteration of the suturės, in the smaller size of 
the infraorbital foramen and of the foramen of the dental blood-vessel. 
The lower jaw is proportionally shallower. The cranium of the 
young Chimpanzee is far broader, more arched and less anteriorly 
compressed, and therefore far more anthropoid. These characters 
however degenerate with age. 

It difFers yet more from the form of skull exhibited by the adult 
Orang Utan, •vvhere the strongly developed cranial ridges and widely 
expanded zygomatic arches give the skull a camivorous aspect. 
These peculiarities we have seen to be absent in the Gibbon. The 
flatness of the bones of the nose of this Ape is an additional distinc- 
tion. On the other hand, it agrees with the Orang in the oblitera- 
tion of the cranial suturės of the adult. 

In the large development of the supraciliary ridges this skull re- 
minds us of the Baboons, ■vvhich present hovvever a more degraded 
form, and may be distinguished by the greater narrowness of the 
cranium, by the less circular form of the orbits, by the greater pro- 
longation (k the muzzle and the greater space between the zygomatic 
arch and the skull. 

The dentition of the Gibbon claims no especial notice ; the in- 
cisors and molars are moderate in size, ■vvhilst the canines are large, 
their roots apparently reaching uearly to the intemal corner of the 
orbits. 

Section Ii. — Of the Trunk. 

The vertebral formula of the Agile Gibbon is — cervical, 7 ; dorsal, 
13; lumbar, 5; sacral, 4; coccygeal, 4. The comparison of these 



15 



numbers witli those of some of its congeners and near allies will be 
exhibited by the following table : — 



Name of Aninial. 


Cervical. Dorsal. 


Lumbar. 


Sacral. 


Coccygeal. 


Totai. 




1 


12 
13 
12 
14 
12 
13 


5 
4 
4 
5 
6 
5 


5 
5 
5 
5 
3 
4 


4 
4 
3 
5 
3 
4 


33 
33 
31 
36 
31 
33 


Cliimpanzee 

Orang Utan 

Hylobates concolor. 

Hylobates lar 

Hylobates agilis ... 



Of the cervical vertebrse I need only remark, that the transverse 
processes of the atlas are produced long and narrow, more so than 
in Man. The first dorsal vertebra is the smallest, after which they 
gradually increase in size. The transverse processes of the lumbar 
vertebrae are less developed than in Man, and are more uniform in size. 
It will be noticed that whilst the lumbar vertebrse of the Chimpanzee 
and Orang Utan are four, two of the Gibbons have five and one has 
six ; in the extent of this region therefore they approach Man. The 
sacral vertebrse are perfectly anchylosed together, but not to the 
coccygeal, and form about their middle an angle, the lower part 
being curved backwards. The upper portion thus remains in a line 
mth the vertebral column, and part only is thrown backwards instead 
of the whole, as in Man. The first pair of foramina are almost obli- 
terated, and are therefore not so large as in Man and the Chimpanzee; 
the three following are persistent. As in the Orangs, the sacrum is 
narrower than in the human skeleton. The weakness of these parts 
indicates the less amount of capability of assuming the erect posture 
than is granted to Man. The Gibbons are especially fitted for arbo- 
real progression ; and although by the assistance of their lengthened 
fore extremities, touching the ground on either side, and as it were 
acting as crutches, they are perhaps more at home in the erect pos- 
ture on level surfaces than either the Chimpanzee or Orang Utan, 
yet their raovements are awkward and constrained. The Gibbons 
are the only Mammals which can assume the erect posture •vvhilst 
they ■walk on all four extremities. 

The thorax, which is formed by seven true and six falše ribs, is 
larger and more conical in form than in Man. The great activity of 
the Gibbons reąuires large respiratory organs ; hence we find the 
thorax proportionally large (see Prof. Owen on Orangs, ubi supra) ; 
at the šame time it afFords increased attachments to the strong pec- 
toral museles required by the lengthened arms. One contrivance 
thus answers two ends. 

The lašt three ribs are unattached by cartilage to the stemum, 
which consists of five pieces, v?hereof the lašt is free. In the num- 
ber of its component pieces the stemum of the Active Gibbon agrees 
with Man and the Chimpanzee, and difFers from the Orang Utan, 
where it is formed of seven or eight small pieces arranged in a double 
row. The manubrium differs slightly from the human in being pro- 
portionally broader. 



16 

Compared with thc ribs of the Chim])Hnzec, those oi the Activc 
Gibbon are slight in form : compared \vith those of a Baboon, they 
are strong. 

A reference to the dorsal column of the table of vertebrcC given 
above \vill show that the number of ribs varies considerably in the 
genus Hylobates. 

Section III. — Ot the Foue Extremities. 

The clavicles, which from their great length throw the scapulse 
far backwards, and give great breadth to the shoulders, are flattened 
horizontally, have but little marks of tendinous attachment, and pre- 
sent neither the double curvature of Man nor the straightness of the 
Orang Utan, but a simple gentie curvature outvvards. 

The scapulae are of a more lengthened shape than in the human 
subject, from which they also differ in having the aspect of the gle- 
noid cavity far less laterally and more upwardly directed, in the 
upper edge of the bone rather desceuding than ascending from this 
cavity, in the convexity instead of concavity of the humeral edge, 
and the far greater acuteness of the inferior angle. 

The pcculiarities to be remarked in the humerus are its extraordi- 
nary length, reaching to just above the head of the femur, its slight- 
ness of form, and the general weakness of its elevations. The tuber- 
cles at the superior head are very small. Its tvvist oceurs about 
one-third from the upper extremity of the bone, as in Man. The 
external apophysis can scarcely be said to exist ; the internal is 
present. 

The fore-arm is remarkable for its length (which is yet more ex- 
traordinary than that of the arm), for the slenderness of its form, 
and for the extent of the interosseous space formed by the great 
outward curvature of the radius : by this lašt character the Gibbon 
is distanced from Man, but approximated to the Orangs. The greatest 
distance of the radius from the ulna oceurs about one-third of the 
length of the fore-arm from the superior articulation ; not near the 
inferior head, as in the human skeleton. The olecranon of the ulna 
appears neither so broad nor so strong as in Man. 

In this specimen the fore-arm is t\vo inches longer than the arm. 
In the adult Hoolock the diiFerence is about Ii inch ; in the Hylo- 
bates concolor about Ž-į- inches. These proportions correspond \vith 
those of the Orangs, but are at variance with the human, "vvhere the 
arm is about two inches longer than the fore-arm. Now it is re- 
markable that in the inimature Gibbons the proportion of these 
parts has been found to resemble the human (see Dr. Harlan, ubi 
supra). Not only then are the skuUs of these monkeys more anthro- 
poid in youth than maturity, but likevvise the proportions of the an- 
terior extremities. Retrogression with advancing age from a superior 
to an inferior type of organization is not so common in nature as the 
converse. 

The carpus of the Agile Gibbon appears to contain the šame eight 
bones as in Man ; not eleven, as Daubenton statės that the Hylobates 



17 

lar possesses (Martin, ubi supra). The whole hand is remarkable 
for its slenderness and length, by which it is beautifully adapted for 
grasping the boughs of trees or any such objects : the fingers main- 
tain similar proportions, one to another, to those of Man. The 
thumb, longer than in the Chimpanzee, where it does not quite equal 
in length the metacarpal bone of the first finger, is slender in form. 

So extraordinary is the length of the fore extremity, that the hu- 
merus reaches to nearly the šame part of the trunk as the wrist in 
Man, and that the fingers really ręst on the ground when the animal 
assumes the erect ])osture. The length of the fore-arm of this ske- 
leton, whose totai height is only about two feet, positively exceeds 
in length that of the adult human subject, being eleven inches long. 

Never have I seen a skeleton which better illustrates the law of 
animal mechanics, that rapidity of movement depends on the elon- 
gation of the short arm of the lever (which every bone represents) 
in proportion to the long arm of the šame ; or (otherwise expressed) 
on the extent of the distance between the fulcrum and weight in 
proportion to the distance between the fulcrum and the power. 

As respects the proportions of the fore-limbs, the Orang Utan 
approaches the Gibbons, and retrogresses from Man more than the 
Chimpanzee, since in the former the arms reach to the heel, in the 
latter to about the knee-joint. 

Section IV. — Of the Hind Extremities. 

The pelvis presents us with a type far degraded from the Bimanous. 
The hips are narrow ; the iliac bones long and flat, and their superior 
margins do not present an are of a circle, as in Man, and indeed to 
a certain extent in the Chimpanzee. The ischiatic bones, instead of 
retreating far backward from the symphysis of the pubes, are nearly 
on a plane with the iliac wings ; their inferior margins are not cir- 
cular, as in Man, but present three sides of a lengthened parallelo- 
gram. The symphysis of the pubic bones resembles that of Man 
more than does that of the young Chimpanzee. 

The bones of the lower extremities are characterized, as those of 
the pectoral limbs, by the slenderness of their form and the slightness 
of their elevations. 

The trochanters of the femur are small ; the linea aspera absent. 
The ligamentum teres appears to have been present, thus agreeing 
with Man and all the Simiadee, excepting the Orang Utan. 

The tibia and fibula have rather a larger interosseous space thai^ 
in Man, conseąuent on the bowing of the fibula. This space is large 
in the Orang Utan (Owen, ubi supra). 

The relative proportions of the leg and fore-leg are similar to the 
human, 

Let me here introduce a remark made on this animal by Yarrell, 
viz. that both the upper and lower extremities are incapable of the 
šame extension as in Man, owing to the strong facial expansion of 
the flexor tendons passing before the elbows and behind the knee- 
joints to be attached to the upper halves of their respective bones 



18 

bėlov? these parts (Notės on Dissection of Active Gibbon, Zoological 
Journal, vol. v. p. 14). 

The foot is remarkable for the smallness of the os calcis, a character 
common to the Orangs and the lower Monkeys, and which, giving 
less basai surface to the foot, indicates less power of supporting the 
frame in the erect posture. The hind-foot is formed for grasping 
the branches of trees and not for -vvalking on the ground. The meta- 
tarsal bones decrease in strength (as in the hand) from the first 
towards the little finger. The thumb is strongly formed, especially 
its metatarsal bone. The ungueal phalanges are -vvanting in the 
second and third finger, and the ungueal and penultimate in the little 
finger of the only hind extreniity mounted on the skeleton. These 
defects in the hind-foot arise from the animal having been afFected 
sorae time previous to her death with a morbid statė of constitution 
(supposed to arise from confinement), ■vvhich caused her to gnaw off 
the ends of some of her fingers. The foot is thro\vn less on the 
extemal edge than in the lower Quadrumana. 

I am fuUy conscious of the imperfection of this account of the 
osteology of the Active Gibbon, yet trust that I have called atten- 
tion to some points in which the organization of the skeleton is 
beautifuUy adapted to the habits of the creature. No part of the 
studies of a naturalist is more interesting or instructive than thus to 
trace, however imperfectly, the hand of an all-wise Creator in the 
works of nature. Edw. Frt. 

The next paper eontained " Descriptions of eleven new species of 
Australian Birds," by John Gould, Esq. : — 

Athene marmorata. Ath. omni supertore corpore, alis, cauddgue, 
saturate fuscis, nuchd autem, alarum tectricibus, et scapularibus, 
obscure albo maculatis ; pogoniis internis primariorum ad basin et 
rectricum lateralium fasciis stramineis, ad extremam pogoniam 
albicantibus, ornatis ; facie et mento albidis ; corpore inferiore 
saturate f usco , albo et arenaceo colore maculato. 
AU the upper surface, \vings and tail dark brown, obscurely spotted 
■vvith white round the back of the neck, on the wing-coverts and sca- 
pularies ; inner \vebs of the primaries at their base, and the inner 
webs of the lateral tail-feathers crossed by bands, -vvhich are bufFnext 
the shaft and white towards the extremity of the -vvebs ; face and chin 
whitish ; under surface dark brown, blotched with white and sandy 
brown ; legs and thighs fawn-colour ; bill horn-colour ; feet yellow. 
Totai length, 14 inches; bill, 1^ ; wing, 9| ; tail, 6 ; tarsi, 2. 
Hab. South Australia. 

Remark. — Nearly allied to Athene maculata, but much exceeding 
that species in size. 

Athene rufa. Ath. disco faciali saturate fusco ; omni corpore, 

supra saturate /usco, infra arenaceo-rufo, multis autem lineis rufo- 

fuscis transversim fasciato . 

'Facial disc dark bro\vn ; all the upj)er surface dark bro\vn, crossed 

,i)y numerous narrovv bars of reddish brown, the tints becoming paler 



19 

and the barrings larger and more distinct on the lower part of the 
body, wings and tail ; all the under surface sandy red, crossed by 
numerous bars of reddish brown ; the feathers of the throat with a 
line of brown down the centre ; vent, legs and thighs of a paJer tint, 
with the bars more numerous, but not so decided ; bill horn-colour ; 
toes yelloAvish, slightly clothed ■vvith feathers. 

Totai length, 20 inches ; bill, 1| ; wing, 13i ; tail, 9^ ; tarsi. 24. 

Hab. Port Essington. 

Remark. — A very powerful species, nearly allied to Athene strenua. 

Alcyone pulchra. Ale. omni corpore superiore splendide purpu- 
rasceiite-cyaneo ; alis fusco-nigris ; loris, cristuld post aurem, et 
guld, stramineis ; lateribus pectoris purpurascente-cyaneis, in vini 
colorem ad latera mergentibus. 
All the upper surface shining purplish blue ; wings brownish black ; 
lores, tuft behind the ear and throat bufF; under surface deep fer- 
ruginous orange ; sides of the chest fine purplish blue, passing into a 
rich vinous tint on the flanks ; irides and bill black ; feet orange. 
Totai length, 6 inches^ bill, 2; wing, 2J; tail, l^; tarsi, |. 
Hab. Port Essington. 

Remark. — This is by far the finest of the Australian Alcyones, and 
is at once distinguished by the rich blue of the upper surface and the 
beautiful vinous colouring of the flanks. 

Alcyone Diemenensis. Ale. omni superiore corpore intense cyaneo, 
ad uropygium et tectrices cauda superiores splendidius ; alis nigris 
cyaneo lavatis ,• guld stramined ; vertice nigro indistincte fasciaio. 

All the upper surface deep blue, becoming more vivid on the rump 
and upper tail-coverts ; wings black, washed with blue ; throat buff; 
under surface of the body and wings ferruginous orange ; on each side 
of the cliest a patch of bluish black ; iores and a small patch behind 
the ears bufF ; crown of the head indistinctly barred with black ; 
irides and bill black ; feet orange. 

Totai length, &^ inches ; bill, 2 ; wing, 3| ; tail, If ; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land. 

Remark. — Rather more robust than Alcyone aznrea or A. pulchra, 
and diflFering from both in the blue of the upper surface, which is less 
brilliant and of a slight greenish tinge. 

EopsALTRiA LEucoGASTER. JESps. porvo Mūculo triangulūri ante 
oculum nigro; vertice, corpore superiore, alis cauddque, saturate 
gr išeis ; corpore inferiore albo. 

Immediately before the eye a small triangular-shaped spot of black ; 
above the eye a faint line of greyish white ; crown of the head, all 
the upper surface, wings and tail dark slate-grey ; the lateral tail- 
feathers largely tipped with white on their inner webs ; all tbe under 
surface white ; irides dark brown ; bill and feet black. 

Totai length, 5| inches ; bill, \^ ; wing, 3 ; tail, 2| ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. Westem Australia. 

The sexes are alike in plumage. 

Strepeea abguta. Strep. toto corpore nigro ; remigum apicibus 



20 

fuscis i crisso, et pogoniis internis prmariorum secundariorumęue 

ad basin et tertice partis apicalis rectricum albis. 

AU the plumage black, becoming browner on the tips of the ving- 

feathers ; base of the inner webs of the primaries and secondaries, 

the under tail-coverts and the apical third of the inner webs of the 

tail-feathers -vvhite ; irides yellow ; bill and feet black. 

Totai length, 21 inches ; bill, 2 ; wing. llf; tail. 10; tarsi. 2į. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land. 

Remark. — This is the largest species of the genus I have yet seen. 

Stbepera plumbea. Strep. corpore superiore plumbeo-griseo, ad 
frontem loresgue muito saturatius ; alis nigris ; secundariorum 
marginibus griseis, apicibus, et crisso, albis. 

Ali the upper surface leaden-grey, becoming much darker on 
the forehead and lores ; wings black ; secondaries margined with 
grey and tipped with ^hite ; basai half of the inner webs of the pri- 
maries white, of the outer webs grey ; the remainder of their length 
black, slightly tipped -mth. white ; tail black, margined with grey and 
largely tipped •vvith white ; all the under surface greyish-brown ; 
under tail-coverts white ; irides, bUl and feet black. 

Totallength, 18 inches; bill, 2|; wiDg, 11|; tail, 9; tarsi, 2į. 

Hab. Western Australia. 

Strepera melanoptera. Strep. corpore superiore cauddgue nigris ; 
corpore inferiore f usco-nigro, abdomine griseo tincto ; crisso rec- 
tricibusgue, duabus intermediis exceptis, albis. 

All the upper surface, -vvings and tail black ; under surface brown- 
ish-black, tinged -vvith grey on the abdomen ; under tail-coverts and 
tips of all but the tvpo centre tail-feathers white ; irides yellow ; bill 
and feet black. 

Totai length, 19 inches; bill, 2; wing, 11 ; tail, 9; tarsi, 2|. 

Hab. South Australia. 

Remark. — Distinguished from all other species by the totai absence 
of any white mark on the veings. 

Gallinula TENEBROSA. Gūl. griseo-mgro į dorso scapularibusgue 
nigris ; crisso medio nigro ad latera albo. 

General plumage greyish-black, with the exception of the back and 
scapularies, which are deep bro\vn, and the primaries and tail, which 
are nearly pure black ; under tail-coverts black in the centre and 
pure vvhite on the sides ; frontai plate orange ,• base of the bill blood- 
red ; tip greenish yellow ; above the knee a garter of yello\v and 
scarlet ; joints of the legs and feet green ; under surface of the legs 
and feet olive ; the sides of the tarsi and frontai platės of the toes 
yellow ; frontai platės of the tarsi yellow ; those nearest the knee 
stained with scarlet ; irides olive. 

Totai length, 15 inches; bill, lį ; vring, 8 ; tail, 3 ; tarsi, 2\. 

Hab. South Australia. 

Remark. — The above is the description of a female ; the malė is 
supposed to be larger in size, and to difFer in being of a paler hue 
beneath, and in having the whole of the upper surface brown. 



21 

Sylochelidon stbenuus. Syl. fronte vertice et nuchd nitide nigris ; 
dorso alis cauddgue pallide cinereo-griseis ; religuis plumis albis. 

Forehead, crown and nape deep glossy black ; back, -vvings and tail 
pale ashy grey, becoming lighter on the tail and deepening into dark 
grey on the primaries, the shafts of which are white ; remainder of 
the plumage pure white; irides black; bill scarlet, stained with 
yellow on the sides and tip, and with greenish yellow near the ex- 
tremity. 

Totai length, 20^ inches ; bill, 4 ; wing, 16^^ ; tail, 6| ; tarsi, 2. 

Hab. Southern coasts of Australia. 

Remark. — The above is the description of the plumage of the 
breeding season ; at other times the head instead of being wholly 
black is mottied with black and white. 

Sula personata, Sul. alba ; tectricibus alarum majoribus, secun- 
darits, tertialibus, rectricibus lateralibus, et rectricum intermedi- 
arum apicibus, intense fuscis. 

The whole of the plumage pure white, vvith the exception of the 
greater wing-coverts, primaries, secondaries, tertiaries, the tips of 
the two centrai and the whole of the lateral tail-feathers, which are 
of a rich chocolate-brown ; irides yellow ; naked skin of the face and 
chin in dead specimen duU bluish black ; legs greenish blue. 

Totai length, 29 inches; bill, 5; wing, 16į; tail, 8^; tarsi, 2|, 

Hab. North and north-east coasts of Australia. 

Remark. — A very robust and powerful species. 



23 



March 10, 1846. 
William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, iii the Chair. 

The following extract was read from a letter dated Madeira, Feb. 7, 
1846, from the Society's Corresponding Member, the Rev. R. T. 
Lowe : — 

" I bave the pleasure of sending the Society a fine example of the 
rare fish Lichia Vadigo, Cuv. and Vai., being the first that has occurred 
here, and also considered unfreąuent in the Mediterranean." 

A paper was then read entitled " Descriptions of two new species 
of CyprfEū," by Loveli Reeve : — 

Cypr^a Gaskoinii. Cypr. testd subabbreviato- ovatd, soUdiusculd, 
lateribus incrassatis, marginatis, dentibus fortiusculis ; dorso 
fulvo-stramineo, ocellis albidis,fusco-annulatis,parviuscuUs, spar- 
sim ornato, lateribus castaneo-punctatis, basi albd. 

Hab. ? 

This interesting species, of which I have seen t»'o specimens, one 
in the British Muaeum and one in the collection of J. S. Gaskoin, 
Esq., partakes of the characters of the CypraEa Cumingii and esontro- 
pia ; the back being covered with the šame kind of small clear ringed 
eyes as the C. Cumingii. I dedicate it with a great deal of pleasure 
to the gentleman above named, to whom I am much indebted for the 
zeal with which he has worked out the small and less attractive 
species of the genus. 

Cypr«a pulicaria. Cypr. testd subcylindraceo-oblongd, antice 
subdeclivi, latere dextro marginato, leviter contracto, aperturd 
angustd, dentibus minutis ; pellucido-albd, vel luted, lateribus dor- 
soque punctis rubido-fuscis subconspicuis aspersis. 

Hab. ? 

Allied to C. piperata, but perfectly distinct, though it has been 
hltherto mingled with that species in collections ; it is of a smaller 
and more cylindrically oblong form, and is not banded, whilst the 
dots are more conspicuous. 

The following paper was also read : — 

" Descriptions of three new species of Cypreea," by J. S. Gaskoin, 
Esq. 

' Cypr^a pellucidula. Cyp. testd ovatd, nitidd, albicante subhya- 
lind ; costellis continuis ad utrumęue latus aperturte terminutis ; 
dentibus (BquaUbus, minimis, numerosisque ; sulco columellari pro- 
fundo, lato ; lined dorsali nalld ; ejctremitatibus valde productis et 
oblusis ; aperturd rectd, poslicc subsinuatd. 
No. CLVII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society 



24 

Semipellucid Cowry. — Shell ovate, of a beautiful semipellucid 
Avhite colour, shining; the ribs — anterior, posterior and dorsal — ter- 
minate in teeth on both sides and ends of the aperture, and traverse 
the columellar groove to its inner edge ; a few ribs do not continue 
over the dorsum ; the teeth, even, fine, and numerous, about thirty 
on the lip ; columellar groove, deep and broad ; base round ; margins 
wide ; no dorsal impression ; extremitles much produced, and obtuse ; 
aperture straight, except a slight curve at its posterior extremity. 
Size y^o^o^ths of au inch. 

Hab. South Pacific. 

Cab. Gaskoin, &c. 

DifFers from exigua of Gray, the tremeza of Duclos, in being less 
gibbous, ribs more numerous, finer, more even and regular, and but 
two or three terminate on the sides of the shell, none on the dorsum ; 
they pass continuously over the shell from one side of the aperture 
to the other ; shell perfectly colourless, and has no dorsal line or 
impression. 

Cypr^a Pisum. Cyp. testd spheroidali, pallescente ; costellis pro- 

minentibus, ex aperturd ad lineam dorsalem decurrentibus, et in 

lineatn attenuatam terminantibus ; dentibus prominentibus ; sulco 

columellari lato ; aperturd latiusculd postice fleiuosd ; basi roturi' 

datd ; margine externo incrassato, supra extremitates extenso ; 

extremitatibus crassis ; lined dorsali profundd, ex extremitatibus 

posticis ad anticam testee partem continud. 

Pea Cowry. — Shell spheroidal, of a very light fawn colour ; ribs 

large and prominent ; nearly every rib extends from the aperture and 

terminates generally, tapering to a point, at the dorsal depression ; 

mostly the terminations on one side pass between those of the other, 

especiaUy on the anterior half of the shell ; each third or fourth rib, 

amounting to about seven, ends on the lip at the base of the shell ; all 

the other ribs on both sides form, by continuance, the teeth, which 

are strong and prominent; about tvventy-three on the columellar 

side of the aperture, •nhich extend across the columellar groove and 

serrate its inner edge ; those on the outer side or lip about twenty- 

one in number ; columellar groove broad and deep ; aperture rather 

"wide, curved, particularly at the posterior portion ; base round ; 

margin on the outer side very thick, extending over the beaks ; none 

on the columellar side ; extremities or beaks obtuse, thick, and 

slightly produced ; dorsal depression deep, extending from between 

the posterior extremities to the anterior end of the shell, being more 

deeply impressed beside the apex. 

Long. ^^ths of an inch. 

Hab. East Indies. 

Specimen unicum. Cab. Gaskoin. 

The characters of this shell are so distinctive that it bears no re- 
lation to any yet described Cypraa ; it is nearest in form to Cyprcea 
formosa of Gaskoin. 

Cypr^a Pulla. Cypr. tcstd ovatd, nitidd, /usco-rubexcente, cos- 
tellis dentibusque concoloribus ,• costellis usque ad lineam dorsalem 



25 

ut plurimum continuis, et ad margines apertura terminantibus ; 

sulco columellari albido, margine interno dentibus serrato ; aper- 

turd angustd ; labio externo extils incrassato ; eitremitatibus pau- 

lulum productis. 

Reddish-brown Cowry. — Shell ovate, shining, of a dark reddish- 

brown colour ; ribs the colour of the shell, mostly terminate at the 

dorsal depression; a very few on the sides of the shell, thence ex- 

tending to form teeth on both sides of the aperture ; on the outer 

side or lip about eighteen, and about sixteen on the columellar side ; 

columellar groove whitish, the teeth traverse it and serrate its entire 

inner edge ; aperture narrow, very slightly spirai ; base round ; margin 

thick, none on the columellar side ; extremities slightly produced. 

DifFers from thefusca of Gray, in the ribs of the base, and the 
teeth not being white, but of the šame colour as the shell ; in the 
ribs being much finer, in having a dorsal line or impression, and in 
being of a deeper and redder colour. 
Long. Ą'oths of an inch. 

Hab. ? 

Cab. Gaskoin, &c. 



26 



March 24, 1846. 

William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The first communication was the following Note from Mr. Gulliver, 
on the size of the Blood-Corpuscles of Birds, -nith measurements by 
Dr. Da%y of the Blood-Corpuscles of some Fishes and of a Humming 
Bird. 

While my friend Dr. Davy \vas employed by our Government on 
a special medical serv'ice at Constantinople, and afterwards as princi- 
pai mediced officer at Barbadoes, he communicated to me the mea- 
surements, appended hereto, of the blood-corpuscles of some animals. 
Medical ofiicers residing in different parts of the world might 
render a very acceptable service to physiology, by giving an account 
of the blood-corpuscles not yet examined of various animals ; and 
doubtless some new or other^'ise interesting facts would thus be ob- 
tained, especially among the larger Cetacea, the smallest birds, the 
cartilaginous fishes, reptiles and amphibia. 

Dr. Davy shows that somefoetal sharks, six or seven inches long, 
have oval corpuscles likę those of the adult ; and he confirms Pro- 
fessor Wagner's obsen-ation as to their large size in this family. 

Although, in a strictly natūrai family of Mammalia, as the Rodents 
or the Ruminants, there is a relation between the size of the corpus- 
cles and that of the animal, there is no such relation in Mammalia 
of different ordėrs. But in the entire class of Birds the law for the 
size of the corpuscles is the šame as in a single family of Mammalia ; 
at least among birds no example has yet been found of comparatively 
large corpuscles in the smallest species and of more minute corpus- 
cles in the largest species. I have elsewhere* remarked the neces- 
sity of examining the blood of the Humming Birds with reference to 
this view ; •which is now supported by Dr. Davy's observation, show- 
ing that the corpuscles of a bird of this kind are as small as those 
hitherto examined of any bird, as may he seen by reference to the 
copious tables of my measurements of the blood-corpuscles of Verte- 
brata, in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' October 14, 
184^. The long diameter of the corpuscles of Ralius Philippinensis 
is l-2097th of an iuch, and not l-2997th, as there printed. In my 
observations in this class, those great birds the Ostrich and the Java- 
nese Cassowary were found to have the largest blood-corpuscles ; 
while the smallest corpuscles occurred in the little insectivorous and 
granivorous birds. The average length of the corpuscles of the Cas- 
so\vary vras l-1455th and their breadth l-2800th of an inch. 

These reraarks all refer to the red corpuscles ; and the measure- 
ments of them in the foUou'ing notes by Dr. Davy are, likę all my 
measurements, in vulgar fractions of an English inch. — G. G. 
* Gerber's Anatomy, Appendis, p. 26. Lond. 1842. 



57 

Torpeda oculata. — Blood from heart : long diatneter of the corpus- 
cles about 1-800 ; short diameter 1-1000. Some further particulars 
have been given respecting them in a paper deposited in the archives 
of the Royal Society. 

Spigota (Perca marina). — Blood from vessels of gills : long dia- 
meter of corpuscles from 1-4000 to 1-3750 ; short diameter 1-4000. 

Pylamedes {Thynnus Pylamedes). — Long diameter of corpuscles 
about 1-2000; short diameter about 1-3000. 

A small species of Mackerel, corpuscles 1-22S6 by 1-4000. Taken 
from the heart ; oil particles four times as large were mixed with the 
red particles. 

A small fish ; species of it I have not yet made out; corpuscles about 
1-4000 to 1-3000, by about 1-6000. 

Another species I have not yet made out; particles about 1-3000 
by 1-4000. 

Another small species, not made out ; particles, most of them cir- 
cular, about 1-4000 ; a fevi^ elliptical. 

SM>orrf-/s7j.— Particles, long diameter, from 1-2000 to 1-3200; 
short diameter, 1-3200 to 1-5333. 

RedMullet. — Many particles circular, about 1-4000; some ellip- 
tical, about 1-2286 by 1-3200. 

John Dory. — Corpuscles 1-1777 by 1-2666 ; some nearly circular. 
A species of large Mackerel; corpuscles about 1-2000 to 1-2666, 
by about 1-4000. 

Small spotted Dog-fish. — Corpuscles about 1-1333 by 1-2000. 
Sturgeon. — Corpuscles about 1-1600 by 1-2666. 
Scualus acanthias, — Corpuscles about 1-1231 by 1-1777 ; nucleus 
elliptical. 

Brown spotted Dog-fish. — Corpuscles from 1-1000 to 1-1143, by 
1-1600 to 1-1455. 

Tunny (Thynnus communis). — Corpuscles 1-1600 by 1-2666. 
Eel, species I have not made out; corpuscles about 1-2000 by 
1-3200 ; a few circular. 

A species of small fish I have not yet made out ; corpuscles about 
1-2666 by 1-4000. 

A species of Scyllium, a cartilaginous fish, probably a new species. 
I have sent a specimen to Chatham. Corpuscles about 1-1000 by 
1-2000. 

In a female of the šame kind some of the blood-particles were as 
large as 1-666 by 1-888; nucleus about 1-2666 and globular. 

Fcetus oi Sgualus acanthias; corpuscles about 1-1000 by 1-1600: 
fcetus about seven inches long. 

Fcetus of Squalus sguatina, about six inches long ; corpuscles about 
1-1000 by 1-1333. 

Small fish ; I have not yet made out the species ; corpuscles about 
1-2000 by 1-2666. 

Another small fish, the kind of which is at present unknown to me; 
corpuscles about 1-2666 ; the majority of them circular. 

These are the results of the few observations I made in Constan- 
tinople. Not having books to refcr to, I could not at the timc deter- 



28 

mine several of the fishes, nor have I yet had leisure to compare my 
notes with authorities on the subject, to make out the species. The 
size of the particles of all the cartilaginous fishes is very much larger 
than of the osseous ; the particles were few in number, transparent, 
soft, readily changing their shape from slight pressure ; nuclei distinct. 

I have given the dimensions just as I noted them down. All the 
fishes were fresh. J- D. 

Constantinople, Jan. 8, 1842. 

I have had a Humming Bird killed and instantly brought to me ; 
its blood-corpuscles were beautifully definite, regular and uniform. 
The disc very thin, perfectly flat, the nucleus slightly raised, and the 
two corresponding in outline. The corpuscle l-2666th by l-4000th 
of an inch ; the long diameter of the nucleus very nearly l-4000th. 
The blood was small in quantity, as I apprehend is the blood of birds 
generally, but not deficient in red corpuscles. I have found its tem- 
perature to be about 105°. Whilst its solid food is insects, I believe 
its drink is the sweet juice of flowers. I have not a book to refer to 
for the species. Tail-feathers black ; head green ; rump green ; -vvings 
brownish, almost black. J. D. 

Barbadoes, Jan. T, 1846. 

The next paper ■was entitled " Descriptions of thirty new species 
of Helicea, belonging to the collection of H. Cuming, Esq.," by Dr. 
L. PfeifFer :— 

1 . Helix Swainsoni, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, utrinąue depres- 
sissimd, tenui, pellucidd, subarcuatim ruguloso-striatd, virescenti- 
fulvd, lineis 2 rujis ornutd ; anfractibus 5 depressis, medio con- 
vexiusculis, carinatis ; carind rufescente, acutd, breviter promi- 
nente, subrugulosd ; umbilico mediocri, profuiido ; aperturd per- 
oblicud, depresse securiformi ; peristomate simplice, recto, margine 
columellari subincrassato. 

Diam. 16, alt. 5 mill. 

From Tahiti ; under stones (B. W. Tucker, Esq.). 

2. Helix stenostoma, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, globuloso- 
depressd, solidd, subleevigatd, nitidd, albd, fascid unicd fuscd ad 
peripheriam et seriebus 2 macularum aurantiarum ornatd, punc- 
tisąue griseis obsolete aspersd ; anfractibus 4^ vix convexiuscvlis, 
ultimo ventroso, antice abrupte deflexo ; aperturd subhorizontali, 
elUpticd ; peristomate albo, labiato, marginibus approximatis, su- 
pero breviter expanso, basali arcuato, appresse reflexo. 

Diam. 13-15, alt. 8|-9 mill. 
Locality unknovi^n. 

3. BuLiMus HOLOSTOMA, Pfr. Bul. testd rimato-perforatd, cylin- 
draced, apice obtuso, opaco, carneo-cinereo, obliąue et vaUde pli- 
rato-costnto ; anfractibus 7 subplanulatis, deorsum atte?iuatis, 
supernc subangulatis, ultimo \ longifudinis sub(rquanfe ; apertura 



29 

verticali, oblongd, integrd; perislomate simplice, acuto, margini- 
bus subparallelis, supero breviter soluto. 
Long. 9, diam. 2f mill. 

From Cobija, Bolivia, on the hills under bushes (H. Cuming). 
The šame species brought from the Sandwich Islands by B. W.Tucker 
Esq. ? 

4. BuLiMus Leai, Pfr, BuL testd imperforatd, ovato-conoided, 
obtusd. soliduld, obligue tenuiter striatd, nitidd, fulvescenti-albd ; 
anfractibus b^ convexiusculis, ultimo spira breviore, basi subglo- 
boso ; columelld strictiusculd , declivi, perdilatatd, subplanatd, basi 
subtruncatd ; aperturd obsolete subtetragono-rotundatd, intus albd ,• 
peristomate breviter expanso, subincrassato. 

Long. 37, diam. 24 mill. 

From the Philippine Islands (H. Cuming). 

Nearly allied to Bul. cincinniformis. 

5. BuLiMus FENESTRATus, Pfr. Bul. testd pevforatd, subfusiformi- 
oblongd, soliduld, longitudinaliter profunde undulato-sulcosd, albd, 
fasciis infra 65, et strigis undulatis nigricanti-castaneisfenestratd ; 
suturd crenulatd; anfractibus 6į convexiusculis, ultimo spirom 
conicam, acutam paulb superante; columelld subplicatd, obligue 
recedente, lilaced ; aperturd oblongo-semiovali, intus lilacind; pe- 
ristomate expanso, margine columellari superne angulatim refiexo, 
subappresso. 

Long. 45, diam.~18 mill. 
From Mexico. 

6. BuLiMUs Darwini, Pfr. Bul. testd profunde rimatd, ovato- 
conicd, soliduld, rugis nodulatis et crispis, valide sculptis, sordidi 
albidis ; spird conicd, apice acutiusculo, corneo ; anfractibus 6 
conveiis, 3 supremis sublavigatis, ultimo spiram subaąuante ; 
columelld subtortd, subverticali ; aperturd latd, subovali, intus 
nitiduld, albd, tuberculo calloso, profundo in ventre anfractds pe- 
nultimi coarctatd; peristomate simplice, recto, margine dextro 
supernh arcuato, columellari perdilatato, patente. 

Long. 17, diam. 19 mill. 

From the Gallapagos Islands ; found on bushes (C. Darwin, Esq.). 

7. BuLiMus scuLPTURATus, Pfr. Bul. testd perforotd, ovato-tuv- 
ritd, tenuiusculd, longitudinaliter subremote et valide undulato- 
rugosd, interstitiis rugarum spiraliter argute striatd, fusculd, spird 
elongato-conicd, apice acutiusculo, corneo ; anfractibus 7 convexis, 
ultimo f longitudinis subaguante ; columelld strictd, basin aper- 
tura attingente; aperturd ellipticd, basi angulatd; peristomate 
simplice, acuto, margine columellari f ornicatim reflexo, libero. 

Long. 14, diam. 6| mill. 

From the Gallapagos Islands ; found on bushes (Darwin). 

8. BuLiMus HoNDTjRASANUs, Pfr. Bul. testd aperti perforatd 
ovato-conicd, leevigatd, nitidd, flavescenti-albidd, fasciis 3 aredgue 
umbilicali fusco-roseis ornatd ; anfractibus 6 vix convexiusculis, 



30 

ultimo spird conicd, acutd paulo breviore ; columelld sfrictd, ver- 
ticali ; aperturd ovali-oblongd, intus concolorc ; perislomate sim- 
plice, recto, margine columellari in lanūnam triangularem subfor- 
nicatam espanso. 

Long. 18^, diam. 10 mill. 

From Hondūras (Dyson). 

9. BuLiMCS SARCODES, Pfr. Bul. tcsfd ūpcrte per/orūld, oblongo- 
conicd, tenui, striatuld, Uneis spiralibus siib lente obsoletissime 
decussatd, carnea ; spird conicd, acutiusculd ; anfractibus 6 con- 
vexiusculis, ultivio į longitudinis subaąuante ; columelld leviter 
arcuatd ; aperturd ovali, intus nitidd ; peristomate recto, acuto, 
margine dextro arcuato, columellari dilatato, f ornicatim patente. 

Long. \lį, diam. 8 mill. 
From Hondūras (Dyson). 

10. BuLiMus TucKERi, Pfr. Bul. tęst d perforatd, cylindraceo- 
subulatd, tenui, longitudinaliter distincte striatd, nitiduld, cered ; 
spird elongatd, apice acutiusciilo ; anfractibus 9 conveiiusculis, 
ultimo A longitudinis vix aąuante ; cobtmelld oblique recedente ; 
aperturd ovali-oblongd ; peristomate simplice, acuto, margine co- 
lumellari svperne dilatato, patente. 

Long. 9, diam. 2| mill. 

From Sir Charles Hardy's Island, Pacific Ocean (B. W. Tucker, 
Esq.). 

11. BuLiMūs GRVNaRi, Pfr. Bul. testd angusti perforatd. cylin- 
draceo-turritd, lavigatd, nitidd, albidd unicolore vel fusco obliąue 
strigatd vel macularum spadicearum seriebus nonnullis cingulatd ; 
spird elongatd, apice acuto; suturd albo-marginatd ; anfractibus 
7-8 planis, ultimo ^ longitudinis ceguante ; columelld subtortd ; 
aperturd ovali-oblongd ; peristomate simplice, recto, margine colu- 
mellari basi subespanso, superne f ornicatim reflexo. 

Long. 28. diam. 10 mill. 

Ii. Ferforatione apertd, margine peristomatis f ornicatim patente. 

From Mexico. 

12. BuLiMus ViNCKNTiNus, Pfr. Bul. testd suhperforatd, fusi- 
formi, tenui, leevigatd, lineis concentricis leviter impressis sculptd, 

nitidd, pellucidd, lutescenti-hyalind,fasciis o sub<Equalibus violaceo- 
fuscis ornatd; spird conicd, apice acutiusculo, nigro ; anfractibus 
Gplaniuscuūs, ultimo spiram subceguante, basi attenuato ; columelld 
paulb recedente ; aperturd obligud, ovali-oblongd, intus concolore ; 
peristomate tenui, margine dextro breviter expanso, superne dila- 
tato, columellari in lanūnam triangularem angulatim reflexo, per- 
forationem f ere claudente. 

Long. 30, diam. llį mill. 

/3. unicolor citrind vel stramined, paulb gracilior. 

Long. 30, diam. 10| mill. 

From the Island of St. Vincents (Rev. L. Guilding) : var. (i. from 
Venezuela ; on bushes (Linden). 



31 

13. BuLiMiis Orbignyi, Pfr. Bul. testd umbilicatd, oblongo-tur- 
rild, tenui, regulariter et confertim plicatd, albd; spii-d turritd, 
acutd ; anfractibvs 7^ convexiusculis , ultimo \ longitudinis suh- 
ceguante ; umbilico angusto, aperto ; columelld vix arcuatd ; aper- 
turd oblongd ; peristomate simplice, acuto, marginibus subparallelis 
superne conniventibus, columellari subfornicato, patente. 

Long. 19, diam. 8 mill. 
Locality unkno\vn. 

14. BuLiMus Petiti, Pfr. Bul. testd perforatd, ovato-conicd, soli- 
dula, longitudinaliter rugoso-striatd, striis concentricis, irregula- 
ribus obsoletissime subdecussatd,fuscd; spird conicd, apice obtuso, 
palUdo ; suturd crenulatd, albido-marginatd ; anfractibus 6 plani- 
usculis, ultimo sj)irain paulb superante ; columelld leviter arcuatd ; 
aperturd acuto-ovali, intus nitiduld, lividd ; peristomate simplice, 
recto, margine dextro acuto, columellari diiatato, albido, libere 
reflexo. 

Long. 26, diam- 16 mill. 
From Peru. 

15. BuLiMUS S4NDWicENsxs, Pfr. Bul. testd perforatd, cylindraceo- 
turritd, apice acutiusculo, tenui, striatulo, corneo, strigis albis, 
opacis, irregularibus, variegato ; anfractibus 10 vix convexiusculis, 
ultimo \ longitudinis non aąuante, basi circa perforationem aper- 
tam subcompresso ; aperturd oblongo-ovali ; peristomate simplice, 
tenui, margine dextro leviter arcuato, €xpansiusculo, columellari 
membranaceo, fornicato, patente. 

Long. 15, diam. 4^ mill. 

From the Sandwich Islands {B. W. Tucker, Esq.). 

16. Pupa pacifica, Pfr. Pup. testd profunde rin.atd, ovato-cylin- 
draced, apice obtusiusculo, solidulo, subleevigato, fusco-corneo ; 
anfractibus 5į convexis, ultimo ^ longitudinis subceguante ; aper- 
turd semiovali, edentuld ; peristomate breviter expanso, intus albo- 
labiato, margine dextro superne breviter curvato, tuberculo calloso 
interdum juxtaposito, columellari latiore, patente. 

Long. 4^, diam. 2^ mill. 

From Sir Charles Hardy's Island, Pacific Ocean (B, W. Tucker, 

Esą.). 

17. AcHATiNA CYLiNDRACEA, Pfr. AcJi. testd subcylindrūcea utrin- 
gue breviter attenuatd, leevigatd, nitidd, lutescenti-corned ; suturd 
lineari, albo-marginatd ; spird brevi, conoided, obtusiusculd ; an- 
fractibus 5 planulatis, ultimo į longitudinis teguante ; columelld 

tortd, lamind callosd, albd, acute prominente, per longitudinem 
munitd, subtruncatd ; aperturd angustd, acuminato-oblongd, basi 
rotundatd ; peristomate simplice, margine dextro medio antrorsum 
diiatato. 

Long. 13, diam. 5į mill. 

From Tortilla, Central America ; in damp places. 

Belongs, by the formation of the columella, to that aberrant group 
of A. columna, Lattrei, aberrans, Dysoni, anomala, splendida, &c. 



32 

18. AcHATiNA Dysoni, Pfr. Ach. testd oblongo-conicd, tenuissimd, 
glabrd, pellucidd, nitidd, lutescenti-corned ; spird conicd, obtusius- 
culd; suturd simplice ; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, ultimo ^ lon- 
gitudinis sub<equante, deorsum subdilatato ; columelld arcuatim 
tortd, subcallosd, vix truncatd; aperturd angustd, acuminato- 
oblongd, basi rotundatd ; peristomate simplice, tenui, margine 
dextro medio antrorsum dilatato. 

Long. 9^, diam. 4 mill. 

From Hondūras ; found under decayed leaves by Mr. Dyson. 

19. AcHATiNA Sandwicensis, Pfr. Ach. testd ovato-conicd, ob- 
ligue striatd, subopacd, sordide corned ; spird conicd, obtusiusculd ; 
suturd lined impressd marginatd ; anfractibus G\ planulatis, ultimo 
A longitudinis vix superante ; columelld arcuatd, pUcato-tortd ; 
aperturd latd, semiovali ; peristomate simplice, margine dextro 
obtuso, columellari subreflexo, appresso. 

Long. 7, diam. 3į mill. 

From the Sandwich Islands (B. W. Tucker, Esq.). 

20. Achatina (Glandina) Sowerbtana, Pfr. Ach. testd ovato- 
fusiformi, tenuiusculd, diaphand, longitudinaliter con/ertim plicatd, 
striis spiralibus, in<equaliter distantibus decussato-granulatd,fulvo- 
rubelld, strigis remotis, fuscis ornatd ; spird conicd, apice acutd ; 
suturd albo-marginatd, crenulatd ; anfractibus lį planiusculis , 
ultimo ^ longitudinis subeEquante ; columelld arcuatd, basi abrupti 
truncatd ; aperturd acuminato-oblongd ; peristomate simplice, mar- 
ginibus callo tenui junctis , dextro repnndo. 

Long. 88, diam. 38 mill. 

From Totontepec, Mexico ; on decayed vegetable matter. 

21. Achatina (Glandina) isabellina, Pfr. Ach. testd fusi- 
formi-oblongd, tenui, nitidd, sub lente spiraliter confertim striatd, 
pellucidd, isabellina ; suturd lined impressd marginatd ; anfracti- 
bus 6 convexiusculis, ultimo spird conicd, obtusd vix breviore ; 
columelld obliqud, strictiusculd, supra basin aperturce elliptico- 
oblongee breviter truncatd ; peristomate simplice, obtuso. 

Long. 26, diam. medio 10 mill, 

From Mexico ; found in decayed trunks of trees. 

22. Achatina (Glandina) Tortillana, Pfr. Ach. testd suhfusi- 
formi-ovatd, soliduld, striis longitudinalibus, confertis regulariter 

sculptd, nitidd, pellucidd, pallide corned, maculis et strigis opacis, 
lactescentibus irregulariter signatd ; suturd submarginatd ; anfrac- 
tibus 7į convexiusculis, ultimo spiram conicam, obtusam, vix supe- 
rante ; columelld f ortiter arcuatd, supra basin apertura elliptico- 
oblongte abrupte truncatd; peristomate simplice, obtuso, margine 
dextro medio subdilatato. 

liOng. 20, diam. medio 8 mill. 

From Tortilla, Central America; in damp places. 

23. BuLiMUS auratus, Pfr. Bul. testd subobtecte perforatd, ob- 
longo-turritd, tenui, longitudinaliter subtiliter striatd, pellucidd, 



33 

auratd, lineis saturatioribus spiralihus obsolete notatd ; spird tur- 
ritd, obtusd ; suturd submarginatd, minute crenulatd ; anfractibvs 
7 vix convexiusculis, ultimo f longitudinis vix <Bquante ; columelld 
strictiusculd ; aperturd ovali'Oblongd ; peristomate simplice, recto, 
margine columellari breviter reflexo, subappresso. 

Long. 30, diam. 10 mill. 

Locality unknown. 

24. BuLiMus Panatensis, Pfr. Bul. testd imperforatd, subulatd, 
tenui, IcBvigatd, pellucidd, cereo-hyalind ; spird elongatd, apice 
obtuso; anfractibus 8 latis, vix convexiusculis, ultimo i longitu- 
dinis vix (Ecuante ; columelld brevi, strictiusculd ; aperturd ovali- 
oblongd, basi subangulatd; peristomate simplice, recto, margine 
columellari breviter reflexo, appresso. 

Long. 11, diam. 2^ mill. 

From Dingle, island of Panay (Cuming). 

25. BuLiMDS PEKSPECTivūs, Pfr. Bul. tcstd umbiUcatd, oblongo- 
conicd, tenui, striatuld, pellucidd, nitidd, rufo-corned ; spird elon- 
gato-conicd, acutiusculd; anfractibus 7 convexiusculis, ultimo į 
longitudinis aguante, basi subangulatim compresso ; umbilico an- 
gusto, profunde perspectivo ; aperturd oblongd ; peristomate sim- 
plice, rufo, marginibus conniventibus, callo tenui junctis, dextro 
breviter expanso, columellari dilatato, patente. 

Long. 16, diam. G\ mill. 
Locality unknown. 

26. BuLiMus Meridanūs, Pfr. Bul. testd perforatd, oblongo- 
suhfusiformi, striatuld, IcBvigatd, lutescenti-albidd, fasciis angustis 
ceeruleo-fuscis, vel latis castaneis, strigatim interruptis omatd; 
spird turrito-conicd, acutiusculd; anfractibus 6 planiusculis, ul- 
timo spiram cequante ; columelld leviter arcuatd; aperturd oblongo- 
ovali, intus concolore ; peristomate simplice, margine dextro bre- 
viter expanso, columellari dilatato, fornicatim reflexo, albo, perfo- 
rationemfere occultante. 

Long. 29, diam. 11 mill. 
From Merida, Andes of Bolivia. 

27. BcLiMus MoNTEViDENsis, Pfr. Bul. testd perforatd, ovato- 
conicd, subfusiformi, tenui, oblicui striatuld, non nitente, albidd, 
opacd, lineis longitudinalibus crebris, pellucidis, pallidk corneis 
strigatd; spird conicd, apice acuto ; anfractibus 7-8 planiusculis, 
ultimo spird paulb breviore, interdum medio obsolete angulato ; 
columelld verticali, strictd; aperturd oblongo-ovali ; peristomate 
simplice, recto, margine columellari membranaceo, fornicatim re- 
flexo. 

Long. 28, diam. 12 mill. 

From Montevideo, Buenos Ayres. 

28. BuLiMUS JussiEui, Vai. Mur. Bul. testd perforatd, ovato- 
conicd, striis rudibus incrementi spiralibusgue minutis irregulariter 
decussato-granulatd, corned, obliąu'k albido-strigatd ; spird conicd. 



34 

acutiusculd ; anfractibus 6 convesiusculis, ultimo spiram tequante ; 

colmr.elld recedente, subarcuatd ; aperturd ovali, intus nitide albd ; 

peristomate simplice, recto, margine columellari albido, dilatato, 

subfornicatim reflexo. 
Long. 32, diam. 15 mill. 
From Cusoo. 

29. BuLiMUs BoLiviANUs, Pfr. Bul. testd perforatd, oblongo- 
turritd, lineis impressis sub leiite minutissime deaissatd, nitidd, 
albido -rubelld, fasciis lalis, badiis, subinterruptis ornatd; spird 
turritd, apice acuto, rubru ; anfractibus 7 planis, ultimo convei- 
iusculo, ^ longitudinis subaguanle ; columelld torto-plicatd, rosed ; 
aperturd ovali-oblongd, intus concolore ; peristomate simplice, 
margirie deitro breviter expanso, columellari perdilatato, refieio, 
excavato, perforatiouem rimueformemfere tegente. 

Long. 33, diam. 13 mill. 
From Merida, Andes of Bolivia. 

30. BuLiMUs Opaeanūs, Pfr. Bul. testd subimperforatd, subulatd, 
longitudinaliter distincte striatd, tenui, hyalino-cered ; spird subu- 
latd, acutiusculd ; anfractibus 9 vix convesiusculis, ultimo |- longi- 
tudinis subcBąuante; columelld vix arcuatd ; aperturd oblongo-ovali ; 
peristomate simplice, recto, margine columellari f ornicatim brevis- 
sime reflexo, adnato 

Long. 11, diam. 3 mill. (Spec. max.) 

From the island of Opara ; found in earth at the roots of plants 
(H. Cuming, Esq.). 

The followiug paper w£is also read, entitled " Descriptions of new 
species of Shells," by Dr. J. H. Jonas : — 

CucuLL^A GEANŪI.OSA, Jonas. Cuc. testd guadrato-rhombed, tur- 
gidd, tenuiusculd, inaguivalvi, testaceo-albd , violaceo-rubro postice 
prcesertim maculatd et flammulatd ; lateribus superne attenuatis, 
angulatis, antico breviore, infra rotundato, postico longiore, suban- 
gulato-declivi, umbonibus acutis incurvis, carind ab umbone ad 
angulum posticum et inferum decurrente ; per longitudinem dense 
striatd, liris striis transversalibus decussantibus subtiliter granulo- 
sis ; Ugamenti ared mediocri, corio corneo nigro indutd ; intus albd 
postice violaceo tincfd, margine serratd, auriculd internd mediocri, 
cardinis dentibus lateralibus anticis tribus, jjosticis quatuor. 
Long. marginis ventralis, 2į poli. ; altit. 2 ; crassities, l^poll. 
Specimina etiam majorą vidi. 
Hub. In Mari Chinensi. 

This shell differs from the Cucullaa concamerata. Martini (Cucul- 
laa auriculifera, Lam.), as follow's : 1. lt is thinner and less trans- 
versally prolonged ; 2, the elevated longitudinal strise are not flat, 
and not broader than the interstices, as with the other species, ap- 
pearing subtilely granulated by transversely erossing and very close 
striae; 3, the ligamentary area is some\vhat flatter ; 4, the internal 
auricies are smaller ; and 5, there are on the anterior side three and 



95 

on the posterior four lateral teeth, whilst the other species has on 
each side one tooth less. {Cardine utrinąue subbicostato, Lam.) 

Vknerupis tenuisthiata. Jonas. Ven. testd ovatd, iransversd,cequi- 
valvi, in(Equilaterali, albd, striis radiantibus tenuibus undulatis, 
suleis incrementi distantibus decussatis, concinne sculptd ; lateribus 
rotundatis, marginibus dorsali et ventrali parallelis leviterąue ar- 
cuatis ; lanuld nulld, ligameiito longo, prominente, umbonibus parvis 
acutis ; cardine utriusque valva dentibus tribus compressis ; im- 
pressionibus musculorum magnis, rotundis, sinu palliari lato, pro- 
fundo, semilunari. 

Long. 15, altit. 9, crassit. 6 lin. 

Hab. Apud Singaporen. 

Exstat in museo hon. Gruner. 

The umbones are situated so near the anterior end that the su- 
perior margin of the shell almost forms the area. 

Fasciolaria clava, Jonas. Fase. testd subfusiformi-clavatd, ven- 
tricosissimd , crassd, ponderosd, nodosd, albd, rubro variegatd, filis 
fuscis transversim impresso-striatd ; anfractibus octo medio angų- 
latis, tubercuHs magnis compressis in angulo coronatis ; ultimo 
superne angulato et coronato, infra angulum seriebus tribus nodo- 
rum obtusorum armato ; suturd undulatd, crispd ; caudd spira: 
subeBįuali, obligue funiculatd, rectd, inferne subrecurvd; aperturd 
oblongo-ovatd, intus hepaticd, aurantio tenuissime striatd, labro 
crasso, dentato ; dentibus striis externis respondenlibus ; columelld 
cylindraced, hepaticd, basi triplicatd, 

Long. 5į, lat. 3į poli. 

Hab. In Oc. India. 

Amphibola obvoluta. Jonas. Amph. testd solidd, nitidd, superni 
pland, inferne convexd, late umbilicatd ; anfractibus gvatuor obvo- 
lutis, suturd pro/undd divisis, transverse striatis, albis : ultimo zonis 
duabus latis, glaucis obsolete balteato, obtuse superne angulato; 
aperturd ovatd, labro postice subexciso, columelld rectd, callosis- 
simd, callo umbilicum latum pro parte tegente ; regione umbilicali 
et callo fuscis. 
Altit. ab apice ad aperturse basin, 8 ; ad ultimi anfractūs basin, 6 ; 
diameter major 10^, minor 8 ; aperturae long. &\, latit. 3^ lin. 
Patria, Australia meridionalis. 
Exstat in museo hon. Gruner. 

Schumacher was the first who in his ' Essai d'un nouveau Systėme 
des habitations des vers testaces, a Copenhague 1817,' elevated the 
Nerita nux avellana, Chemn., to a peculiar genus, which he named 
Amphibola. Lamarek ranged it among the AmpuUarias, till Quoy and 
Gaimard separated it, after careful examination of the animal, from 
this genus, and instituted it the type of the genus Ampullacera. 
It appears from this that Amphibola and Ampullacera are identical, 
and that the first denomination has the priority. 

Our species is very likę to the Amphibola avellana, but may how- 
ever be distinguished from it by the following difFerences : — 1, it is 



36 



thicker ; 2. the Tvrhorla are lying in one plane, the spire is depressed, 
not elevated, as with the other species; and the lašt ^vhorl .vhich 
almost entirely forma the whole sheU. is very much drawn down ; 
3 it is not perforated. and although largely umbilicated yet the 
other smaUer ■whorls are not visible in the umbilic ; and 4, it distin- 
euishes itself by a very callous columella. which partly propagates 
over the spire, foUowing the suture at a distance of five hnes. 



87 



April 14, 1846. 
William Yai-rell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chalr. 

A coUection of forty-six Bird-skins from India, received from Col. 
Sykes, was exhibited to the Meeting. The coUection was of interest 
from containing specimens of several species obtained fuither north 
than it is hitherto recorded that they have been observed. 

The following Communications were read: " Descriptions of t\venty 
new species of Helicea, in the coUection of H. Cuming, Esq.," by 
Dr. L. Pfeiffer:— 

1. Helix stjturalis, Pfr. Hel. testdlate umhilicatd, depressd, 
stibdiscoided, tenui, sub lente minutissime granulosd, fusco-corned ; 
spird pland, medio subimmersd ; suturd profuudd ; anfractibus 4 
convexissimis, nlthno antice descendente ; aperturd perobligud, 
subcirculari ; peristomate simplice, marginibus conniventibus, dex- 
tro recto, superne fornicato, columellari subrecedente, arcuato, 
hasalique breviter reflexo. 

Diam. 10, alt. 4 mUl. 

Found at Hondūras under decayed leaves by Mr. Dyson. 

Nearly alUed to H. Nystiana. 

2. Helix Candaharica, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, orbiculato- 
convexiusculd, obliqiie striatuld, nitiduld,fuscescenti-albidd,fasciis 
angustis, maculose interruptis, nigricantibus et rufis ornatd ; spird 
vix elevatd, apice nitido, corneo ; anfractibus 5 convexiuscuUs, 
nltimo antice non descendente ; umbilico infundibulif orini, anfrac- 
tuum penultimum lute monstrante, medio angustissimo ; aperturd 
obligud, lunato-ovali ; peristomate acuto, Intus subremote labiato, 
marginibus conniventibus, columellari vix dilatato. 

Diam. 16, alt. 7| mUl. 

From Candahar, East Indies (Benson). 

3. Hehx aulacospira, Pfr. Hel. testd late umbilicatd, depressd, 
discoided, tenui, irregulariter et leviter malleatd, lineis impressis, 
concentricis , confertis regulariter sulcatd , hitescenti-corned ; spird 
pland ; anfractibus 4^ depressis, celeriter accrescentibus ; umbilico 
lato, perspectivo ; aperturd subverticali, oblique lunato-ovali ; pe- 
ristomate simplice, tenui, margine columellari non refiexo. 

Diam. 12, alt. 4| miU. 
Locality unknovvn. 

4. Hex,ix Gossei, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, orbiculato-conoided, 
tenui, irregulariter plicatulo-striatd , non nitente, diaphand,fulvidd, 
fascid unicd periphericd , angustd, castaned, alterdąue superiore 

Nos. CLVIII. CLIX. & CLX. — Proceedings of the Zool. Soc. 



38 

obsoletd ornatd; spird breviter conoided, obtusd ; anfractibus 5 
j)!(miusculis, ultimo basi suhplanulato ; columelld declivi, angustd, 
j)land, introrsum acutd; apcrturd obliqud, elliptico-lunari, intus 
concolore ; peristomate simplke, tenui, recto. 

Diam, 16, uit. 9 mill. 

From the Blue Mountains (Jamaica), under stones ; found by Mr. 
Gosse. 

5. Helix Montfortiana, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, turbinatd, 
crassd, ponderosd, nigricanti-rufd, epidemiide fusco-cinered hy- 
drophand indutd ; spird conoided, apice obtuso, nudo, nitido, vio- 
laceo-purpurascente ; anfractibus 4į vix conveaiusculis, ultimo 
angulato ; angulo antice evanescente ; columelld declivi, callosd, 
albd, basi subdentatd ; aperturd subtetragond, intus nitidc albd ; 
peristomate breviter reflexo, nigro-fusco limbato. 

Diam. 31, alt. 22 mill. 
From the Philippine Islands. 

Tliis shell appears intermediate between Hel. Bruguiereana, Pfr., 
and carbonaria, So\v. 

6. AcHATiNELLA RoHRi, Pfr. Ach. testd ovato-conicd, longitudi- 
naliter striatuld, striis spiralibus, confertissimis decussatd, albido- 
fulvd, fasciis angustis castancis varie ornatd ; spird conicd, acuti- 
usculd; anfractibus 6 vix convexiusculis, ultimo spiram sub<equante, 
medio compresso ; columelld tortd, callosd, vix dentatd ; aperturd 
subtetragond, intus nitide lacted ; peristomate recto, intus labiato, 
viarginibus subparallelis, dextro superne breviter curvato. 

Long. 24, diam. 13 mill. 

From the Sandwich Islands (Capt, Rohr). 

7. AcHATiNELLA T^NiOLATA, Pfr. AcTi. tcstd ovato-oblougd, solidu, 
striatuld, nitidd, albd, fasciis variis f uscis, deorsum obsoletioribus 
ornatd; spird conicd, acutiusculd ; anfractibus 6 convexiusculis, 
ultimo ^ longitudinis subceguante ; columelld albd, superne valide 
dentato-plicatd ; aperturd irregulariter semiovali, intus albd,nitidd; 
peristomate extus brevissime incrassato, intus valde labiato, mar- 
gine columellari dilatato, reflexo, appresso. 

Long. 20, diam. medio 11 mill. 
From the Sandwich Islands. 

8. BuLiMus (Partula) amabilis, Pfr. Bul. testd sinistrorsd, sub- 
perforatd, ovato-turritd, soliduld, striatuld, nitidd, citrina, apice 
acuto rubicundo ; suturd albo-marginatd ; anfractibus 5, supremis 
planis, reliquis convexis, ultimo inflato, sjnrd breviore ; columelld 
subsimpUce, vix plicutd ; aperturd oblongo-semiovali ; peristomate 
subincrassato, albo, expanso-reflexiusculo, margine columellari lato, 
plano, patente. 

Long. 23, diam. llį mill. 

/3. Paulh minor, fasciis latis nigricanti-castaneis amatus, peristomate 

fusco-livido. 
From Annaa or Chain Island. 



J 



39 

9. BuLiMUS (Partula) Ganymedes, Pfr. Bul. testd umbilicatu, 
ohlongo-conicd , tenui, striis incrementi crehris lineisque undulatis, 
confertissimis, impressis minute decussatCi, scabriusculd, sub cpi- 
dermide citrind fiigacissimd albicante, non nitente ; spira conicd, 
ncutittscvld ; anfractibus 5^ convcxinsculis , nltimo spiram sub- 
(cquante, medio obsoletissime angulato , fascid unicd latiusculd cas- 
tnned ornato ; cohimelld strictiusculd ; aperturd oblongd, superne 
obliijtie truncatd ; peristomate simplice, temti, undicne late expanso. 

Long. 23, diam. 10^ mill. 
From the Society Islands. 

10. BuLiMus (Partula) Hebe, Pfr. Bul. testd perforatd, globoso- 
conicd, tenui, sub lente minutissimc decussatd, hyalinu; spird 
brevi, conicd, acutd ; anfractibus 4^ planis, ultimo spiram supe- 
rante, globoso ; columelld brevi, subplicatd ; aperturd latd, subse- 
micirculari, callo dentiformi profundo in ventre anfractūs penulti- 
mi coarctatd; pgristotnate intus albo-calloso, undigue breviter ex- 
panso. 

Long. 16, diam. 9 mill. 

From the Society Islands (Mr. Mallet). 

11. BuLiMus (Partula) isabellinus, Pfr. Bul. testd subperfo' 
ratd, oblongo-conicd, solidd, striatuld, isabellind; spird conicd 
acutiusculd ; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, siq)remis lineis impres- 
sis, spiralibus tenuissime sculptis, ultiyno spird paulh breviore, basi 
antice rotundato ; columelld albd, plicato-gibbd ; aperturd oblongo- 
ovali, callo dentiformi, profundo in ventre anfractds penultimi 
coarctatd; peristomate calloso, albo, latc expanso, reflexiusculo, 
margine columellari dilatato, sinuato-reflexo. 

Long. 22, diam. 10 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

12. BuLiMus (Partula) radiolatus, Pfr. Bul. testd subperfo- 
ratd, oblongo-attenuatd, apice obtuso, tenui, lineis spiralibus im- 
pressis, distantiusculis sculptd, pallide stramined, strigis saturatio- 
ribus et lineis fuscis radiolatd ; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis , ultimo 
spiram sub<equante, antice basi tumido ; columelld brevi, breviter 
recedente ,• aperturd obligue ovali, intus nitidd, flavd ; peristomate 
simplice, tenui, albo, expanso, margine dextro strictiusculo, colu- 
mellari superne dilatato, fornicato-patente. 

Long. 19, diam. 10 mill. 

/3. Testą carnea, radiis cinnamomeis. 

From New Ireland. 

13. BuLiMus Dysoni, Pfr. Bul. testd anguste perforatd, oblongo- 
ovatd, soliduld, tenuiter longitudinaliter striatd, subdiaphand, 

fusco-corned ; spird conicd, apice acutiusculo ; anfractibus Q—G\ 
convexis, ultimo ^ longitudinis submguante ; columelld leviter ar- 
cuatd, basin attingente ; aperturd ellipticd, basi subangulatd ; pe- 
ristomate simplice, recto, marginibus callo tenui junctis, dextro 
arcuato, cum columellari, superne dilatato, fornicatim refieto, 
angulum formante. 



40 

Long. 20, diam. 9į mill. 
From Hondūras (Mr. Dyson). 

14. BuLiMus cANDELARis, Pfr. Bul. testd siiiistrorsd, profunde 
rimutd, cylindraced, apice sensim attenuato, acutiusculo, stiboblicue 
striatulo, sordide albo ; anfractibus 9 planiusculis, ultimo minus 
oblique descendente, ^ longitudinis vlx cequante, basi subrotundato ; 
aperturd semiovali, intus nitidd, albd ; peristomate albo, undiąue 
expanso, viarginibus calio tenui junctis, columellari dilatato, pa- 
tente. 

Long. 27, diam. 8 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

15. BuLiMUS GuERiNi, PtV. Bul. testd imperforatd, oblongo- 
ovatd, tenuiusculu, irregulariter rugoso-striatd, fulvo-fuscd ; spird 
conicd, obtusd, pallidius fulvidd, strigis et maculis rufis ornatd; 
anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, ultimo spird paulo longiore ; colu- 
melld lutescente, arcuatd, superne subtortd ; aperturd acuto-ovali, 
intus nitidissimd, plumbed ; peristomate breviter reflexo, lutescente, 
basi cum columelld angulum indistinctum formante. 

Long. 41, diam. 18į mill. 
From New Granada. 

16. BuLiMūs INDIGUS, Pfr. — Achatina gracilis, Benson, MSS. — 
Bul. testd subperforatd, subulatd, tenui, diapkand, corneo-cered, 
subarcuatim confertissime striatd ; spird subulatd, apice acutius- 
culo ; anfractibus 8 planiusculis, ultimo^ longitudinis sub(equante ; 
columelld rectd, verticali ; aperturd oblongd ; peristomate simplice, 
acuto, margine columellari usque ad basin breviter refiexo, perfo- 
rationemfere tegente. 

Long. 10, diam. Z\ mill. 
From East India. 

17. BuLiMus KiENERi, Pfr. Bul. testd breviter rimatd, cylindraceo- 
turritd, tenui, oblique confertim costatd, fusco-corneo et albido 
irregulariter marmoratd ; spird turritd, apice acutiusculo nigri- 
cante ; suturd profundd, crenatd; anfractibus 13 convexis, ultimo 
i longitudinis subceguante, basi obsolete unicarinato ; aperturd 
lunato-circulari ; peristomate simplice, undique expanso, margini- 
bus conniventibus, dextro perarcuato, columellari dilatato, patente. 

Long. 18, diam. anfr. antepenult. 6 mill. 
From Hondūras (Mr. David Dyson). 

18. BuLiMus Martinicensis, Pfr. Bul. testd rimato-perforatd, 
oblongo-turritd, oblique striatuld, soliduld, lutescenti-corned ; spird 
turritd, obtusitisculd ; anfractibus 7 convexis, ultimo ^ longitudinis 
vix superante ; aperturd ovato-oblongd ; piristomate breviter ex- 
panso, intus albo-labiato , labio extus pellucente, inarginibus sub- 
convergentibus, dextro arcuato, columellari dilatato, patente. 

Long. 20, diam. 8 mill. 

From the island of Martinique (Petit). 



41 

19. BuLiMUS NiLAGiRicus, Pfr. Bul. testd rimato-perforatd, ob- 
longo-turritd, solidu, opacd, lineis impressis confertissimis subun- 
dulatis obsolete sculptd, fuscd, albido obligue strigatd; spira 
regulariter turritd, apice obtusiiisculo ; unfractibus 8 viv convexi. 
usculis, ultimo ^ longitudinis sub(Equante, basi subcompresso ; aper- 
turd ovfdi ; peristoviate expanso, late albo-labiato, margine dextro 
superne subangulato, columellari usque ad basin dilatato, patente. 

Long. 28i, diam. 8 mill. 

From tlie Neelgherries, East Indies. 

20. BuLiMus zoNULATus, Pfr. Bul. testd perforatd, oblongo- 
conicd, tenui, Icevigatd, opacd, pallide stramined, seriebus 2 rnacu- 
larum fuscarum pellucidarum cinctd, basi lineis 2 castaneis ornatd; 
spird conicd, acutiusculd, apice corneo ; anfractibus 6 convexius- 
culis, ultimo spiram vix superante ; coluinelld strictd ; aperturd 
ovali-oblongd ; perisfomate acuto, tenui, margine columellari a basi 
dilatato, membranaceo, angulatim late reflexo, perforationemferi 
occultante. 

Long. 18, diam. 9 mill. 

From Cabanatuan, pro^ance of Nueva Ecija, island of liuzon ; 
found by Mr. H. Cuming. 

" Description of nine ne\v species of Helicea, coUected by H. Cu- 
ming, Esq.," by Dr. L. Pfeiflfer : — 

1. Helix lūcidella, Pfr. Hel. testd minutd, perforatd, depressd, 
striatuld, nitidissimd, brunned ; spira suhplanulatd ; suturd albo- 
marginatd ; anfractibus 4 planis, ultimo basi vix convexiore, medio 
impresso, angustissime perforato ; aperturd obUque lunari ; peri- 
stomate simplice, obtuso, margine columellari declivi, vix incrassato. 

Diam. 3|, alt. 2 mill. 

Found on the island of Luzon. 

2. Helix arctispira, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, stib- 
discoided, confertim costatd, albidd, epidermide tenui fuscescente 
indutd ; spird convexiusculd ; anfractibus oį convexis, angustissi- 
mis ; umbilico lato, perspectivo ; aperturd parvuld, subverticali, 
lunato-orbiculari ; perisfomate simplice, aaitd. 

Diam. 2į, alt. lį mill. 

From the island of Juan Fernandez. 

Intermediate between H. epidermiu. Aut., and tessellata, Miihlf. 

3. Helix cyathellus, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, conicd, oblique 
costatd, tenuiuscidd, unicolore corned ; spird pyramidatd, acutius- 
culd ; anfractibus 9 angustissimis, carind filiformi cinctis, ultimo 
basi planiusculo, sublcevigato ; umbilico mujusculo, pervio ; aper- 
turd depressd, angulato-lunari ; peristomate simplice, margine 
supero brevi, recto, basali leviter arcuato, brevissime reflexo. 

Diam. 5^, alt. 4 mill. 
From the island of Panay. 

4. Helix doliolum, Pfr. Hel. testd perforatd, turbinatd, confer' 



42 

tissinie et minute costulato-striatd, peUucidd, non nitente, corned; 

spird turbinatd, apice ohtusiusculo ; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, 

ultimo basi subplanato ; aperturu depressd, latc luiiari ; peristomate 

simplicissimo , recto. 
Diam. 3|, alt. 2į mill. 
From Sibonga, island of Zebu. 

5. BuLiMus DiLATATUs, Pfr. Bul. testd imperforatd, ovato-conicd, 
obtusiuscnld, solidd, obligut striatd, subtilissimi piinctald, castaned, 
superne fulvd ; anfractibus 6 planiusculis, ultimo adsuturam albo- 
unifasciato, spird multb breviore ; columclld subrectd, callosd, 
albd, dilatatd ; aperturd obliqud, latl- semiovali, intus lacted; 
peristomate subincrassato, expanso, margine busuli reJlexo, ap- 
presso. 

Long. 34, diam. 22 mill. 
Island of Luzon. 

6. BuLiMus ELONGATULus, Pfr. Bul. tcstd imperforutd, subulatd, 
soliduld, sub epidermide tenuissimc striatd (inierdum obsoletc de- 
cussatd), albd; spird subulatd, acutd ; anfractibus S jjlaniusculis, 
ultimo tertiam longitudinis partem feri aųnantc ; columclld bre- 
viter rccedente, callosd, pland; aperturd ublongo-ovuli ; peristomate 
simplice, margine dcjctro untrorsum suburcuato, columcllari subin- 
crassato, ajįjjresso. 

Long. 24, diam. oį mill. 
Island of Luzon. 

7. BuLiMus Grateloupi, Pfr. Btil. testd imperforatd, ovalo- 
oblongd, ruguloso-striatd, tenuissimd, nitidd, pcllucidd, stramineo- 
ulbidd; anfractibus 6-7 convexiuscuHs, ultimo spird paulh breviore; 
columelld callosd, rctrorsum flexuosd ; aperturd semiovali ; peri- 
stomate sitnplice, acuto, margine dextro antrorsum arcuato. 

Long. 18, diam. 8 mill. 

From the islands of Luzon and Panay. 

8. BuLiMUs Philippinensis, Pfr. Bul. testd imperforatd, ovato- 
turbinatd, solidd, nigricante, strigis obliquis epidermidis hydro- 
phana griseo-fuscce ornatu ; spird conicd, obtusiusculd, nudu, pal- 
lidd; anfractibus 6 convexis, diametro celeriter accresccntibus, 
ultimo spird. paulu breviore ; columelld vix obligud, subtortd, car- 
ned ; aperturd lunato-orbiculari, intus lacted ; peristomate subin- 
crassato, breviter reflexo, nigro-limbato, margine dextro valde 
arcuato, columellari dilatato, expanso. 

/3. Testą epidermide f usca, saturatius strigata ferc omninb obducta, 

fasciis variis nigricantibus circumdata. 
Long. 63, diam. 41 mill. 
From the islands of Luzon and Marinduąue. 

9. Helix Reeveana, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, svibdiscoided, te- 
nuiusculd, oblique striatd, albidd, zonis 3-5 rufis ornatd ; spird vix 
convexiusculd, obtusd ; anfractibus 4^5 j}laniusculis, ultimo antice 
subitb dejiexo, basi concentrice et confertim striato ; umbilico me- 



43 



diocri pervio; aperturd sulhorizontali. transverse ovali; peri- 
siomate subsimplice, rcflexo, marginihus junctis. 
Diam, 30, alt. 12 mill. 

iSldfhas''becn often mistaken for H. LasalUi, Eydoux and 
is in many colLtions under that name ; but H. Lasalln is not tins 
species. It is quitc congruent witli //. merelrui, bow. 



April 28, 184G. 
No businese was transacted. 



May 12, 1846. 
Richard C. Griffith, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr H E. Strickland exhibited a species of Corvus, discovcrcd by 
Capt H M. Drummond, 42nd R. H., ^vhich the latter gentleman 
prloses to name Corvus coUaris. In size and form it is closely 
Sd to the Common Jackda^v, Corvus monedula, but d:ffers m the 
muc ighter silvery grey of the eheeks, oceiput and nape. whjch 
msses into a well-maiked patch of pure ^vhite on each side of tire 
neck The black on the crown is of less extent than m Corvus mo- 
nedula, and the lower parts are of a slaty grey. 

St. Drummond statės that in Maeedonia and Thessaly this bird 
takes tlic place of C. monedula, which is common m he south of 
Greece, and does not therc differ from the Jackdaw ot Bntain. 



May 2G, 1846. 
No business was transacted. 



44 



June 9, 1846. 
George Gulliver, Esq., in the Chair. 

A foetal Condor, extracted from an egg laid in the menagerie, vras 
exhibited to the Meeting. The egg had been placed under a com- 
mon hen, which remained sitting on it for six weeks and two days. 

The length of the specimen is 5f inchcs ; the extreraities, particu- 
larly the legs, are imperfectly developed, but the head had acquired 
a specific vulturine character ; a strong line of downy filaments ex- 
tends along the length of each pectoral musele ; all the other parts of 

the body are quite bare. 

inches. 
Length of the head 1| 

Length of bones of wing 2 

Length of bones of leg to the end of longest toe . . 2 

Mr. Gould exhibited to the Meeting three new species of the family 
of Trochilidce, which he thus characterized : — 

Trochilūs (Petasophora) coruscans. Troch. strigd intense cte- 

ruled a mento per genas productd in aures, quce erectce ut cristulce 

conspicantur ; plumis mediam gulam sįuamatim tegentibus nitide 

viridibus, cereo et coccineo colore resplendenlibus ; medio ubdomine 

cyanco ; tectricibus cuuda inferioribus sordide viridibus, ad apices 

stramineis ; alis purpurascente fuscis . 

Crown of the head, all the upper surface, wing-coverts and flanks 

green ; tail-feathers very broad, steel-blue, with green reflections, 

and crossed near the extremity \vith a broad band of a blackish hue, 

as in the allied species Anais and serrirostris ; a band of rich pure 

blue commences on the chin and extends along the sides of the 

cheeks and on the ear-coverts, which when erected forra conspicuoifs 

tufts ; the scale-like feathers of the centre of the throat rich shining 

green, \vith bronze and duU crimson reflections ; centre of the abdo- 

men blue ; under tail-coverts dull green, broadly tipped with buif ; 

•wings purplish brown ; billblack; feet brown. 

Totai length, 5į inches ; bill, \-į^ ; wing, 3 ; tail, 2. 
Hab. The part of South America of whicli this bird is a native is 
unknown. 

This beautiful species is rather less in size than P. Anais, from 
which and every other species it is distinguished by the beautiful 
marking of the throat, the greater extent of the blue on the abdomen, 
and by the gteater breadth of the feathers of the tail. 
In my own coUection. 



45 

TnocHiLUS ( ?) FLABELLiFERus. Tvock. ccipite, collo, ct pectore, 

nitide saturate cyaneo ; dorso, uropygio, tectricihus caudce supert- 
oribus, et lateribus nitide viridibus ; lato maculo ad nucham semi- 
lunari, abdomine, tectricibus caudce inferioribus, et caudd (tlbis ; 
caudce plumis ad exlremam pogoniam fusco niarginatis ; alis nigro- 
fuscis purpureo splendentibus . 
Ali the head, neck and chest rich deep shining blue ; back, rump, 
upper tail-coverts and flanks shining green ; a broad crescent-shaped 
mark at the back of the neck, abdomen, under tail-coverts and tail 
pure white, the feathers of the latter bordered at the extremity with 
brown ; wings blackish bro\vn, with purple reflections. 
Totai length, 5 inches; bill, 11; wing, 3; tail, 2. 
Hab. Mexico. 

Closely allied to T. mellivora, but distinguished from that species 
by its much greater size and by the narrowness and browner colour 
of the bordering of the tail-feathers. 

Trochilus ( ?) STROPHiANUS. Troch. maculo viridi infrontem 

splendenti ; lato maculo semilunari, inter violaceam gulam et ab- 
dominem viridem, albo ; rectricibus nigris. 

On the forehead. immediately above the bill, a luminous spot of 
green ; crown of the head, all the upper surface and abdomen dull 
green ; throat rich bluish violet, separated from the green of the 
abdomen by a broad lunate gorget of white; all the tail-feathers 
black; wings blackish brown, with purple reflections; under tail- 
coverts -vvhite ; bill black. 

Totai length, 4į inches; bill, į; wing, 2^; tail, 1|. 

Hab. Precise locality unknown. 

Nearly allied to but smaller than the Ornismyce Clarisse and 
Parzudaki. 



46 



June 23, 1846. 
Harpur Gamble, Esq., M. D., in tbe Chair. 

Professor Owen read a Memoir (Part II.) on the Dinomis, descrip- 
tive of parts of the skeleton transmitted from New Zealand since the 
reading of Part I. (Proc. Zool. Soc, November 1843.) 

The bones referable to species defined in that communication 
were first described. Among these were the cranial portion of the 
skull of Dinomis struthoides and a corresponding portion of the skull 
of Dinomis dromioides, ■\vhich in general form more resembled that 
part of the skull of the Dodo than of any existing bird ; bu t they are 
remarkable for the gi-eat breadth of a low occipital region, ■vvhicli 
slopes from below upwards and forwards ; the almost fiat parietal 
region is eontinued directly for\vards into the broad sloping frontai 
region ; the temporal fossae are remarkably wide and deep ; the orbits 
small ; the olfactory chamber expanded posteriorly, but not to so 
great an extent as in the Apteryx ; the plane of the foramen mag- 
num is vertical. Many other characteristies in the cranial organi- 
zation of the genus Dinomis Avere described, and the specific distinc- 
tion of the t\vo mutilated crania pointed out. 

The tympanic Ijone of the Dinomis gicjanteris -vvas described in 
detail and compared \vith the šame bone in existing birds. 

Different cervical and dorsal vertebrre, referable to the species 
Din. giganteus, ingens, struthoides and crnssvs, were described. These 
vcrtebrEe were remarkably entire, and with some of the best-prcservcd 
bones of the extremities, described in a subseąuent part of the Me- 
moir, had been obtained from a turbary formation on the coast of the 
Middle Island, near Waika\vaite. 

One of the most interesting of the novel acąuisitions from this 
locality was an almost entire sternum, referred by Prof. 0\ven to the 
Din. giganteus. It is a subąuadrate, keel-less, shield-shaped bone, 
broader than long, Avith the posterior angles and the xiphoid process 
prolonged, as in the Apteryx, but without the antcrior emargination. 
The coracoid depressions very small. This bone was minutei)' de- 
scribed and compared Avith the keel-less sternums of the existing 
Struthious birds ; that of the Apteryx being demonstrated to be most 
likę the sternum of Dinomis. 

The foUovving bones of the extremities, imperfectly or not at all 
known in 1843, •vvere next described : — 

The entire femur of Dinomis giganteus. Entire tibise and tarso- 
metatarsi of Din. giganteus, indicating a robust variety of this stupen- 
dous bird to have existed in the Middle Island. 

The tarso-metatarsus of Dinomis ingens from the North Island, 
distinguished by a rough depression indicative of a fourth or back- 
toe, and conseąuently a genus (Palaptery^t) distinct from Dinomis. 



47 

Femora, tibiaj and tarso-metatarsi of a Dinomis of the height of 
the Din. ingens, but of more robust proportions, from the Middle 
Island ; with a feeble indication of a surface for a back-toe. 

The tibijB and tarso-metatarsi of Dinomis (Palaptert/x) dromioides 
from the North Island, confirming by their long and slender propor- 
tions the conjecture hazarded in the author's former memoir (Zool. 
Trans. vol. iii. pp. 252, 264). The tarso-metatarsus also shows the 
rough elliptical surface for the attachment of the back-toe, indicating 
the Din. dromioides to belong to the šame generic or subgeneric sec- 
tion as Din. ingens from the North Island. 

Femora, tibice and tarso-metatarsi, from the Middle Island, were 
next exhibited and described, which establish a new species, for 
which Prof. Owen proposed the name of Din. casuarinus : a small 
and feeble depression, five lines by three lines, indicates that this 
epecies had a back-toe in the corresponding position \vith that in the 
Apteryx, but more rudimentai. 

A very remarkable femur and tarso-metatarsal bone, also from 
the Middle Island, ^vere exhibited, belonging to an additional tri- 
dactyle species, to which the name of Dinomis crassus ^vas given. 
Of this species the author remarks : " With a stature nearly equal to 
that of the Ostrich, the femur and tarso-metatarsus present double 
the thickness in proportion to their length. It mušt have been the 
strongest and most robust of birds, and the best representative of 
the pachydermal type in the feathered class." 

The third ne\v species is comparatively a small one, being inter- 
mediate in size between the Dinomis didiformis and the Din. otidi- 
formis ; it \vas founded on remains exclusively from the North Island, 
and was called by the author Dinomis curtus. 

The author expressed his grateful acknowledgments to the follow- 
ing gentlemen, to whom he was indebted for the opportunity of 
examining and depicting the specimens described in the present 
Memoir : — Capt. Sir Everard Home, Bart., R. N. ; the Hon. William 
Martin, Chief Justice of Ne\v Zealand ; the Rev. Archdeacon Wil- 
liams. Corr. Memb. Z. S. ; WillJam S\vainson. Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
the distinguished naturalist ; Colonel Wjlliam Wakefield ; J. R. 
Go\ven, Esq., a Director of the New Zealand Company ; the Rev. 
William Cotton, M.A. ; the Rev. Richard Taylor, M.A. ; the Rev. 
William Colenso, M.A. ; Dr. Mackellar; George Bennett, Esq., 
F.L.S., and Percy Earl, Esq. 

The paper (which was illustrated by numerous figures) concluded 
by some general comparisons and remarks on the geographical 
distribution of the different species of Dinomis, and with the fol- 
lowing Table of adsaeasurements of the bones of the leg : — 



48 
TABLE OF ADMEASUREMENTS 
Dimensions of 



Din. 

gipanteus. 



Din. ingens. 



Din. 
erassus. 



Lengtli 

Breadth of prosiraal end (in the axis of the neck) 

Breadth (transverse) of distal end 

Circumference of middle 



in. Un, 
16 O 
6 O 

6 3 

7 9 



n.rohustus. f '2. 

in. lin. in. lin. 

13 9 13 O 
5 5 4 10 
5 10 5 2 
7 1 6 1 



in. Un. 
12 O 



6 8 



Pcrliaps not quite enough aUo\ved 

Dimensions of 



Din. giganteus. 



Din. ingens. 



Length 

Breadth of proximal end . . 

Breadth of distal end 

Circumference of middle . . 
Fibular ridge e.\tcnds down 



t\. t E. 

in. lin. in. Un. 

35 O 35 O 

7 6 7 



6 6 
13 O 



6 6 
13 O 



t 2. 

in. lin. 

29 O 
6 2 
3 7 
5 3 

12 O 



<E 1. 
in. lin. 



Dimensions of 



Din. giganteus. 


Din. ingens. 






m E. Colenso 


m 1. 


m E. 


v. robtiitus. 


in. Un. 


in. Un. 


in. Un. in. lin. 


18 6 


18 


14 6 13 9 


5 6 


6 


5 6 4 6 


5 1* 


6 


5 6 4 6 


1 11 


2 2 


1 10 17 


1 6 


1 6 


15 13 





4 6 


4 3t 3 6 



Length 

Circumference at the middle of the shaft 

Breadth (transverse) of distal end 

Breadth of middle of shaft 

Thickncss or antero-postcrior diameter of ditto 
Breadth (transverse) of prosimal end 



The margins being broken and water-wom, I had not allowed sufficient for the entire bone. 

t Perhaps not enough allowed for 

Average Dimensions of Bones of Dinomis in 



Din. 

giganteus. 



Din. ingens. 



Din. 
erassus. 



Length of femur 

Circumference of ditto 

Length of tibia 

Circumference of ditto 
Length of metatarsus 
Circumference of ditto 



in. Un. 

16 O 

7 3 

35 O 

6 6 

IS 6 

5 6 



in. lin. 

13 6 
6 10 

28 10 
6 O 

14 O 
5 O 





Din. 
struthoidcs. 


Din. 
casuarinus. 


Din. 


dromioides. 


Din. didiformis. 


Din. 
curtus. 


Din. otidi- 
formis. 


f 12. f Colenso. 
in. lin. in. lin. 
11 0* 12 
4 2 4 2 

4 3 4 4 

5 6 5 6 


in. hn. in. Un. 
9 6t 10 4 
3 5t 3 11 
3 9 4 4 
5 4 9 


/6. 
in. lin. 
9 4| 
3 6 

3 7 

4 1 


/ 16. fTuylor. 

in. lin. in. lin. 
9 6 9 7 
3 6 3 6 

3 7 3 8 

4 3 lOį 


/8. /7. /17. 
m. lin. in. lin. m. lin. 
8 8 8 1 

2 10 3 3 3 

3 3 3 2 3 6 

4 4 4 3 


in. lin. 



2 9 


/lO. 
in. lin. 



2 1 


for mutilatod eitremities. 


t Ib. 


t Ib. 






the Tibise. 












Din. 
crassus. 


Din. 

struthoides. 


Din.casu- 
arinus. 


Din. dro- 
mioides. 


Din. didiformis. 


Din. 
curtus. 


Din.otidi- 
formis. 




in. lin. in. lin. 

5 6 5 " 4 

5 4 8 
10 10 


in. lin, 
19 
5 6 
2 U 
4 9 
8 6 


in. lin. 

21 
4 8 
2 8 
4 
9 


1 3, 18. 1 9. 

in. lin. in. lin. in. lin. 

15 6 15 4 m 4 
4 5 
2 4 
4 
6 10 


in. lin. 
U 3 

3 3 
2 
2 9 

4 9 


tu. 
in, lin. 
8 9 

2 
1 3 
1 11 

3 6 



49 



OF THE BONES OF THE LEG. 

the Femora. 



the Tarso-metatarsals. 





Din. 

crassus. 


Din. 
struthoides. 


Din. casu- 
arinus. 


Din. dro- 
mioides. 


Din. didiformis. 


Din. curtus. 


Din. otidi- 
formis. 




m 3. VI E. 














in. lin. 


in. lin. in. lin. 


in. lin. 


in. lin. 


in. lin. in. lin. 


in. lin. 






8 6 


12 n 6 


8 


10 5 


7 6 10 


5 






4 8 


4 3 4 2 


4 2 


3 9 


3 3 3 3 


2 10 






4 


4 Ot 4 5 


3 10 


3 4 


3 


2 S 






1 10 


16 16 


I 7 


1 4 


15 13 


1 1 






1 2 


11 11 


10 


10 


9 9 


7 






3 34 


3 5 


3 


2 10 


2 3 


1 U 





t With a ridge at the middle of inner condyle at prosimal end. 
water-worn margins of trochlefe. 



comparison •vvith those of esisting StrutMonida. 





Din. 
struthoides. 


Emeu. 


Din. casu- 
arinus. 


Din. dro- 
mioides. 


Din. didi- 
formis. 


Din. curtus. 


Din. otidi- 
formis. 


Apterys. 


in. lin. 


in. lin. 


in. lin. 


in. lin. 


in. lin. 


in. lin. 


in. lin. 


in. lin. 




11 


9 


10 2 


9 6 


8 








3 9 




4 2 


3 7 


4 9 


4 


4 


2 9 


2 1 


1 




25 


16 10 


ly 


21 


16 3 


11 3 


8 9 


5 3 




5 


3 4 


4 9 


4 


4 1 


2 9 


1 11 


1 3 




12 


15 


8 


10 5 


7 


5 




3 3 




4 3 


3 


4 2 


3 9 


3 6 


2 10 








i 



51 



July 14, 1846. 
William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Prof. Owen communicated, as aa ' Appendix to his Memoir on the 
Dinomis,' some observations on the skuU and on the osteology of the 
foot of the Dodo {Didus ineptus) . 

After a brief summary of the history of this remarkable extinct 
brevipennate Bird, in which the reduced highly finished figure by 
Savery, in his famous painting of ' Orpheus charming the Beasts,' 
now in the collection at the Hague, was particularly noticed ; and 
the recent discovery of the skuU of the Dodo amongst some old spe- 
cimens in the Museum of Natūrai History at Copenhagen was raen- 
tioned, he proceeded to demonstrate the peculiarities of the Dodo's 
skuU, by a comparison of the cast of the head of the bird in the Ash- 
molean Museum at Oxford with those of other recent and extinct 
species of Birds. 

The Dodo's skuU differs from that of any species of Vulturidce, or 
any Raptorial Bird, in the greater elevation of the frontai bones above 
the cerebral hemispheres, and in the sudden sinking of the inter- 
orbital and nasal region of the forehead ; in the rapid compression 
of the beak anterior to the orbits ; in the elongation of the compressed 
mandibles, and in the depth and direction of the sloping symphysis 
of the lower jaw. The eyes of the Dodo are very small compared 
■with those of the Vulturidce or other Raptores. The nostrils, it is 
true, pierce the cere, but are more advanced in position ; this how- 
ėver seems essentially to depend upon the excessive elongation of 
the basai part of the upper mandible before the commencement of the 
uncinated extremity ; the nostrils are pierced near the commence- 
ment of this uncinated part as in the Vulturidce, but are nearer the 
lower border of the mandible in the Dodo. 

The resemblance between the skuU of the Dodo and that of the 
Albatros is chiefiy in the compression and prolongation of the curved 
mandibles : there are no traces in the Dodo of the hexagonal space 
on the upper surface of the cranium of the Albatros, so well de- 
fined there by the two supra-occipital ridges behind, the two tem- 
poral ridges at the sides, and the two converging posterior boundai'ies 
of the supra-orbital glandular fossse in front. There is no sudden 
depression of the frontai region in the skuU of the Albatros ; the 
nostrils are near the upper surface of the basai third of the beak in 
the Albatros ; and the Dodo's cranium is thrice as broad in propor- 
tion to the breadth of the mid-part of the mandible as in that of the 
Albatros. 

More satisfactory evidence of the affinities of the Dodo was ob- 
tained frora a comparison of the bones of the foot, which have recently 

No. CLXI. PaOCEEDINGS OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SoCIETY. 



52 

been very skilfully and judiciously exposed by the able Curator of 
the Ashmolean Museum. 

The tarso-metatarsal bone most reserables in its thickness and 
general proportions that of the Eagles, especially the great Sea- 
Eagles (Haliaetus) ; it is much stronger than the tarso-metatarsus of 
any of the Vulturida, or than that of the Cock, the Crax, or any of 
the Gailina or existing Struthionida ; the stronger-footed species of 
Dinomis most resemble it in the general proportions of the tarso- 
metatarsus, but greatly difFer in the particular configuration of the 
bone, and in the absence, or feebler indication, as in the subgenus 
Palapteryx, of the articulation for the metatarsal bone of the back- 
toe. 'ITie relative size of this bone is greater in the Dodo than in 
any other known bird. The Eagles make the nearest approach to 
it in this respect ; as also in the shape of the hinder supplemental 
metatarsal, the breadth of its distal end, and its peculiar twist back- 
■wards and outwards, so as to form a bridge or pulley against \vhich 
the flexor tendon of the hind-toe plays. This half-twist of the rudi- 
mentai hind-metatarsus is feebly repeated in the Gailina, but the 
bone is much less expanded at its lovver articular end, especially in 
the Crax ; whilst the more typical Gailina are further distinguished 
from the Dodo by their spur. 

The Apteryx is the sole existing Struthious bird which possesses 
the hind-toe ; but it is very much smaller than in the Dodo, and the 
supporting metatarsal bone is devoid of the distal twist and expanded 
trochlea. The upper end of the tarso-metatarsus of the Dodo is re- 
markable for the great development of its calcaneal process, from 
\vhich a strong ridge descends, gradually subsiding, half-way down 
the bone. The posterior surface of the calcaneal process is broad, tri- 
angular, vertically grooved and perforated at its base. In the Eagle the 
corresponding calcaneal process is a compressed, subąuadrate ridge, 
■vvhose base of attachment is not much longer than the obtuse end, 
and this is neither grooved nor perforated. In the Cathartes Cali- 
fornianus the calcaneal process is thicker than in the Eagle, shaped 
more likę that of the Dodo, \vith a ridge descending upon the meta- 
tarsus, but it has a double grocve behind. 

In the Common Cock the calcaneal process more resembles that 
in the Dodo than the Vulture's does, but it is not so broad. 

With regard to the first or proximal phalanx of the hind-toe, that 
of the Halia'ėtus is larger and broader, especially at its base, stronger 
in proportion to its length, but longer in proportion to the sustaining 
raetatarsus. 

In the Vultures the proximal phalanx is not only longer in pro- 
portion to the metatarsus, but is more slender than in the Dodo. 
The šame bone is edso longer and more slender in proportion to the 
small supporting metatarsal bone in the Cock, the Crax, and all other 
Gailina ; in fact, the Dodo is peculiar among Birds for the eąuality 
of length of the metatarsus and proximal phalanx of the hind-toe. 
■VVith regard to the three trochlear extremities of the principai 
coalesced metatarsals, the middle one in all Gailina is longer in pro- 
portion than in the Dodo, in \vhich the inner one is nearly as long 



53 

as the middle one, the outer one being the shortest. In the Eagle 
the inner divisiou is of quite equal length with, or is longer than the 
middle trochlea ; the proportions of the three trochlese in the Vul- 
tures corresponding best -vvith those i n the Dodo. Another character 
by which the Dodo resembles the Vulture more than the Eagle is 
manifested by the proportions of the proximal phalanx of the second 
toe (innermost of the three anterior ones) ; this is very short, and 
is often anchylosed to the second phalanx in the Eagles : it is almost 
as long in the Vultures as in the Dodo. 

Upon the whole, then, the Raptorial character prevails most in 
the structure of the foot, as in the general fortn of the beak, of the 
Dodo, compared with Birds generally ; and the present limited amount 
of our anatomical knowledge of the extinct terrestrial Bird of the 
Mauritius -vvould lead to support the conclusion that it is an extremely 
modified form of the Raptorial Order. 

Devoid of the power of flight, it could have had small chance of 
obtaining food by preying upon the members of its own class ; and if 
it did not exclusively subsist on dead and decaying organized matter, 
it most probably restricted its attacks to the class of Reptiles, and to 
the littoral fishes, Crustacea, &c. 

The author concluded by recommending search to be made for 
bones of the Dodo in the superficial deposits, the alluvium of rivers, 
and the caves in the islands of Mauritius and Rodriguez ; little 
doubting that an active exploration -vvould be as richly rewarded as 
similar investigations have been in the islands of New Zealand, by 
the recovery of the remains of the great extinct species of terrestrial 
birds which formerly inhabited them, 

Mr. Loveli Reeve then read a paper containing " Descriptions of 
forty new species of Haliotis, fi-om the coUection of H. Cuming, 
Esq.":— 

The genus Haliotis afFords an unusual abundance of novelty, from 
the circumstance of it never having been selected for the subject of 
an illustrated monograph; the species are, moreover, M'ell-defined, 
and may be easily determined by a careful examination of the varia- 
tions of sculpture and arrangement of colours. 

The Haliotides are interesting in form as being the most evolved 
and depressed of spirai shells, and they have been arranged with the 
Chitons and Limpets as exhibiting the nearest apparent afiinity -vvith 
the non-spiral Gastropods. They present also a singularity of struc- 
ture in great measure analogous to the orifice in the shell of Fissu- 
rella or to the fissure in Emarginula. On the left side of the shell, 
in a direct curve parallel to the inflexed edge, is a ro-w of eąuidistant 
perforations, made by the animal in its progress of growth for con- 
veying the -vvater to the breathing organs ; the mantle is slit in that 
direction to a certain extent, and the -vvater passes into the respiratory 
cavity through a tubular filament protruding from each hole. The 
number of pallial filaments being alike in the šame individual through- 
out its Severai stages of growth, the shell mostly presents the šame 
number of holes at all ages, filling up the hindmost orifice as a new 



54 

one becomes formed at the raargin. The SiUquaria presents a similar 
modification of structure, and it has been also considered that the 
slit in Pleurotoma is in some measure analogous. 

The internal surface of the ' Ear Shells ' is lined with a bright 
pearly nacre, which in most species is of remarkable iridescent bril- 
liancy, glowing \vith all the colours of the rainbow ; the attention 
mušt, however, be directed to the outer coating of the shell, for the 
discrimination of species, and it is with this vie\v that the figures iu 
the foregoing monograph are devoted mainly to external sculpture. 
There is certainly a striking variation of character in the nacre of 
different species, but the pattern of the inner surface is merely an 
indentation of the outer. The number of perforations varies in dif- 
ferent species, but may be said to coįrespond in different indi\dduals 
of the sarae species ; where an exception occurs, it is that there is 
sometimes one, or at most two, less in the adult than in the young 
statė ; that is, when the animal arrives at maturity it continues to 
stop up one or two of the perforations in advance of any ne\v one. 

It is a curious circumstance in the geographical distribution of the 
Haliotides, that few, if any, are to be found where Chitons abound ; 
as if they exchanged places to a certain extent in the two hemi- 
spheres. There are a fe\v species from California, but along the 
western coast of South America, \vhere Chitons are most abundant, 
not any are found, and only one small species, the H. pulcherrima, 
at any of the islands of the Pacific. They inhabit the coasts of 
China, Japan, Ceylon, Mozambiąue, Cape of Good Hope, Borneo, 
and the Philippine Islands ; but the greater number of species. and 
the most remarkable, are from New Zealand and the continent of 
New Holland, displaying all thė peculiarity of design which invariably 
characterizes the fauna of those isolated regions. With the weU- 
kDOwn Haliotis iuberculata of the Channel Islands, all are familiar. 
It is, however, a circumstance worth noting, that although such near 
neighbours, and comparatively abundant, especially at the island of 
Jersey, it is rarely coUected on the coast of England. 

The Haliotides are found at low water, attached to the under sur- 
face of masses of stone, and they fix themselves with great force to 
the rocks, by suction, on the least alarm. 

/3.'9 Haliotis splendens. Hal. testd ovatd, convexo-depressd, undique 
'f^ ( spiraliter liratd, liris crebris regularibus subobtusis, nonnullis aliis 
latioribus ; foratninibus ųuinis perviis, ejctus <Ei~ugini-viridescente, 
articulis albicantibus prope spiram interdum ?iotatd, epidermide 
fibroso fusco indutd, inius cceruleo viridique, nigricante nebulatd, 
pulcherrinie iridescente. 
Hab. California. 

Haliotis Japonica. Hal. testd ovato-oblongd, suhplanulato-con- 
r.'[ vexd, liris tenuibiis cequalibus spiraliter funiculatd, concaitrice 

mgoso-plicatd, plicis conspicuis lamelleeformibus irregularibus ; 

foruminibus quinis senisve perviis ; luteo olivaceo-fusco viridique 

undique pulcherrinie varieyatd. 
Hab. Japan ; Dr. Siebold. 



55 

Haliotis coccinea. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, spiraliter liratd, 
liris creberrimis in(Bqualibus interstitiis transversim minutissime 
striatis ; foraminibus confertiuscuUs, ąuinis senisve perviis ; extus 
coccineo-rufd,luiescente-albo maculatd et variegatd, intus argenteo- 
albicante. 

Hab. Cape de Verd Islands. 

/3, /f Haliotis ziczac. Hal. testd ovatd, planulato-convexd, spiraliter 

fĄ^I subtilissime sulcatd, foraminibus parviusculis, senis perviis ; oli- 

vaceo-viridi, luteo-viridescente oblique fiammeo-undatd, apice luteo- 

aurantio tinctd, intus argented, iridescente. 

Hab. Calipan, island of Mindoro, Philippines (found on smooth 

stones) ; Cuming. 

/3 nHaliotis multiperforata. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, subflexuosd, 

/^i>'^ anfractuum parte spirali subelevatd; spiraliter lineari-sulcatd, 

suleis subundatis irregularibus ; foraminibus parviusculis numero- 

sis, decenis perviis ; extus nigricante-fusco viridique variegatd, 

intus albicante. 

Hab. ? 

n M Haliotis discus. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, elevato-convexd, hic illic 
/>/ tumidd et rugosd, latere sinistro lato, peculiariter erecto ; fora- 
^" minibus amplis, subdistantibus, tubiferis, ąuaternis tantum perviis ; 

castaneo-fuscd, viridi aut rufescente radiatim tinctd. 
Hab. Japan ; Dr. Siebold. 

yj.A; Haliotis Sieboldii. Hal. testd subobliąue ovatd, subpectinatd, 
, ^ valde convexa, apice terminali, vix spirali ; radiatim liratd, liris 

ni obtusis, subdistantibus ; foraminibus subamplis, ąuinis perviis; 

extus aurantio-rubrd, intus albicante, iridescente. 
Hab. Japan ; Dr. Siebold. 

įn , ,' Haliotis squamata. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, convexd, spiraliter 
H liratd, liris creberrimis, sguamatis, alternis majoribus ; foraminibus 

^ ' octonis perviis ; fuscd et rubro-fuscd, flammulis lutescentibus un- 
datis ornatd, intus vivide iridescente. 
Hab. North-west coast of Australia ; Dring, H.M.S. Beagle. 

/} rĮ Haliotis funebris. Hal. testd ovatd, subdepresso-convexd, spira- 
ftsH liter liratd, liris subsguamatis, hic illic majoribus, transversim 
" " peculiariter rugoso-plicatd ; foraminibus octonis aut novenis per- 
viis; rubido-castaned, interdum. viridi tinctd, flammis perpaucis 
indistinctis circa spiram. 
Hab. New HoUand. 

[t^ A, Haliotis diversicolor. Hal. testd ovatd, subplanulatd, spiraliter 

^ liratd, liris obtusis irregularibus, transversim leviter plicatd; 

'^ ^ foraminibus octonis vel novenis perviis ; castaneo-fusco coccinea- 

rufo viridique radiatd, maculis undatis lutescentibus variegatd. 

Hab. New HoUand. 

,- Haliotis coccoradiata. Hal. testd suborbiculari, ovatd, plano- 



56 

convex(i, medio levitcr depressd, spiraliter subtillter liratd, liris 
striis minutis elevatis decussatis ,foraminibus senis j)erviis ; flavidd, 
strigis latis vivide coccineis raduitim pictd. 
Hab. ? 

Haliotis viridis. Hal. testu ovatd, depresso-convexd, obligue 
undato-rtigatd, spiraliter liratd , lirarum interstitiis striatis.fora- 
minibus guinis perviis ; extus albicante, viridi pulcherriirie tinctd 
et marmoratd, iritus argented. 

Hab. ? 

Į^H, Haliotis astricta. Hal. testd ovatd, convexd, spiraliter liratd, 
ąį*j liris laminis striisque elevatis irregularibus radiatim decussatis ; 
foraminibus guaternis perviis; extus albidd, olivaceo viridigue 
marmoratd, intus iridescente. 

Hab. ? 

Haliotis Tayloriana. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, solidiusculd, 

qS*' convexd, spird subterminali, spiraliter obtuse et irregulariter 

liratd ; foraminibus septenis ad novenis perviis ; extus coccineo- 

fuscd, flavido, coccineo-fusco maculato, prope spiram, nebulatd; 

intus albicante. 

Hab. ? 

Named in honour of my worthy fiiend Thomas Lombe Taylor, Esq., 
of Starston, Norfolk. 

Jį ri Haliotis rubiginosa. Hal. testd ovatd, subdepresso-convexd, ra- 
^ diaiim pUcato-rugosd, spiraliter liratd, liris obtuse sguamatis, 
" foraminibus subapproximatis, senis perviis; extus rubiginoso- 

aurantid, spiraliter albi-strigatd, intus argented. 

Hab. ? 

/3n Haliotis rugosa. Hal. testd ovatd, convexd, medio leviter depressd, 
jn»'! radiatim plicato-rugosd, spiraliter liratd, liris obtusis, hic illic 
majoribus ; foraminibus subamplis, guaternis perviis ; extus oli- 
vaceo-fusco viridigue marmoratd. 
Hab. ? 

Haliotis rosacea. Hal. testd ovatd, convexo-depressd, spiraliter 
crebriliratd , liris striis exsculptis iindigue decussatis ; foraminibus 
It ' peculiariter oblongo-ovatis,quaternis perviis ; extus corallo-rubro 
et roseo-albicante marmoratd, rubro viridi punctato, 

Hab. ? 

f-f\: Haliotis pertusa. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, spiraliter postici 

v; subtilissime sulcatd, suleis pertusis, antice exiliter liratd, suleis 

f\ ' lirisgue subirregularibus et ujidatis ; foraminibus senis perviis ; 

extus rufo-fuscd, strigis perpaucis lutescentibus undatis prope 

spiram, intus vivide iridescente. 

Hab. ? 

Haliotis planilirata. Hal. testu ovatd, plano ■convexd, spiraliter 
liratd, liris planulatis irregularibus ; foraminibus guinis perviis ; 
olivaceo- ei cceruleo-viridi. 

Hab. ? 



67 

Haliotis scutulum. Hal. testd convexd, spird depressd, suboccultd, 
spiraliter exilUer liratd, liris planulatis, undulatis, hic illic ma- 
joribus ; foraminibus senis perviis ; olivaceo-fuscd, viridi pulcher- 
rime articulatd, punctatd et maculatd. 

Hab. ? 

Cį. /f Haliotis Zealandica. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, subdepressd, 
,ijS'7 spiraliter irregulariter sulcatd, liris intermediis obtusis, nunc latis, 

nunc angustis, senis perviis ; ru/o-castaned et albicante peculiariter 

marmoratd. 
Hab. New Zealand. 

Haliotis speciosa. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, plano-convexd, medio 
depressd, spiraliter elevato-striatd, striis confertis ; foraminibus 
senis perviis ; coccineo-rufd albo-nigricante marginatd,pulcherrime 
variegatd. 

Hab. ? 

fi, // . Haliotis reticulata. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, antice subattenu' 
«į>i atd, plano-convexd, medio depressd, latere sinistro latiusculo, 
' erecto, spiraliter vix striatd ; foraminibus cuaternis perviis ; sor- 
didefuscd, maculis albidis reticulatis subtriangularibus ornatd. 
Hab. ? 

^t -i; Haliotis nebulata. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, convexd, spird sub- 
Ąi*^ elevatu, spiraliter sulcatd, suleis parvis, undatis ; foraminibus 
subapproximaiis, septenis perviis ; fusco roseoąue undiaue nebulatd. 
Hab. ? 

^, ^ Haliotis spiculata. Hal. testd ovatd, spiraliter peculiariter 
^H liratd, liris angustis, erectis, valde irregularibus, radiatim undato- 
plicatd ; foraminibus amplis, senis perviis; olivaceo-viridi, hic 
illic albipunctatd. 
Hab. ? 

12./^: ■ Haliotis semistriata. Hal. testd ovatd, spiraliter subtiliter U- 
^į*^ ratd, radiatim undato-plicatd et plūs minusve tuberculosd ; forami- 
nibus subtubiferis , guinis perviis ; fuscd aut coccineo-rufd, albi- 
maculatd. 
Hab. Ceylon; Dr. Sihbald. 

į? ," Haliotis clathrata. Hal. testd semicirculari-ovatd, spiraliter 
-Į^i crebriliratd, interstitiis striis subtilissime clathratis, radiatim 

' plicatd ; foraminibus subamplis, guinis perviis ; viridi et vividi 

rufo variegatd. 
Hab. Baclayon, island of Bohol, Philippines ; Cuming. 

Haliotis Stomatijeformis. Hal. testd oblongo-ovatd, valde con- 
vexd, spiraliter striatd, r